Self-Awareness Exercises and Reflection

Self-Awareness Exercises and Reflection

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Self-Awareness Exercises and Reflection

With respect to this self-awareness exercise, the variable eligible for empirical observation is emotional regulation. Emotional regulation involves the management of emotion. As such, emotional regulation refers to the capability of an individual to act in response to the present needs by allowing or delaying unprompted retorts in an unobjectionable manner when required. In summary, Gross & John (2003) delineate emotional regulation as the capacity of a person to manage emotions irrespective of the existing situation. As such, this variable is considerably dependent on the ability of an individual to enact complete control and thus preventing the occurrence of impulsive actions and decisions that are regrettable. Alternately, emotional regulation incorporates instigating, restraining or altering the conduct or state of a person within a particular situation. Typically, individuals experience diverse situations that warrant unprompted emotional reactions towards the respective stimuli (Koole, 2010). As such, if individuals were to exude unprecedented reactions based on the different stimuli that comprise their surroundings, then the aspect of interaction within society would erode. Thus, emotional regulation is significant since it enables persons to establish interaction through different communication patterns irrespective of the diverse stimuli (Heilman et al, 2010). Nonetheless, emotional regulation contributes significant positive and negative influences around persons. People who exhibit significant degrees of emotional regulation usually necessitate positive influence among other individuals (Kensinger, 2009). This is because such persons are capable of performing actions while suppressing any unwanted behavior. According to Stefanopoulou et al (2007), such individuals focus on the work allocated and do not engage in actions that can influence the persons around them negatively. Accordingly, persons with negligible emotional regulation levels exude negative impact among the people around them based on their inability to suppress emotions (Martin & Delgado, 2011).

As such, in order to provide empirical observation regarding emotional regulation, two factors, which include Cognitive Reappraisal and Suppression, gain consideration (McRae, Ciesielski & Gross, 2012). Foremost, Ochsner & Gross (2005) assert that cognitive reappraisal allows persons to alter the emotions they experience, the intensity of the emotions based on the experience and the situations in which they experience the emotions. The second factor, Suppression, involves masking authentic emotions with irrespective of the emotional intensity of a particular situation (Richards & Gross, 2000). In the assessment, my score regarding the cognitive reappraisal factor was 6. This indicates that my ability to use cognitive reappraisal within emotional regulation is considerable considering that high scores illustrate greater exploitation of the factor. As such, the survey illustrates that the manner in which I regulate my emotions influences my communication positively with the team. Cognitive reappraisal allows a person to reappraise emotional stimuli in a dissimilar manner, which will either augment or moderate the intensity of the sentimental rejoinder educed due to the stimuli (Steinberger, Payne & Kensinger, 2011). In this particular case, upon the receipt of failure regarding a certain project within my group, my use of cognitive reappraisal will allow me to reconsider the situation in a different manner by viewing as another opportunity to improve the group’s techniques (Curseu, Boros & Oerlemans, 2012). As such, the skill will affect my communication style positively with the group since it will enable me to proceed with motivating the members of the team when assigned to another project. However, my score in exuding Suppression was 4.50, which was a low score. The score proved that I do not possess the ability to hide my emotions in emotionally intense and risky situations, which can affect the way I communicate with my team members.

References

Curseu, P. L., Boros, S., & Oerlemans, L. A. G. (February 01, 2012). Task and relationship conflict in short-term and long-term groups: The critical role of emotion regulation. International Journal of Conflict Management, 23, 1, 97-107.

Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 2, 348–362.

Gyurak, A., Gross, J., & Etkin, A. (January 01, 2011). Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: A dual-process framework. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 3, 400-412.

Heilman, R. M., Crişan, L. G., Houser, D., Miclea, M., & Miu, A. C. (January 01, 2010). Emotion regulation and decision making under risk and uncertainty. Emotion, 10, 2, 257-265.

Kensinger, E. (January 01, 2009). Remembering the Details: Effects of Emotion. Emotion Review, 1, 2, 99-113.

Koole, S. L. (January 01, 2010). The psychology of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Psychology Press, 4, 23, 4-41.

Martin, L. N., & Delgado, M. R. (January 01, 2011). The neural basis of positive and negative emotion regulation: implications for decision-making. Attention and Performance: Proceedings of a Symposium, 23, 311.

McRae, K., Ciesielski, B., & Gross, J. J. (January 01, 2012). Unpacking cognitive reappraisal: Goals, tactics, and outcomes. Emotion, 12, 2, 250-255.

Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (January 01, 2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 5, 242-9.

Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (January 01, 2000). Emotion regulation and memory: the cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 3, 410-24.

Stefanopoulou, E., Argyropoulos, S., & Frangou, S. (2007). Time course of emotional responses: The effects of subjective ratings of emotional intensity and voluntary suppression. European Psychiatry, 22, 317.

Steinberger, A., Payne, J. D., & Kensinger, E. A. (January 01, 2011). The effect of cognitive reappraisal on the emotional memory trade-off. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 7, 1237-45.

Restaurant Emerging Trend

Restaurant Emerging Trend

 

 

 

 

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Restaurant Emerging Trend

The restaurant industry has witnessed several transformations over the period it has been in existence. The shift in preference and focus on healthy and ethical food products have however emerged as a strong wave of change that has affected both small and large food establishments in the industry. This emergent trend concentrates on the nutritional value of the food products being presented to the consumer as opposed to concentrating on lowering food costs or producing new products that may have negative impacts on clients’ health. While healthy food products are the major aspect of this new trend, aspects of consideration for family requirements have also been attached to the health concerns.

According to a study done by the National Restaurant Association, most modern food establishments have received increased demands from their clients for healthier options in their menus. Most clients at restaurants also proposed that increased information on the process, contents and types of food products should be provided to them (Kerr, 2009). The variety of necessary information ranged from the calorie counts in various foods to discovering fresher produce on the menu. The study also revealed that over 72% of adults were focused on changing their diets and food consumption to take in healthier options (Kerr, 2009). Most restaurants reported that this change was witnessed in the increased orders in healthful foods as compared to two years ago. Some of the most preferred diets included foods that were gluten-free, children-centered, whole grain items, vegetables and fruits (Bittman, 2011). This change in perception and behavior has been brought about by several aspects (Kerr, 2009).

Increased information on food options and consequences of healthy lifestyles has been a major causative factor responsible for the increased focus on healthy foods inn restaurants. Nearly all the avenues of information globally provide consumers with detailed information concerning what they consume on a daily basis. Health practitioners and professionals in the food sector are the most prominent actors in this regard. These two sets of experts have provided endless and influential information on calorie intake, physical and psychological effects as well as cost-cutting measures and other information that has greatly change the attitudes of most restaurant clients (Bittman, 2011). From features on the Internet to television shows, the message being sent by most health and culinary experts has greatly pushed many people to reconsider their consumption patterns. Television shows such as Healthy Appetite with Ellie Krieger and renowned publications such as The Best Life Diet and Younger You have inspired many people to drop the conventional famous fast foods and pick up healthier alternatives (Kerr, 2009). Within restaurants, the conversion to healthier foods has also been prompted by increased information that is listed on the menu that clarifies calorie content, fat and other ingredients (Kerr, 2009).

Economic incentives have also been a major contributor towards changed perceptions of restaurant fast foods. Against the background of strained economic times, most citizens have a difficult time allocating enough money to cater for food needs. While the general perception among many people has been that healthier foods cost more, increased information on the food costs and comparison with different stores has revealed that healthier foods are quite affordable. With the increased awareness of this difference, people have started embracing healthier food options because of their cost saving benefits (Bittman, 2011). Fast food establishments previously only had the monopoly due to highly subsidized raw materials that allow them to sell most foods for a small price. Even among low-income households, the switch to healthier foods has been prompted by increased medical costs. While fast foods may be cheaper, it has been discovered that they contain grave nutritional implications such as obesity, cancers and other critical diseases. Therefore, high medical costs have also encouraged many people to take up healthier diets and this has changed the food products offered in most restaurants (Bittman, 2011).

Promotion of healthier alternatives for restaurants

The best approach towards realizing increased and affordable healthier alternatives within the food industry is to promote production of healthy and organic foods. The main challenge in realizing healthier diets in most menus is the availability of organic vegetables, fruits and other animal products. This can be traced back to the federal level. At this level, the government should be lobbied to subsidize further the research and development of organic produce. The government should also be lobbied to increase the import of organic foodstuffs into the country. When the availability of organic foods can seize to be a problem, most food establishments can comfortably include them in all their diets. Another approach that would greatly entrench the tradition of providing healthy products in restaurants is increased sensitization on the different ingredients, calorie levels and other elements used in everyday preparation of fast foods. Through a strong awareness campaign that can be spearheaded by a joint effort comprising of the medical, media and food sector, consumers can be provided with relevant information on the best dietary choices.

Conclusively, change in the restaurant sector can also be influenced by incorporating the contribution of the mainstream and support staff. This includes the chefs and their assistants, waiters and other professionals involved in food preparation. By providing them with the necessary knowledge on the consequences of offering clients fast foods, they can jointly cooperate toward preparing healthier foods while in the kitchen.

 

 

References

Bittman, M. (2011, September 24). Is Junk Food Really Cheaper? New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/opinion/sunday/is-junk-food-really-cheaper.html?pagewanted=1&_r=3&

Kerr, A. (2009). Celebrate dinner: Eating gourmet the frugal way. Springville, Utah: Bonneville Books.

 

Forum 6 & 7

Forum 6 & 7

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Forum 6 & 7

Forum 6 Efficient Market
The efficient market hypothesis is interpreted in a weak form, a semi-strong form, and a strong form. How can we differentiate its various forms?

A market is efficient if transaction prices fully reflect in an unbiased manner all available price-sensitive information the market hypothesis is divided into weak market hypothesis, semi strong form of efficiency and the strong form of efficiency (Broyles, 2003).

The weak form of efficiency market hypothesis assumes that, the share prices fully reflect all security market information contained in past price movements, which include rates of return, trading volume, block trades etc. therefore it is pointless basing trading rules on share price history, as the future cannot be predicted.

The semi strong form of efficient market hypothesis explains that share prices fully reflect all the relevant publicly available information. This includes not only the past price movements but also all the public information such as stock prices, earnings and dividend announcements. This implies that there is no need of scrutinizing publicly available information after it has been released because the market is already absorbed into the price.

The strong efficiency market hypothesis assumes that the stock prices fully reflect all information from public and private sources. According to this hypothesis, nobody has the monopolistic access to information relevant to the investment. It encompasses both the weak and the semi strong forms. Here the focus is on the insider trading, in which only a few privileged individuals like the directors can trade in shares, as they know more compared to the normal investor in the market (Bhole, 2009).

 

Forum 7 Binds & Interest Rates
Discuss the relationship between bond prices and interest rates. What impact do changing interest rates have on the price of long-term bonds versus short-term bonds?

 

Bond prices and their interest rates vary inversely. For a specific absolute change in bond prices when rates fall exceeds the proportionate decrease in bond prices when the rates rises. The proportionate difference increases with maturity and is larger the lower the bond’s interest payment. Long-term bond changes proportionately more in price than short-term bonds for a given change in interest rate.

Bonds that take a long time to mature will have a grater risk to the company issuing the bond and will experience financial trouble. It occasionally may be difficult to sell a long-maturity bond because investors may be unwilling to lock in their money at low rates for long maturities, during low interest rate periods. Long maturities have increased interest rate risk because their prices fluctuate more, per a given change in market interest rates, than do the prices of short-maturity bonds, for the same rate of change. Further, if you buy a long bond during a high interest rate period to lock in the high yield, the bond will be called away and refinanced at lower rates when interest rates decline (Bhole, 2009).

Shorter maturities have less risk, so their interest rates do not have to be as high as long-term maturities to be able to attract buyers. There is less risk that a company’s financial status will go down during a 5-year term than during a 40-year term. They mature before there is any risk of the bond being pulled off the market for refinancing at lower rates. In fact, the main problem with short maturities arises during periods of high interest rates when investors want to lock in the high yields for as long a period of time as possible.

 

 

References

Bhole, L. M., & Mahakud, J. (2009). Financial institutions and markets: Structure, growth and innovations. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Broyles, J. E. (2003). Financial management and real options. Chichester: Wiley.

Buddhism and Islam in Southeast Asia

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Buddhism and Islam in Southeast Asia

The world is full of suffering and pain brought about by temptations and desires. It is only when the desires are eradicated that one can cease feeling pain. That state reached was what Prince Siddhartha Gutama Sakyamun, or Prophet Buddha called nirvana. Spiritual perfection can only be attained through practicing generosity, humility, mercy, calmness and self-control. Buddhism was started around the 6th century B.C. It spread fast throughout Asia in the next couple of centuries. However, those that were appointed by Buddha to go spread it to the world had different interpretations for it. This led to different forms of the religion. The three main ones are Theravada, Mahayana and Tibetan. Theravada Buddhism was mainly practiced in the Southern part of Asian. It was known as Hinayana Buddhism. The different forms of Buddhism have experienced their own challenges. Most of these died in time. The most common widely practiced form is Theravada Buddhism.

Buddhism spread due to three major factors. When Buddhist merchants and teachers got to a place, the people there got intrigued by this new religion. They would watch and want to learn their ways. They would get converted, but only those that were willing. Buddhists were a peaceful people and did not believe in imposing religion on people. At other times, a country would invade another and take other governance. The citizens of the invaded country would flee. Some chose to remain behind. They would slowly adopt the ways of the newcomers. Another way was through the influence of a powerful monarch. He would build temples and shrines throughout the kingdom. He would either force his people to adopt his religion or they would slowly be influenced.

The art of the Mons in Buddhism was heavily influenced by the Indian art of the Gupta. Their ways spread widely in Southeast Asia owing to the expansion of the Mon kingdom around the 5th and 8th centuries. Each region Buddhists went saw the building of universities, temples and monasteries. The religion would attain a unique character in different Asian countries. It is believed that Buddhism first came to Southeast Asia between the first and the fived centuries A.D, though opinion and archaeological findings vary.

It is not clear when Buddhism got to Thailand. Records show that Theravada Buddhism first got to Ceylon, now known as Sri Lanka. The teachings were written in Pali, an Indo-Aryan language. They were inscribed on rocks. The teachings reached Thailand around the 6th century A.D. and became the state religion. Mahayana school of Buddhism followed. It went from India to Sumatra, Java and Cambodia around the fifth century A.D. It is more prevalent in the south of Thailand and is believed to have been at its height when Thailand was part of the Suryavarman dynasty in Cambodia. Although both Theravada and Mahayana both existed in Thailand, Mahayana never surpassed Theravada in popularity.

When Buddha died, images of him were worshipped. It first started in India and then to other countries that practiced the religion.  In about 1057 A.D, a king named Anurudda ruled Burma, present-day Myanmar, his capital being at Pagan, Central Burma. His kingdom extended to Thailand. The king was a Theravada Buddhist and supported the cause. As it began to decline however, Theravada Buddhism changed its form and assumed the name Burma or Pagan Buddhism. Burmese Buddhism gained sovereignty over the country. The Burmese under Anuruddha ruled the upper part of Thailand, while the South was left for Cambodian vassals.

The Thai began to move southwards due to emerging wrangles with their neighbors. The migration lasted a couple of centuries. They had separated into two by the time they reached their destination. One went to the South, what is presently known as Thailand. These are called Thai Noi. The other was not that big a group. Some settled in the plains of Salween River. These came to be known as Thai Yai. By around 1257 A.D, the Thai’s struggle bore fruit and they gained their independence state at Sukhodaya in the north of Thailand. Ceylon or Lankavamsa Buddhism was the last form to be introduced in the country. Today, Thailand is known as a Theravada Buddhist country. A few Mahayana monks and monasteries are still around. Though the different forms of Buddhism differ in their teachings albeit slightly, Buddhists have been known to co-exist and have never competed in influencing people.

When Islam was taken to Southeast Asia, it was in the hope of spreading the religion and culture to the Chinese. They needed their faith to grow. They also traveled there in search of spices and to conduct business with the locals. Southeast proved to be the best choice. The people living there were accommodating and the climate was friendly. Islam is the second most practiced religion in Thailand. Its history in the country dates as far as 1350 during the Ayutthaya Dynasty. Back then, the country was still known as Siam. It got into the country from various directions. These are Burma, Persia, India, China and Cambodia. There was minimal spread of the religion since Buddhism had already taking prevalence in the country. Songkhla, a province in the upper southern part of Thailand was where Islam was most common. It did not spread much beyond here. Muslim merchants settled in Aceh, Malakka and Melayu, including the southern part of Siam peninsula as early as 9th century.

That saw Islam spreading to other parts of Southeast Asia. These include Java, Sumatra and Borneo also known as Kalimantan. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the leaders of Malay peninsula were converted. So where those of the Southern Philippines. The influence brought by Hinduism and Buddhism targeted all races and groups of people. When Islam was introduced, however, it was confined to the Malay race. They inhabited the islands and the southeastern parts of Asia. Just when Islam was starting to spread into the mainland, colonialism took over. With it came new culture and practices.

This heightened the tension between the Buddhists’ Central Thailand and Islam-dominated Lower South. From then on, it was

Two groups were now prominent The Malay-Muslims of the South and the Thai-Muslims of Central Thailand. The Central Muslims engaged in long-distance trade and in local commerce. They also held offices in the Siamese court. They worked mainly as official interpreters. They were considered noble.

In Cambodia, Indian influence had spread by the 4th Century. The leaders of the 5th and 6th centuries the rulers practiced Hinduism. They did however offer support to communities practicing Buddhist. This was mainly Mahayana Buddhism. The monks were educated. Some would go as far as China to read and translate Buddhist texts from Indian to the languages spoken in China. By the 7th Century, Cambodian rulers suppressed Buddhism. This went on until the 9th Century. Towards the 13th Century, a king Jayavarman VII took over the throne. It was a relief for the Buddhist in the kingdom since he was Mahayana Buddhism. Under him, the religion overtook the kingdom. The king ordered a city to be built and named it Angkor.

At the central point of this city stood a temple He called it the Bayon. He then built a tower at the heart of the temple. The tower symbolized him as the Buddha-king. The Burmese monks started teaching Theravada Buddhism among the people. The Thais invaded them in the 14th century. They also brought with them Theravada Buddhism. These two sources contributed a lot to the spread of Theravada among the Cambodians. They still embraced the religion in the centuries that followed. The French attacked Cambodia in the mid-nineteen Century and saw a reduction in followers. Things only changed when they gained their independence from France. Monks educated people on the religion and texts were published. The fate of Buddhism in the country at present is unknown due to political unrest. There are two types of Muslims in Cambodia; Cham and Malay.

Champa, a large maritime nation, was the home for the Chams. They lived there from the 2nd to the 7th century A.D. It extended over the central and southern coastal regions of Vietnam. The Cham were influenced by Indian culture. It had spread to them through maritime trade routes via Southeast Asia. The Vietnamese and the Khmer, their neighbors, constantly attacked them. They found themselves being pushed southwards. In 1471, Vietnam invaded the Cham and seized their capital, Vijaya. The defeat greatly reduced Champa to its southern territories. The Cham sort refuge in Cambodia. They began moving into Cambodia in 1471 owing to this defeat. The Cham followed both the Buddhism and Hinduism. However, during this time of conflict, a majority of them began to convert to Islam.

Persians and Arabs traded in the region. This was what brought the conversion. Moreover, they were exposed to Sufi missionaries who came from both from Gujerat and Bengal Some came from as far as the Middle East. The Cham were introduced into Islam and its teachings. However, the interaction only saw a few Cham people crossing over to Islam The fall of Vijaya is what converted a majority of them. As the Cham sought refuge in Cambodia,  Malayan and Indonesian Muslims saw this as an opportunity to spread their religion. Their conversion was a symbol of breaking free and of a certain kind of resistance from the Vietnam. They wanted a distinct Cham identity.

Islam faith appealed to many people since they could communicate with God by prayer anywhere they were. Other religions called for ceremonies and intercessors. As their resistance against Vietnamese grew, so did the conversion to Islam. In 1692, Cham attempted to regain their lost provinces. They failed. Their royal family that consisted of around 5000 people moved Cambodia and requested land from the Khmer King. He gave them land surrounding the then-capital city of Oudong. Presently, they still inhabit these lands granted to them by Khmer. Chvea, a group of the Cham people, adopted Khmer customs. They learned the

Khmer language and started referring themselves as “Khmer Islam” .This was to avoid the stigma that came with being foreigners.

Vietnam is a small country, dwarfed all the same with by the fact that it is close to India and China. It is due to this fact that countries surrounding it influenced Vietnam. This is how Buddhism got there. Some sources say Indians were the first to introduce Buddhism to Vietnam. The sea connected India with Vietnam. It is likely that the monks went to Vietnam before making their way to Southern China. Others conclude that it is the Chinese monks who took Buddhism to the Northern State. It had been under Chinese empire for several centuries. Later, Central Asian and Indian monks arrived by sea and land. The leaders and Vietnamese people respected the monks because they were literate.

The country inter mixed both Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism. Hinduism was more prevalent in the south. By the 15th century, the Southern States had been gradually influenced by the more powerful Northern State. This move saw Buddhism moving southwards. Later on when Vietnam was unified, Chinese Buddhism was the prevailing religion in the country. The Vietnamese had several features in common with China. It was therefore easy for them to accept the Chinese culture and their beliefs. India embraced Islam and Hinduism while few people practiced Buddhism. Monks stopped visiting the country. Indian missionaries had been the first and the most influential in taking Buddhism in Vietnam. Buddhism has faced many challenges in the recent past. The wave of wars that hit the country and the Communist rule are among the major setbacks.

Cham Muslims were in Vietnam ever since the 17th century. In around 1607, the king of that time converted to Islam. Cham Muslims were in Vietnam ever since the 17th century. In around 1607, the king of that time, King Po Chen, converted to Islam. He lived with his settlers along the Mekong River in a group of thirteen villages. Children from the village would be sent to Malaysia, then known as Kelanten, to study Islam and the Qur’an. When they got back, they were given the responsibility of teaching the village. However, in the 17th Vietnam conquered the Champa province. Their king, Minh Mong, had the Champa persecuted. King Chen gathered those on the mainland and together they migrated to Cambodia, while those at the Coast moved to Malaysia.

Some chose to remain behind in Central Vietnam. Over time, their religion was affected and they converted either to Hinduism or to Buddhism. Their descendants were also converted. In 1959, the descendants encountered Champa Muslims in one of the southern Vietnamese villages. This interaction converted the descendants to Islam. Mosques were built in some parts of Central Vietnam. After the communist regime, most Vietnamese Muslims remained in Vietnam while others fled to other countries. Most of them settled in America, Malaysia, India, France, Canada and some in Australia.

 

 

 

Restaurant Emerging Trend

Restaurant Emerging Trend

 

 

 

 

Name:

Instructor:

Restaurant Emerging Trend

The restaurant industry has witnessed several transformations over the period it has been in existence. The shift in preference and focus on healthy and ethical food products have however emerged as a strong wave of change that has affected both small and large food establishments in the industry. This emergent trend concentrates on the nutritional value of the food products being presented to the consumer as opposed to concentrating on lowering food costs or producing new products that may have negative impacts on clients’ health. While healthy food products are the major aspect of this new trend, aspects of consideration for family requirements have also been attached to the health concerns.

According to a study done by the National Restaurant Association, most modern food establishments have received increased demands from their clients for healthier options in their menus. Most clients at restaurants also proposed that increased information on the process, contents and types of food products should be provided to them (Kerr, 2009). The variety of necessary information ranged from the calorie counts in various foods to discovering fresher produce on the menu. The study also revealed that over 72% of adults were focused on changing their diets and food consumption to take in healthier options (Kerr, 2009). Most restaurants reported that this change was witnessed in the increased orders in healthful foods as compared to two years ago. Some of the most preferred diets included foods that were gluten-free, children-centered, whole grain items, vegetables and fruits (Bittman, 2011). This change in perception and behavior has been brought about by several aspects (Kerr, 2009).

Increased information on food options and consequences of healthy lifestyles has been a major causative factor responsible for the increased focus on healthy foods inn restaurants. Nearly all the avenues of information globally provide consumers with detailed information concerning what they consume on a daily basis. Health practitioners and professionals in the food sector are the most prominent actors in this regard. These two sets of experts have provided endless and influential information on calorie intake, physical and psychological effects as well as cost-cutting measures and other information that has greatly change the attitudes of most restaurant clients (Bittman, 2011). From features on the Internet to television shows, the message being sent by most health and culinary experts has greatly pushed many people to reconsider their consumption patterns. Television shows such as Healthy Appetite with Ellie Krieger and renowned publications such as The Best Life Diet and Younger You have inspired many people to drop the conventional famous fast foods and pick up healthier alternatives (Kerr, 2009). Within restaurants, the conversion to healthier foods has also been prompted by increased information that is listed on the menu that clarifies calorie content, fat and other ingredients (Kerr, 2009).

Economic incentives have also been a major contributor towards changed perceptions of restaurant fast foods. Against the background of strained economic times, most citizens have a difficult time allocating enough money to cater for food needs. While the general perception among many people has been that healthier foods cost more, increased information on the food costs and comparison with different stores has revealed that healthier foods are quite affordable. With the increased awareness of this difference, people have started embracing healthier food options because of their cost saving benefits (Bittman, 2011). Fast food establishments previously only had the monopoly due to highly subsidized raw materials that allow them to sell most foods for a small price. Even among low-income households, the switch to healthier foods has been prompted by increased medical costs. While fast foods may be cheaper, it has been discovered that they contain grave nutritional implications such as obesity, cancers and other critical diseases. Therefore, high medical costs have also encouraged many people to take up healthier diets and this has changed the food products offered in most restaurants (Bittman, 2011).

Promotion of healthier alternatives for restaurants

The best approach towards realizing increased and affordable healthier alternatives within the food industry is to promote production of healthy and organic foods. The main challenge in realizing healthier diets in most menus is the availability of organic vegetables, fruits and other animal products. This can be traced back to the federal level. At this level, the government should be lobbied to subsidize further the research and development of organic produce. The government should also be lobbied to increase the import of organic foodstuffs into the country. When the availability of organic foods can seize to be a problem, most food establishments can comfortably include them in all their diets. Another approach that would greatly entrench the tradition of providing healthy products in restaurants is increased sensitization on the different ingredients, calorie levels and other elements used in everyday preparation of fast foods. Through a strong awareness campaign that can be spearheaded by a joint effort comprising of the medical, media and food sector, consumers can be provided with relevant information on the best dietary choices.

Lastly, change in the restaurant sector can also be influenced by incorporating the contribution of the mainstream and support staff. This includes the chefs and their assistants, waiters and other professionals involved in food preparation. By providing them with the necessary knowledge on the consequences of offering clients fast foods, they can jointly cooperate toward preparing healthier foods while in the kitchen.

 

 

References

Kerr, A. (2009). Celebrate dinner: Eating gourmet the frugal way. Springville, Utah: Bonneville Books.

Bittman M. (2011, September 24). Is Junk Food Really Cheaper? New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/opinion/sunday/is-junk-food-really-cheaper.html?pagewanted=1&_r=3&

 

Solar Energy

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Solar Energy

Introduction

Energy is a key requirement needed for the world to develop. Most countries in the world see energy as the most important factor needed for agricultural and industrial development (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50). As the world population grows, the demand for energy is increasingly becoming a problem. The issue of climate change along with the steady decrease of the world’s fossil energy reserves has worsened the global energy crisis. Conservation of energy therefore involves both the careful use of currently available energy resources and the production of new energy in an environmentally friendly way. The past few years have seen a lot of emphasis placed on the latter as the use of renewable energy technology grows steadily (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50). Renewable energy sources are those that rely on primary energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Solar energy has proven to be a source of renewable energy that could become very affordable in the years to come (Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras 771).

Discourse on solar energy usually entails three key issues; development, conservation of the environment and satisfaction of the world’s energy demands. On development, Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argue that energy is a very important factor in industrial and agricultural development (50). Additionally, the development of rural areas in lesser-developed countries hinges on the availability of affordable energy. Most developing countries suffer from energy deficits. As a result, there is a growing need to harvest renewable energy sources because of their natural availability, their affordability, their environmental friendly nature and because they cannot be exhausted (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50).

Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras argue that the world needs renewable energy, such as solar energy, to satisfy the rising demand for energy (771). To satisfy this high demand, many countries in the world have to import energy and this affects their budgets and their economies because of the high cost of energy. To deal with this problem, lesser-developed countries are choosing to harvest renewable energy. This is helping them satisfy the demand for energy. The harnessing of renewable energy is also helping these countries to sustain their economic growth and create employment (771). Burger and Gochfeld agree that there is a need to take action and deal with the rising demand for energy globally (303). They argue, “the potential interruption of energy supply provides a threat to stable economies, national security and global stability” (Burger and Gochfeld 303). The world needs to end its dependence on fossil energy and renewable energy sources could be the best solution.

Scholars have also discussed solar energy as a solution to climate change. Climate change is one of the most critical problems that the environment will face in the future (Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras 771). The realization that green house gas emissions are destroying the atmosphere has lead to the search for alternatives to fossil fuels. Scientists all over the world are conducting research into environmentally friendly energy sources with a lot of this research focusing on renewable energy (Ginley, Green, and Collins 355). Karakostas, Parras and Psarras claim that some forms of concentrated solar energy are able to produce electricity while emitting very low levels of green house gases. Climate change can be controlled and perhaps even stopped by the widespread use of solar energy.

While all scholars agree that solar energy can satisfy the world’s energy demands and control climate change, there are a few disagreements concerning the effectiveness of solar energy. Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argue that solar energy used on its own cannot quell the rising demand for energy (53). They propose that hybrid systems combining wind and solar be used to help ease the impact of seasonal highs and lows. Burger and Gochfeld pointed out that industries use fossil fuels to manufacture the materials needed to harness solar power. This means that an increased use of fossil fuels may precede the widespread use of solar energy. The purpose of reviewing this literature was to gain an understanding of the common arguments made in the discourse on solar energy. The first part of the review will summarize the studies that various scholars conducted on solar energy, the second part will address any shortcomings that were in the studies while the conclusion will address the literary gap in the studies analyzed.

Reviews

Ginley, Green and Collins argue that everyday the earth receives 162,000 terawatts (TW) of energy from the sun and that harnessing just one terawatt could “significantly impact the overall energy balance” (355). They argue that photovoltaic systems (PV systems) are a very important part of the future of the world’s energy. The decreased availability of fossil fuels coupled with their detrimental effects on the atmosphere is helping drive the world towards renewable energy. Solar energy provides a reliable and readily available alternative (Ginley, Green, and Collins 355). The impact of these PV systems is also spreading into the economy. Ginley, Green and Collins also argue the PV systems can be economic drivers as their production industries surpass those of the microelectronics, telecommunications and display industries (355). Their analysis into solar energy looks mostly into how scientists can improve PV systems so that they can be capable of harnessing even more energy than they already do. This study is particularly important because it addresses two issues that have not received a lot of attention; the economic impact that the PV systems have and possible improvements to the PV systems.

Karakosta, Pappas and Psarras conducted a study looking into how solar energy can to satisfy the energy needs of a developing country (771). They argue that concentrated solar power (CSP) can deliver key energy services for the country. This would be a perfect fit for a developing country as the world turns towards sustainable development practices to mitigate the negative impact of various development programs on the environment. The sustainable character of most renewable energies means, “They are able to preserve resources and to provide security, diversity of energy supply and services, virtually without environmental impact” (Karakosta, Pappas, Psarras 771). In addition to being sustainable, solar energy can quell the acute demand for energy that almost all developing countries face. The study specifically addresses how Chile can use the vast Atacama Desert to harness solar power as opposed to exploiting new coal reserves found in the South.

Muralikrishna’s and Lakshminarayana’s study explores the use of hybrid systems that combine wind and solar energy in rural electrification programs (50). Like the other scholars, they address three key situations concerning the global energy situation. The first is that the world’s energy demands have been rising in the past few years. The second issue is that scientists should come up with more technologies that produce energy in an environmentally friendly way. The last issue is that renewable energy sources are the solution to the current global energy crisis (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50).  Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana also claim that many developing countries face energy deficits (50). PV systems and wind systems have been widely promoted as solutions to the energy deficits but they cannot solve the problem completely because they are vulnerable to climatic seasons. Integrating and optimizing these systems can improve the reliability for each of them and reduce the cost of power (53).

Burger and Gochfeld looked into the ecological footprints that renewable energy sources leave (303). They observed that there is a need to take a careful look into the ecological footprints left by each renewable energy source as the world looks to increase the use of these sources exponentially (Burger and Gochfeld 303). There needs to be careful monitoring of the resources to understand the impacts that they have on environment and on human health. The environmental impacts should also take into consideration the effects that these energy sources have on wildlife (Burger and Gochfeld 304). Environmental and human health monitoring can judge whether energy types are truly sustainable or not (Burger and Gochfeld 305). Burger and Gochfeld developed a conceptual framework for measuring the impact of the energies on the ecological footprint (306). This framework took into account four areas, the underground, the surface, the airshed (lower atmosphere) and the upper atmosphere.  Their study is very important in the discourse on renewable energies because they look into an area that has seen little research, the impact of renewable energy sources on the environment.

These four studies have taken different approaches to the issue of solar energy but still looked into the three key issues mentioned previously. First, they all looked into ways in which renewable energies such as solar energy can mitigate help mitigate climate change. The second issue that the studies looked into was how solar energy and other renewable energies can help to satisfy the rising global demand for energy. Lastly, the studies all addressed the issue of renewable energy and development by looking into how energies such as solar energy can help countries boost or sustain economic growth. The studies differed on a few issues. An example is the PV systems. While Ginley, Green and Collins claimed that the systems could significantly change the global energy situation, Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argued the PV systems would not work well on their own, as they are vulnerable to climatic seasons. The overall conclusion, however, was that solar energy and other renewable forms of energy are the future due to their environmental friendly nature and their sustainability.

Conclusion

            These four studies have revealed that solar energy is an excellent solution to the global energy crisis due to its sustainability and the fact that it is infinite. The studies also showed that the world’s quest for sustainable development could benefit by increasing the use of renewable energies. One key issue is that there has been very little documented analysis on the impact that solar energy has on the environment. It is very likely that the impact is negligible but it appears as if the scientific community has already made that assumption without any real research activity. Secondly, there is a shortage of information concerning the disadvantages of using solar energy. Researchers have documented a few issues like the vulnerability to climatic seasons but there is need to address the wider scope. Further research should be undertaken to see how the economy will be impacted as the world ponders making a full switch to solar energy and other renewable energies.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Burger, Joanna, and Michael Gochfeld. “A Conceptual Framework Evaluating Ecological Footprints and Monitoring Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, Hydro, and Geothermal”. Energy and Power Engineering 4 (2012): 303-314. Web. 04 April 2013.

Ginley, David, Martin A Green, and Collins, Reuben. “Solar Energy Conversion toward 1 Terawatt”. MRS Bulletin 33 (2008): 355-364. Web. 04 April 2013

Karakosta, Charikleia, Charalampos Pappas, and Psarras, John. “Prospects of concentrating solar power to deliver key energy services in a developing country”. International Journal of Energy and Environment 2.5 (2011): 771-782. Web. 04 April 2013.

Muralikrishna, M, and V. Lakshminarayana. “Hybrid (Solar and Wind) Energy Systems for Rural Electrification”. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3.5 (2008): 50-58. Web. 04 April 2013.

 

Ambiguous Constitutional Language; Judicial Philosophy and Establishment of Rights

Ambiguous Constitutional Language; Judicial Philosophy and Establishment of Rights

 

 

 

 

 

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Ambiguous Constitutional Language; Judicial Philosophy and Establishment of Rights

The framers wrote the constitution using general principles instead of details, and this has contributed to its ambiguity. The ambiguity of the constitution has had significant impact on policy. Judges act at their discretion when interpreting the constitution. This has meant that the interpretation has changed over the years, depending on the judges who are interpreting the constitution while making the ruling. Terms such as cruel and unusual punishment have changed over the years, as people have redefined their understanding of the terms. Other ambiguous terms in the constitution include due process of the law, freedom of speech, and unreasonable search and seizure. Although there have only been seventeen amendments to the constitution since its development, the ambiguity of the constitution has led to changes in the constitution. The different interpretations of the constitution have responded to the changing nature of the society.

The fourth amendment states, “The right of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” The ambiguity of the amendment is that it is not cleat what probable cause means. The courts have had to interpret the fourth amendment when referring to electronic technology. The amendment does not in any way mention computers or computer related technologies, since they were not present at the time. The constitution does not mention anything concerning violation of people’s security in light of the terrorist threat, which has led the government to establish counter terrorism measures that may seem to violate the fourth amendment. The courts have had to interpret the constitution to reflect the changing society. Ambiguity in the fourth amendment has led to changes in the behavior and rules of the police force. Since they are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the people maintain law and order, the police officers are often caught at crossroads when investigating some incidents and crimes. The officers decrease their level of search intensity when faced with a highly ambiguous situation (Etarno, 2003).

The fifth amendment of the constitution states in part, “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime… nor shall any person be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself…without due process of the law.” This amendment prevents a person from, voluntarily or involuntarily, implicating himself in a crime. The clause has a due process clause, which ensures that the government respects the rights of the citizens, including the protection of a person’s property. The fourth and fifth amendments are reflections of each other, in that the purposes of unreasonable search and seizures in the fourth amendment are made with the intention of forcing someone to self-incriminate himself. In Boyd v. United States, the judge noted, “compelling the owner of goods that are subject of a forfeiture proceeding to produce his own private books and papers is compelling him to be a witness against himself” (Maclin, 2012, no pg)

Despite dealing with many cases involving the fourth amendment over the years, the Supreme Court has not been able to come up with specific rules that will ensure there is consistency in its application. The Supreme Court judges are well versed with the law, and they have examined many varied court cases that require the interpretation of the constitution. However, they have not been able to identify the underlying principles of the fourth amendment. A limitation of the Supreme Court ruling may be biased towards personal values or political opinions. When dealing with an ambiguous situation, the judges are supposed to acknowledge this limitation in their ruling. The court should choose the alternative that is most likely to benefit the party that is less likely to obtain a constitutional amendment to correct the interpretation of the court, despite the judges’ feelings and beliefs concerning the case (Baker, 2009)

When interpreting the case District of Colombia v. Heller, the majority justices ruled that the judges should interpret the constitution based on its original intended meaning, thus avoiding any complexities and changes that may have happened since the constitution was adopted. Such a ruling is a limitation on the part of the judges because it does not recognize the changes that have taken place in the country, and the complex nature of the law since that time. When making the ruling in Grutter v. Bollinger the judges failed in interpreting the constitution. According to the provisions of the fourteenth amendment, states should not abridge the privileges or immunities of any citizen, deprive any person of life, liberty or property, or deny any person equal protection of the law. The law ensures that the states shall not discriminate any citizen through its laws. The government is to observe equal protection of all its citizens. In its ruling, the court generally acknowledged that it was okay to discriminate on racial grounds. It applied double principles because it would not have made the same judgment if the plaintiff were a student from a minority race. In making the decision, the court demonstrated its limitation when interpreting the constitution.

The Supreme Court is qualified to make policies based on its interpretation of the constitution. The court understands the importance of upholding and maintaining the law. Its insistence of making its rulings based on the provisions of the constitution means that it recognizes the constitution as a way of protecting the people and ensuring that they have their rights. By so doing, the Supreme Court ensures that it applies the same laws to everybody irrespective of the person’s status or position.

 

References:

Baker, A. L. (2009). Constitutional ambiguities and originalism: Lessons from the spending power. Northwestern University Law Review, 103 (2), 495-549

Eterno, J. (2003). Policing within the law: A case study of the New York City police department. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO

Leef, C. G. (2003). Does Higher Education Benefit from Racial Preference in Admissions? Retrieved from http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/grutter-v-bollinger-a-constitutional-embarrassment#axzz2SJPVXFOa

Maclin, T. (2012). The Supreme Court and the fourth amendment’s exclusionary rule. Oxford University Press

Reflection Paper

 

 

 

 

Reflection Paper

 

 

 

 

 

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Reflection Paper

Introduction

This topic is important because it will help me know more about my behavior. I may not always be aware of how I am behaving towards others, and this can affect my relationship with other people. My purpose for writing the paper is to have a greater awareness of myself and in so doing, know more about how this affects my relationship with other people in different capacities such as personal and professional life. By writing the paper, I will be able to know more about the positive and negative aspects of my behavior. I wish to enhance the positive attributes and improve on the shortcomings and other weaknesses of my behavior. I will start by conducting self-awareness based on the Enneagram. This will involve determining my style and knowing more about my behavior when working with other people. I will demonstrate action learning by identifying the practical steps I will take to enhance my behavior. I will conclude the paper by giving a brief summary, and by noting how the self-awareness exercise will affect my behavior.

Self-Assessment

The Enneagram identifies several styles, and I have identified two of which I can most relate. I am a number two based on the Enneagram. I like helping others and I care for them to the point of over giving. I appreciate and support other people. I am a number 7 because I tend to see possibilities where most people see none. I come up with many ideas and I am imaginative. I am playful, easily distracted, and easily bored, to the extent that I cannot do the same thing for a long time.

We are often assigned different projects in class, where we have to work together in groups. In most cases, people have equal participation in the project. I always tend to have different ways of looking at the situation we are facing. I will often come up with five or more ideas of completing the project, while most people will have a single idea, or at most, two ideas. This is usually beneficial for the group because it ensures that our project is unique compared to other groups. My group likes my imagination and creative thinking. Moreover, I am always looking for the positive side of a situation, especially when we have a challenging project to complete.

The fact that I am imaginative and easily distracted sometimes works against me. This is because I am not patient enough to let the members consider the feasibility of the project before coming up with a different idea. Since I am easily bored, I am not able to work on long projects. This can be frustrating to the other group members, and it has sometimes led to conflicts in the group. This often means that I am the most important person in the group when we are starting the project, but I tend to be the least favorable by the time the group is completing the project. I would like to change this behavior to ensure that I have a better relationship with the people I work with in future.

Action Learning

During the next 6-8 months, I will work towards ensuring that I understand and appreciate myself better. I will work towards enhancing my self-confidence, and having a firm belief and conviction in the things that I believe are true and right. I will create a situation, similar to the projects that we work in at school, and I will try to complete the project. I will identify a small business that is near the school, and I will try to formulate a plan of coming up with long term strategies, which will include identifying ways that the business can expand. This will take a lot of time, and it will require much dedication on my part. I will make sure that the project is long-term. Since I will do the project alone, I will set a period by which time I will have completed the project. This will mean working with one possible solution. By the end of the project, I hope I will have solved the problem of being easily distracted and bored when handling a task.

Conclusion

The purpose of the paper was to learn more about my behavior and interactions with others. I have identified the styles that suit my personality best. I have identified my areas of strengths and weaknesses. I have identified how I am able to benefit people, and the measures I can take to improve my relationships and interactions with other people. Because of this evaluation, I am now in a better position to understand people’s feelings and attitudes regarding my behavior. I will be able to rectify my behavior whenever I realize that I have become a distraction to the others. I will look for ways of ensuring that I continue contributing to the group whenever I sense boredom, especially when handling long projects.

Solar Energy

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Solar Energy

Introduction

Energy is a key requirement needed for the world to develop. Most countries in the world see energy as the most important factor needed for agricultural and industrial development (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50). As the world population grows, the demand for energy is increasingly becoming a problem. The issue of climate change along with the steady decrease of the world’s fossil energy reserves has worsened the global energy crisis. Conservation of energy, therefore involves both the careful use of currently available energy resources and the production of new energy in an environmentally friendly way. The past few years have seen a lot of emphasis placed on the latter as the use of renewable energy technology grows steadily (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50). Renewable energy sources are those that rely on primary energy sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Solar energy has proven to be a source of renewable energy that could become remarkably affordable in the years to come (Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras 771).

Discourse on solar energy usually entails three key issues; development, conservation of the environment and satisfaction of the world’s energy demands. On development, Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argue that energy is a very important factor in industrial and agricultural development (50). Additionally, the development of rural areas in lesser-developed countries hinges on the availability of affordable energy. Most developing countries suffer from energy deficits. As a result, there is a growing need to harvest renewable energy sources because of their natural availability, their affordability, their environmental friendly nature and because they cannot be exhausted (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50).

Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras argue that the world needs renewable energy, such as solar energy, to satisfy the rising demand for energy (771). To satisfy this high demand, many countries in the world have to import energy and this affects their budgets and their economies because of the high cost of energy. To deal with this problem, lesser-developed countries are choosing to harvest renewable energy. This is helping them satisfy the demand for energy. The harnessing of renewable energy is also helping these countries to sustain their economic growth and create employment (771). Burger and Gochfeld agree that there is a need to take action and deal with the rising demand for energy globally (303). They argue, “the potential interruption of energy supply provides a threat to stable economies, national security and global stability” (Burger and Gochfeld 303). The world needs to end its dependence on fossil energy and renewable energy sources could be the best solution.

Scholars have also discussed solar energy as a solution to climate change. Climate change is one of the most critical problems that the environment will face in the future (Karakosta, Pappas, and Psarras 771). The realization that green house gas emissions are destroying the atmosphere has led to the search for alternatives to fossil fuels. Scientists all over the world are conducting research into environmentally friendly energy sources with a lot of this research focusing on renewable energy (Ginley, Green, and Collins 355). Karakostas, Parras and Psarras, claim that some forms of concentrated solar energy are able to produce electricity while emitting low levels of green house gases. Climate change can be controlled and perhaps even stopped by the widespread use of solar energy.

While all scholars agree that solar energy can satisfy the world’s energy demands and control climate change, there are a few disagreements concerning the effectiveness of solar energy. Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argue that solar energy used on its own cannot quell the rising demand for energy (53). They propose that hybrid systems combining wind and solar be used to help ease the impact of seasonal highs and lows. Burger and Gochfeld pointed out that industries use fossil fuels to manufacture the materials needed to harness solar power. This means that an increased use of fossil fuels may precede the widespread use of solar energy. The purpose of reviewing this literature was to gain an understanding of the common arguments made in the discourse on solar energy. The first part of the review will summarize the studies that various scholars conducted on solar energy, the second part will address any shortcomings that were in the studies while the conclusion will address the literary gap in the studies analyzed.

Reviews

Ginley, Green and Collins argue that everyday the earth receives 162,000 terawatts (TW) of energy from the sun, and that harnessing just one terawatt could “significantly impact the overall energy balance” (355). They argue that photovoltaic systems (PV systems) are a very vital part of the future of the world’s energy. The decreased availability of fossil fuels coupled with their detrimental effects on the atmosphere is helping drive the world towards renewable energy. Solar energy provides a reliable and readily available alternative (Ginley, Green, and Collins 355). The impact of these PV systems is also spreading into the economy. Ginley, Green and Collins also argue the PV systems can be economic drivers as their production industries surpass those of the microelectronics, telecommunications and display industries (355). Their analysis into solar energy looks mostly into how scientists can improve PV systems to harness even more energy than they already do. This study is particularly significant because it addresses two issues that have not received a lot of attention; the economic impact that the PV systems have and possible improvements to the PV systems.

Karakosta, Pappas and Psarras, conducted a study looking into how solar energy can to satisfy the energy needs of a developing country (771). They argue that concentrated solar power (CSP) can deliver key energy services for the country. This would be a perfect fit for a developing country as the world turns towards sustainable development practices to mitigate the negative impact of various development programs on the environment. The sustainable character of most renewable energies means, “They are able to preserve resources and to provide security, diversity of energy supply and services, virtually without environmental impact” (Karakosta, Pappas, Psarras 771). In addition to being sustainable, solar energy can quell the acute demand for energy that almost all developing countries face. The study specifically addresses how Chile can use the vast Atacama Desert to harness solar power, as opposed to exploiting new coal reserves found in the South.

Muralikrishna’s and Lakshminarayana’s study explores the use of hybrid systems that combine wind and solar energy in rural electrification programs (50). Like the other scholars, they address three key situations concerning the global energy situation. The first is that the world’s energy demands have been rising in the past few years. The second issue is that scientists should come up with more technologies that produce energy in an environmentally friendly way. The last issue is that renewable energy sources are the solution to the current global energy crisis (Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana 50).  Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana also claim that many developing countries face energy deficits (50). PV systems and wind systems have been widely promoted as solutions to the energy deficits, but they cannot solve the problem completely because they are vulnerable to climatic seasons. Integrating and optimizing these systems can improve the reliability for each of them and reduce the cost of power (53).

Burger and Gochfeld looked into the ecological footprints that renewable energy sources leave (303). They observed that there is a need to take a careful look into the ecological footprints left by each renewable energy source as the world looks to increase the use of these sources exponentially (Burger and Gochfeld 303). There needs to be careful monitoring of the resources to understand the impacts that they have on the environment and human health. The environmental impacts should also take into consideration the effects that these energy sources have on wildlife (Burger and Gochfeld 304). Environmental and human health monitoring can judge whether energy types are truly sustainable or not (Burger and Gochfeld 305). Burger and Gochfeld developed a conceptual framework for measuring the impact of the energies on the ecological footprint (306). This framework took into account four areas, the underground, the surface, the airshed (lower atmosphere) and the upper atmosphere. Their study is particularly crucial in the discourse on renewable energies because they look into an area that has seen little research, the impact of renewable energy sources on the environment.

These four studies have taken different approaches to the issue of solar energy but still looked into the three key issues mentioned previously. First, they all looked into ways in which renewable energies such as solar energy can mitigate help mitigate climate change. The second issue that the studies looked into was how solar energy and other renewable energies can help to satisfy the rising global demand for energy. Lastly, the studies all addressed the issue of renewable energy and development by looking into how energies such as solar energy can help countries boost or sustain economic growth. The studies differed on a few issues. An example is the PV systems. While Ginley, Green and Collins claimed that the systems could significantly change the global energy situation, Muralikrishna and Lakshminarayana argued the PV systems would not work well on their own as they are vulnerable to climatic seasons. The overall conclusion, however, was that solar energy and other renewable forms of energy are the future due to their environmental friendly nature and their sustainability.

Conclusion

            These four studies have revealed that solar energy is an excellent solution to the global energy crisis due to its sustainability and the fact that it is infinite. The studies also showed that the world’s quest for sustainable development could benefit by increasing the use of renewable energies. One key issue is that there has been little documented analysis on the impact that solar energy has on the environment. It is highly likely that the impact is negligible, but it appears as if the scientific community has already made that assumption without any real research activity. Secondly, there is a shortage of information concerning the disadvantages of using solar energy. Researchers have documented a few issues like the vulnerability to climatic seasons, but there is a need to address the wider scope. Further research should be undertaken to see how the economy will be impacted as the world ponders making a full switch to solar energy and other renewable energies.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Burger, Joanna, and Michael Gochfeld. “A Conceptual Framework Evaluating Ecological Footprints and Monitoring Renewable Energy: Wind, Solar, Hydro, and Geothermal”. Energy and Power Engineering 4 (2012): 303-314. Web. 04 April 2013.

Ginley, David, Martin A Green, and Collins, Reuben. “Solar Energy Conversion toward 1 Terawatt”. MRS Bulletin 33 (2008): 355-364. Web. 04 April 2013

Karakosta, Charikleia, Charalampos Pappas, and Psarras, John. “Prospects of concentrating solar power to deliver key energy services in a developing country”. International Journal of Energy and Environment 2.5 (2011): 771-782. Web. 04 April 2013.

Muralikrishna, M, and V. Lakshminarayana. “Hybrid (Solar and Wind) Energy Systems for Rural Electrification”. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 3.5 (2008): 50-58. Web. 04 April 2013.

Rap

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Rap

The ingenuity and authenticity imposed by the musical genre of Rap is indeed overwhelming. Exemplified as one of the most influential arrays of musical compositions throughout the globe, rap music forms an essential factor in defining society. Ever since its inception in the 1970s among members of the African American community, much of the behavior exemplified by the American society, specifically the youth illustrated delinquency and as such, depicted hip hop as a musical movement that spawned an unapologetic and aberrant generation. On the other hand, hip hop music has gained popularity as among the most uplifting and appropriate tools for young people to express their emotions. Nevertheless, based on the arguments stated, it is evident that rap music sensitizes and uplifts the youth and the American society in general.

Overview of Arguments

The argument stemming on both sides regarding the influence of rap music on the society is significant. With respect to the debate, the society views music as a common influence among the youth in the society especially relating to delinquency. This is due to the influence evident within the 1980s from the sub-genres of the genre such as Gangsta Rap and West Coast Hip Hop. These sub-genres exuded the violent lifestyles of the inner-city African-American youth. With the inception of personalities such as Ice-T and groups such as Niggaz Wit Attitudes (N.W.A), and as such gained lucrative attention from the youth especially on crime, misogyny and disrespecting the police. On the other hand, the art of rap in hip hoop music alleviates inner-city African American youths into non-delinquent behavior based on the use of the genre as an expression of their innermost thoughts.

Argument against Rap

From the rise of artists such as Too Short, Ice-T, Ice Cube and other African American artists in the 1980s, it seemed that rap music would be the epitome of the American society. Most of the themes exalted in the songs at this time depicted political militancy, hatred for women and crime. Indeed, the expressiveness of rap plunged the society into a hateful community that saw the police as enemies and women as sexual objects. In addition, with the onset of the late 1980s and 1990s, rap music illustrated segregation and violence exemplified by the enmity between the East Coast and the West Coast. In addition, contemporary hip hop glorifies invalid values such as materialism and profanity and thus, further adds to immorality within the society.

Argument for Rap

Indeed, the argument for rap stems around the expression of emotions based on the use of rap as a technique within the genre. Much of the sentiments echoed in rap music revolve around the intricacies facing most youth within the society. Notably, hip hop music describes itself as a channel of anger based on the manner, in which the American society rejects the plight of youth and explores conventional thoughts such as racism and segregation. Nevertheless, hip hop music gains popular use as a technique to disseminate such boundaries and equally define the youth as a separate and distinct society that strays away from the rigid structures society barricades. Supporting rap music, it is also evident that most music genres have imposed negative connotations from the society. For instance, genres such as Rock and Roll and Jazz gained popularity as advocates for delinquency and thus, proves that the change in music always encounters difficulties and hostilities from the society with respect to the status-quo.

Conclusion

The arguments regarding rap music stem around the social derivative. In summary, both arguments focus on the social impact of the genre and as such, provide conflicting opinions that describe the main facets of the genre. Nevertheless, it is evident that rap music, similar to all other genres, possesses positive and negative aspects and as such, it is up to the society to determine whether to demystify the negative features of the genre or exemplify the positive aspects of rap music.