United States Special Education

United States Special Education

 

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United States Special Education

LEVEL ONE
Autistic Disorder Shared: Asperger’s Disorder Shared: PDD-NOS Shared: CDD Shared: Rett’s Shared:
Asperger’s Disorder Shared:

Individuals with autistic disorder and aspergers experience difficulties in communication, behavior change and socialization.

Already Compared* Already Compared* Already Compared* Already Compared*
PDD-NOS Shared:

Impairment of individual development of the social interaction skills namely the non-verbal and verbal communication skills possessed.

Impairment of social interaction skills. Aspergers is differentiated from other pervasive disorders because of late onset of the signs of the disorder in the formed of impaired communication skills. Already Compared* Already Compared* Already Compared*
CDD Shared:

Impairment of communication skills namely the verbal skills limiting the ability of a child to engage in conversations.

Both disorders indicates impaired social skills and behaviors Impairment of individual the social interaction skills namely non-verbal and verbal communication skills. Already Compared* Already Compared*
Rett’s Shared:

The signs of this disorder are similar to those of autism. It is categorized as a pervasive developmental disorder. Decelerated growth of the head and brain. Regressed development of acquired skills that is similar to autism. Signs present in both autism and Rett’s syndrome include:

I.      Incontinence

II.      screaming fits

III.      inconsolable crying

IV.      hyperventilation

V.      avoidance of eye contact

VI.      loss of speech

VII.      sensory problems

 

Retts disorder is an early onset disorder as compared to Aspergers that is a later onset disorder. PDD-NOS is diagnosed by an indication of mild language and cognitive delays. Retts is diagnosed by extreme impairment of social, cognitive and language skills. CDD and Retts disorder result in impairment of social and language skills. The difference between the two is mainly at the stage of impairment. Impairment in Retts occurs early as compared to CDD that has CDD taking place early. Already Compared*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Level two
Unique to Autistic Disorder:

Children with autism do not have intelligence quotient problems as compared to other pervasive disorders. They have problems ranging from processing, behavior, and speech difficulties.

Unique to Asperger’s Disorder:

The unique aspects of Asperger’s syndrome include an above average or average intelligence quotient (IQ). In addition, they develop language skills at a normal age.

 

Unique to

PDD-NOS:

 

Individuals have average or high IQ but have small cognitive delays and language delays.

Low stereotyped behaviors.

Late onset of signs s

Unique to Childhood Disintegrative Disorder:

The child experiences normal development for more than tow years

The onset of the condition is marked by the loss of acquired language, social and communication skills.

Child starts to experience seizures often.

Unique to Rett’s Disorder:

Unusual body proportions.

Delayed or inability to walk.

Movement difficulties.

Chorea is common.

 

 

Level three
Diagnostic Criteria Shared Between 3 or More of the Individual ASDs:

They all use the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) for classification of the pervasive disorders.

They include the recognition of :

I.      Deficits in communication skills and behavior for both non verbal and verbal communication

II.      Deficits in social and emotional reciprocities because of impaired social behaviors.

III.      The inability to form and maintain relationships.

IV.      In addition, the severity of ailments is usually based on the impairment of social communication and the presence of restrictive and repetitive behavioral patterns.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)* Further Explanations From Our Textbook Autism Speaks Video Glossary
Diagnostic Criteria for 299.00

 Autistic Disorder

   
A. Six or more items from (1), (2), and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3):  

The scores provided are relative to both high and low functioning levels of autistic disorders.

Items 1 include the qualitative impairments in respective social interactions. It may be manifested by any conditions such as impaired use of multiple non-verbal social behaviors such as facial expressions, eye-to-eye contact, body postures and gestures towards influencing and regulation of social interactions.

Other conditions in item 1 include inability to develop peer relationships that are central to early development of social skills.

Item 2 includes the impairment of communication skills that may take a variety of forms. This includes in total inability or delayed development of lingual skills. It may also take the form of inability to sustain conversations despite the ability to engage adequately in speech.

Videos observed were Video 1 and Video 2. they provide an overview of the respective cognitive and functional impairments of children with pervasive disorders.
(1) qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:    
a.       marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction The inability to maintain eye-to-eye contact is illustrates impairment in social interaction skills.

 

 

 

 

 

NB (page 6, video 2) – 1. The boy did not make eye contact at any point, not even when grabbing for his mother’s hand. 2. The boy exhibited a delay in the ability to use his own index finger to point at the book and had to have his mother help him.

 

 

b.       failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level They are unable to develop peer interactions given that they do not understand or feel the need to engage with others. They feel content with their statuses of isolation and self-sufficiency. Later in the years as per the video, the children are unable to develop peer relationships given that their social and communication skills are impaired from a young age. However, with appropriate diagnosis and therapy the life of a child can be enhanced leading to better and enhanced interactions with peers.
c.        a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) The lack of development in social and emotional cognition abilities through social interactions limits them from understanding the need to enjoy or engage in activities that may be of particular interest to them. Repetitive behaviors and the lack of interest in activities is evident among the children in the video.
d.       lack of social or emotional reciprocity They do not recognize any emotional or social actions directed at them. Hence, they do not feel obligated to reciprocate emotional and social actions directed at them. From the video, some of the children fail to respond to actions of their caregivers. A girl in the video constantly focuses on a yellow doll despite the social and emotional actions of the caregiver aimed at invoking a response.
(2) qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:    
a.       delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) Some children lack the initiative or skill to engage in speech. They are focused on parts of objects or other activities such as movement of hands, walking and their surroundings. They do not respond to social or emotional contact initiated by other children or their caregivers. The 24-month-old boy seemed to use utterances, but no actual words. He illustrates a perfect definition of autism given that it is evident that he is intelligent but lacks the ability to develop social and communication skills. Some of the traits of autistic disorders can be easily missed by the common eye. However, with the appropriate professional assistance it is relatively easy for caregivers to identify and diagnose the various autistic disorders classified under DSM IV criteria.
b.       in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others They have minimal speech skills, which limits their abilities to engage in sustained conversations with other parties. Some of the children are engaged in repetitive actions and parts of speech limiting their ability to engage in fruitful communication with their respective caregivers.
c.        stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language Echolalia – immediate repetitions what was heard (pg. 6). Repetitive vocalizations occur without awareness in children with autistic disorders. In addition, imitation is an essential component in children development within normal conditions. However, within autistic conditions, they are unable to develop from imitative behavior that they see or hear from their surroundings.

Delayed Echolalia – repetitions of what was heard in previous conversations (pg. 9)

A child within the video responds by repetitive speech on previous comments made by a caregiver. The young girl makes words that are not normal words. Words that cannot be recognized or idiosyncratic language.
d.       lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level It is usually brought about by limited brain function that in turn limits their cognitive and social skills or abilities. From the two videos provided, some of the children are unable to make the desired imitative play that is essential for development. This is an indication of limited cognitive function due to undeveloped brain functions.
(3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:    
a.       encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus Their respective stereotyped behavior is an express illustration of underdeveloped cognitive functions. Some of the children illustrate intensity in hand clapping and other behaviors that are repetitive. Some were extreme towards causing self-injury such as biting or hitting themselves.
b.       apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals They give focus to their preoccupations with parts of objects and repetitive imitative behaviors. They are unable to adhere to set out routines or concentrate on tasks.
c.        stereotyped and repetitive motor manners (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) Rocking back and forth (Figure 1.1) They are unstable due to the lack of cognitive skills and abilities to concentrate on issues. Repetitive movements were common in a majority of children that could be termed as suffering from the various autistic disorders.
d.       persistent preoccupation with parts of objects Flicking light switches (Figure 1.1) Preoccupation with parts of toys, light switches, and other objects. They fail to react to communication from other parties such as their caregivers and other children.
B. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:

 

(1) Social interaction,

(2) language as used in social communication, or

(3) Symbolic or imaginative play.

Delayed skills in social communication are evident among children with autistic disorders. Some regress in their acquired skills and abilities to engage in effective communication. As evident from the video, some children show delayed development of speech abilities and others regress in their social and communication skills due to disorders.
C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett’s Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.    
Diagnostic Criteria for 299.80

Asperger’s Disorder

   
A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: Place additional information here…items that are more general in nature and do not fit a particular category:

 

 
(1)  marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction They are unable to maintain eye contact with other people due to their limited bodily and cognitive functions. Some of the children are unable to maintain eye to eye contact as well as limited use of gestures and posture in communication and social interactions with other parties.
(2)  failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level   Evidently, present in some children who are isolated from others due to their inability to engage effectively in social interactions with other children.
(3)  a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people)   They lack total interest in engagement with their peers.
(4)  lack of social or emotional reciprocity   Children in the two videos were unable to recognize any emotional and social communication directed at them by the caregivers.
B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:    
(1)  encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus   Stereotyped behavior was evident the form of tantrums and screaming. It was intensity in focus when some of children were obstructed from their play and deprived their toys.
(2)  apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals   They are evidently inflexible to some routines in the video. Obstruction resulted in dramatic screams and tantrums in reaction to their intense focus on objects and toys.
(3)  stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) Rocking back and forth (Figure 1.1) Repetitive behaviors such as tantrums, hand clapping and shaking their heads were evident among the children.
(4)  persistent preoccupation with parts of objects Flicking light switches (Figure 1.1) They fail to react to communication from other parties such as their caregivers and other children. Preoccupation with parts of toys, light switches, and other objects.
C. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.   The identified conditions limited the overall function of the children in their respective social, cognitive and emotional functions.
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).   Some experienced delays in their respective communication skills mainly ion both verbal and non-verbal abilities.
E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behavior (other than in social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in childhood.    
F.  Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or Schizophrenia.   Criteria were met towards the recognition of pervasive disorders among the children.

Activity 3

 

Unit 1 B

Activity One:  Autism and The Brain

Area Function/ Responsibility Associated ASD Characteristic
Frontal Lobe Is in charge of problem-solving, decision-making, action-initiation, and processing conscious responses;

Allows humans to consciously anticipate and prepare for novel and familiar challenges;

Active in the processing of speech, behavior, sensory, and movement;

Assists with insight and foresight (insight involves social skills and empathy while foresight involves rational, logical thought)

Includes the Prefrontal Cortex, which is responsible for assessment of threat

The frontal lobe region has differing activity in people with ASD. Children with autistic disorders have limited development in their cognitive functions relative to speech, senses, behavior and mobility. This varies from one disorder given that they vary in terms of different abilities and deficiencies.
Parietal Lobe Participates in recognition of danger and opportunity;

Focuses on touch sensations and on body and joint orientation and space-location relationships

ASD sufferers have limited development in this area that determines sense towards social interactions and mobility. Those suffering from Retts disorder have higher underdevelopment levels in this part that determines the growth of their limbs and mobility.
Temporal Lobe Participates in the recognition of dangers and opportunities

Focuses especially on hearing, smell, taste, language and music perception and comprehension;

Is involved in higher visual processing recognition and memory (e.g., facial recognition within the fusiform gyrus)

Autism and Aspergers sufferers have higher levels of development in this part that enables them to process visual elements and recognition of people, items and memory.
Occipital Lobe Participates in recognition of danger and opportunity;

Focuses especially on vision

Underdevelopment among those suffering from Retts, CDD, Autism due to their inabilities to ensure eye to eye focus. They have underdeveloped occipital areas.
Cerebellum Coordinates movement;

Modulates sensory input;

Integrates sensory responsiveness;

Plays a role in the association of affect with nonverbal communication;

Plays a role in regulating the speed of cognitive processes and the timing of social interactions;

Supports nonmotor aspects of language and

Impacts the learning of movement patterns

Retts sufferers suffer largely from limited mobility ability. This affects all of the disorders listed in the DSM-IV given that it consists a majority of cognitive and bodily functions that affect those with disorders listed in the pervasive disorders category. They have limited nonverbal and verbal communication skills that limit their overall social and emotional interactions with their peers or other parties.
Brain Stem Relays sensorimotor information;

Regulates key survival functions (circulation, respiration);

Regulates arousal;

Controls sleep/wake cycles

Affects a majority of pervasive disorder sufferers. Mainly affects Retts sufferers who experience gastrointestinal and respiratory problems.
Limbic System Involved in emotion and memory and typically includes:

·         Amygdala (called the “fear button” of the brain; signals to the Hypothalamus to fight, flight, or freeze; adds positive and negative emotional conents to memory of experiences),

·         Hippocampus (Plays a key role in formation and retrieval of long-term memory stored elsewhere)

·         Hypothalamus (Directly attached to the pituitary gland, helps regulate body temperature, blood pressure, heartbeat, metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and sugar levels in the blood; it plays a role in recognition of pleasure and pain and may be involved in expression of fear, rage, and sexuality

Majority of pervasive disorders limit emotional and social skills and abilities. In addition, some lack the ability to engage in pleasurable activities or activities that may be of interest given that they are not recognizable to them. They are unable to recognize emotions such as sadness and pleasure or happiness.
Thalamus A key relay station for all sensory input except smell;

Plays a key role in regulating attention and processing pain

There is a high level of deficiency that limits attention capabilities among children with pervasive disorders.

 

 

 

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