Political Science

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Political Science

  1. According to Joseph Nye power in the world today is shifting from where to where?

According to Joseph Nye, power shifts are of two kinds, power transitions and from states to non-state actors. In the power transitions, the focus is on recovery of Asia. It includes the continent’s return to more than half population and encompassing more than half the products. The domination of the American and European power is thus transitioned into Asian takeover.

  1. According to Joseph Nye, power is also diffusing from states to non-state actors. Please give an example of this diffusion of power from state to non-state actors.

Power diffusion refers to the transfer of power from the state into individualistic enforcers. An example is the communication technology and cost in the 70s as opposed to the present circumstances. The charges were exorbitant at the time, and those who could afford were the state, big multinational companies and organizations. However, the power to achieve the same communication is now in people’s hands.

  1. Explain what Joseph Nye means by the statement, the “stage is becoming crowded.”

In the power diffusion from state to non-state actors, Joseph states that the stage is becoming crowded. It refers to the numerous holders of the capability to influence the power. At the beginning, only the government had full control to influence the power. Currently, the good and bad holders have crowded in the similar powers struggle.

  1. What does Nye mean by soft power? Please give an example of an application of soft power in international affairs.

Nye means that soft power is the ability in power transmission from one body to another through any form that enables others to want the same needs as you. It does not require payment of any money, coercion, or persuasion. For example, in international affairs, the ability of a nation to convince others that war is necessary and singled out help from them, equates to soft powers.

  1. Please, give an example of hard power in international affairs. Be sure to explain your answer.

Hard power in international affairs refers to the use of military power to affect the outcome in situations such as war. For example, Russia can use willful force to exert pressure into Georgia’s submission of a policy within the region. It can be stated that Russia has used hard power in the situation to enable collaboration.

  1. The Obama administration recently received approval for fast track trade authority. What state (country) is widely considered the greatest beneficiary or winner of this fast track trade authorization? Please explain your answer.

The country regarded the greatest beneficiary to the fast track trade authority is the United States. The approval ensures that the country has the leadership role in the world through increased influence as compared to other countries. It is due to the tied economies of the other countries that the US stands to benefit.

  1. What other GROUPS are widely considered the greatest beneficiaries of the passage of fast track trade authority?

The other groups considered the greatest beneficiary of the passage of the fast track trade include congress, workers, and the close partners to the United States through economic ties.

  1. What groups are widely considered the greatest LOSERS as a result of the passage of fast track trade authority? Please explain your answer.

The greatest losers in the result of passage of the fast track trade authority include the traditional powerhouses of the trade ties, the trans-pacific countries, as well as emerging forces. The traditional powerhouses of trade ties influenced the wage allocation of the workers, while trans-pacific countries result in the first authority submission to the US. Emerging forces include the stranglehold from nations like China and other European nations.

  1. What U.S. official is widely considered the greatest WINNER or beneficiary as a result of the passage of fast track trade authority in the U.S.? Please explain your answer.

According to the fast track trade authority, the greatest US official considered the greatest winner is the president. This is because he has absolute power in reengaging of all the ties in trade agreements, dealings of the agreed terms, increase of the workers’ dues as well as assurance of all foreign investments through his or her authority.

  1. Another controversial topic cover in class this semester has been the Obama administration’s nuclear “deal” with Iran. What state (country) is widely considered the biggest winner or greatest beneficiary from this deal? Please explain your answer.

The greatest country widely considered the biggest winner of the Iran nuclear deal with the United States is the US. This is because the country has enabled an agreement into authorizing Iran from enriching of uranium, while also achieving a concession into the proliferation treaty. It helps safeguard the country’s security plans without the threat of terrorist activities from the region.

  1. What state (country) is widely considered the biggest loser as a result of this deal?

      Please explain your answer.

The biggest loser in the nuclear deal between Iran and the United States is Iran. This is because the concessions made by the country, halt its nuclear program, while ramifications on the extended enrichment of uranium affect its development agenda. Additionally, constant and random checks from the relevant authority increase chances of reducing the facilitation of the country’s authority.

  1. What politician is the greatest winner of both the fast track and Iran nuclear weapons deal? Please explain your answer

The politician considered the greatest winner in both fast track and Iran nuclear weapons deal is the United States president, Obama. In the trade agreements, he ensured that his legacy from the preservation of the country’s leadership role in all trade matters is maintained as well as financial and investment consolidation. In the Iran nuclear weapons deal, he achieves the target of controlling security concerns from a national threat.

  1. What is the greatest possible benefit that might come from the U.S. nuclear deal with Iran? Please explain your answer.

The greatest possible benefit that might come from the United States nuclear deal with Iran is the benefit of ensuring that global security is not put at risk, by enriching possible threats with the authority of countries traditionally categorized as such. It will ensure that the United Nations fulfills its mandate of preventing any potential nuclear attacks through deployment.

  1. Identify and discuss the most widely held fears of the possible consequences of the U.S. deal with Iran. Please explain your answer.

The most widely held fears of the nuclear deal include the threat of potential nuclear attacks and the increased chances of war. Nuclear attacks can be triggered by similar nations with the intent of developing their nuclear programs, just like Iran. The threats of war are a consequence of restraint with the sanctions targeting the country.

  1. What Middle East dictator is currently the center of conflict and strife in Syria?

The middle east dictator currently the center of conflict and strife in Syria is Bashir al-Assad.

  1. Identify three main state (country) supporters of this dictator discussed in question 15 above.

Supporters to the dictator would include his Deputy Sulayaman Qaddah, Hafez Al-Asad, and Mohammed Saeed Bekhetian. The three represent incumbent officials who took office as Regional Secretary, Regional Command, and Syrian Regional Branch under the dictator.

  1. Identify three main opponents of this dictator discussed in question 15 above.

These are the presidents of the United States of America, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia. The three have dedicated their time to frustrate the Syrian regime through their foreign policies.

  1. What common enemy in Syria does supports and opponents of this dictator share? Please explain your answer. Hint: The answer to this question is NOT the dictator referred to in question 15.

The United Nations supports both the Syrian regime and its opponents. The international body does not directly intervene on national matters, but aims at the promotion of best practices that capture internal and external peace, protection of human rights and economic growth.

  1. What is the basic message of Economist, Charles Robertson’s TED talk lecture video and what relevance does it have for fast track trade authority in the U.S.? How might Robertson’s message provide an opportunity for what Nye refers to as “positive sum” or a “win-win” situation involving trade between the U.S. and Africa?

The speaker talks on the continuity of Africa’s gradual economic progress because of its increasing avenues for global investment and internal promotion of self-sufficiency. Africa is growing because natives are benefiting from rising educational levels while political regimes constantly seek international trade relationships with big economies.

  1. Although a great degree of attention has been devoted to the investment role of China in Africa, what part of the world besides China does Robertson describe as leading the way in foreign direct investment (FDI) in Africa? What percentage of FDI does this part of the world contribute to Africa according to Robertson?

The Western Hemisphere plays the biggest role in Africa’s FDI, lending 60% of the available sum to the continent. Moreover, western countries engage Africa by lowering the amount of debt owed by 70% as of 2000.

  1. What advice does Robertson give regarding corruption in Africa and its effects on potential U.S. investment in Africa? In the face of corruption, what does Robertson say investors like the U.S. should do in Africa?

The speaker calls for enhanced effort from African scholars. Educated Africans should increase information sharing avenues in order to ascertain public awareness concerning the realities of corruption. Investor countries should employ trade sanctions on corrupt markets in order to necessitate change.

  1. According to the August 13, 2015 Time magazine article, “Europe’s New Border Crisis”, where do Europe’s latest immigrants comes from and how many asylum seekers have arrived in Europe during the first half of 2015?

The latest immigrants in Europe come from Syria, Afghanistan and the northern parts of Africa. Around 137,000 immigrants entered the continent in the first half of 2015.

 

  1. According to the Time magazine article referred to above, how many people have died this year trying to make the journey to the continent’s shores turning the Mediterranean into the most dangerous border crossing in the world?

2600 individuals

  1. According to Time magazine how many people died on August 5, 2015 when a boat stuffed with immigrants capsized near the Libyan coast?

200 individuals

  1. According to Time magazine, some of the 60 million displaced people have fled their homes

     out of desperation that can be traced to what specific circumstance?

 

The civil war in Syria

 

  1. Others according to Time magazine are fleeing their homes for different reasons that include

     what?

 

The desire to lead a better economic lifestyle

 

 

  1. According to the above listed Tim Magazine article, what states (countries) have had to deal

     with a disproportionate number of migrants?

 

These are European nations with struggling borders near the Mediterranean Sea such as Italy, Malta and Greece.

 

  1. According to Time, Britain’s oldest border defense has been what?

 

The English Channel, a 31 Mile distance gap between England and the mainland of Europe

 

  1. According to Time, migrants have been trying to cross into Britain (the U.K.) from

     Calais (France) since when?

 

Migrants have made the attempt since the 1990s during the Kosovo war

 

  1. According to Time, is life in Britain easy for migrants? How does Time describe

     life in Britain for immigrants?

 

Life is the United Kingdom is difficult despite the plentiful number of jobs.

 

  1. According to Time, why is life in Britain still attractive to immigrants seeking to

     enter Britain (U.K.)?

 

The republic gives asylum seeks a hefty sum of money revolving around 57 dollars a week as upkeep. This is a high sum as compared to other European nations.

 

  1. 32. According to Time magazine, how long is the English Channel or in other words how far do

migrants have to travel to cross into Britain (U.K.) via the English Channel?

 

The English Channel, which is 31 miles in length

 

  1. According to Time, how do migrants travel across the English Channel Tunnel to

    Britain (U.K.)?

 

Migrants to cross the English Channel can opt to either stow away in large trucks that cross the waterway via ferries or hide in freight trains or tunnel shuttles.

 

  1. According to Time, how many people have died trying to reach England?

 

There have been fifteen migrant deaths in the year 2014 alone.

 

  1. According to Time, the dusty migrant encampments on the edge of Calais are

     known to migrants as what?

 

The Jungle

 

  1. According to Time, these encampments shelter hundreds of migrants that include

     what four nationalities of people?

 

Afghans, Eritreans, Sudanese and Syrians

 

  1. What two words does Time use to describe the encampment(s) that has evolved near Calais

      that falls far below international humanitarian standards?

 

A Semi-Permanent slum

 

  1. While guidelines from the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees recommends a maximum of 20 persons sharing one toilet, how many persons share one toilet in these encampments outside Calais, according to Time magazine?

 

According to the media outlet, almost three hundred individuals share one toilet in the camp.

 

  1. What additional descriptions of these encampments are offered by Time magazine?

 

Three hundred people share a toilet in the camp, while the heaps of garbage and sewage have turned the area into a breeding nest for flies and rats.

 

  1. According to Time, migrants are trying more dangerous methods to reach the U.K.. For

      example how does Time describe the arrest of a Sudanese man on August 4, 2015 by

      British police?

 

The suspect had been dodging high speed trains in the tunnel in the dark while walking the entire 31 mile stretch.

 

  1. According to Time, how many people does Eurotunnel, the company that runs shuttles

that pass through the tunnel say it prevented from passing through since January?

 

37000 attempts

 

 

  1. According to Time, on the night of July 28, 2015 alone, a few hundred migrants made

     what number of attempts to breach the entrance of the channel tunnel?

 

2000 attempts

 

  1. What consequences have emerged in Britain according to Time as a result of the

      ongoing “migrant invasion”?

 

There has been increased security at Britain’s borders after the inclusion of the army and imposition of new police measures. The Prime Minister pledged further fencing of borders and deployment of sniffer dogs to enhance security. The weekly state support amount given to asylum seekers was reduced to 57 dollars per week to discourage immigration.

 

  1. According to Time how has British Prime Minister David Cameron responded to the

     “migrant invasion” in public statements reported in the media?

 

The official argued that the country did not have the objective of becoming a safe haven for immigrants. He then pledged further fencing of borders and deployment of sniffer dogs to enhance security.

 

  1. What further measures in Britain were adopted on August 10, 2015 to reduce the attraction of Britain to illegal immigrants?

 

The reduction of the amount asylum seekers could claim as state support to 57.55 dollars a week. This is an amount almost 40% less that given by France.

 

  1. Would this measure described in your answer to question 45 above be enough to discourage

      migrants from preferring Britain over other destination points in Europe?  Please explain

      your answer.

 

No it will not. Britain has a shadow economy that allows immigrants to seek asylum and earn a living in the country. The reduction of state support applies only to immigrants who employ proper avenues to identify themselves to British authorities.

 

  1. What does Tahir Dlil, a 26-year-old radiology graduate who fled the turmoil in Sudan

      a year ago and has been in Calais for more than 6 months, say about his motivation to leave

      Sudan for Britain?

 

Britain is peaceful, it offers the individual the preferred humanitarian conditions to live and work. In addition, the country has a safe working environment.

 

  1. According to Time, what does a sign outside a tent in an encampment outside Calais read?

Bored of Borders

 

  1. Based on the Time article, does it appear that European authorities are close to a solution

     to their border crisis?

 

European authorities are far from reaching a solution. This is highlighted by the availability of luxurious services such as barbers, bike fixing and religious facilities in the Jungle.

 

  1. Based on the Time article and a flood of media coverage since the August 13, 2015 article

     does Europe’s “migrant invasion” appear to be slowing down?

 

Europe’s ‘migrant invasion’ is actually escalating to unprecedented heights that make control difficult and at some point impossible. Asylum seekers come from different regions because of divergent reasons. At first, Europe was only concerned with Syrian immigrants, but presently, they have to deal with asylum seekers from Sub Saharan Africa and warring parts of the Middle East.

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