Summary on Family Development Theory

Summary on Family Development Theory

Name:

Institution:

 

Summary on Family Development Theory

The chapter on family development theory discusses on the changes that can be either patterned or systematic in family setups as they progress. The definition of the family unit is clearly elaborated. According to the authors, a family can be described as social group, which consists of a parent and a child (Smith & Hamon, 2012). Governing this social group requires compliance to the norms dictated by the community norms. The author explains on the history of the family cycle that has been in existence since 1777. According to the information provided, the development of the family theory was established after the World War II after its discovery by Reuben Hill (Smith & Hamon, 2012). The authors proceed to evaluate the phases that comprise the theory. This is stated to be the first approach. The phases outlined touch on families that have children, early marriage, families that children are leaving and those that lack children.

The article elaborates on the three phases considered when evaluating the aforementioned phases. They include interactional-associational, Individual-psychological and societal-institutional (Smith & Hamon, 2012). There are various arguments presented as an evaluation of the life-cycle concept. One of the arguments is by Roy Rodgers who focuses on the element of abandonment. He mentions that abandoning the cycle is more favorable in developing an oriented life course, which is part of the aspect of establishing a family career. The second argument that is presented is by Joan Aldous who reiterates on the existence of sub careers in the family context (Smith & Hamon, 2012). This sub careers include parental career, sibling career and marital career. According to the author, the influential factor that drives these careers is external and includes occupational and educational careers. The theory on the sub careers elucidates on the differences that are existence between the perspectives on family development and life course. The sole difference that stands out is the directive and focus of both theories. The life course theory focuses on the individual element where family is the focal point about the family development theory.

The chapter also provides content on the critiques that have been cited concerning the family development theory. The area of concern is the usefulness and resourcefulness of the notion as well as its structuring (Smith & Hamon, 2012). Interaction is considered though on a lesser extent. The authors also provide details on the empirical researches conducted that touch on development of the family unit as well as the correlation of variables. Variables evaluated include the satisfaction of the married persons with the family unit (Smith & Hamon, 2012). The authors delve deeper into elaborating on the limitations and difficulties experienced when conducting the research. As part of conducting a literature review or research on the topic on family development theory, the authors highlight some of the researches conducted and the main areas studied. Additionally, they discuss the application of the theory on various studies such as its effect on stress, development of schizophrenia, traumatic brain injury, and alcoholism. The applicability of the theory is thoroughly discussed. The authors state the various benefits that are gained from using the theory in therapy especially when providing assistance for persons dealing with certain life events and on time careers.

The chapter offers conclusive remarks that recaps on the discussions made as well as citing the future improvements that can be made as amendments to the family development theory. It also points out the possibility of establishing a correlation between the theory and other perspectives such as the life-course (Smith & Hamon, 2012). The integration of these two theories is likely to create a much wider scope, increase their validity and applicability.

 

References

Smith, S., & Hamon, R. (2012). Exploring family theories. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

 

 

The Stigma of Mental Health Illness

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

The Stigma of Mental Health Illness

Introduction

Individuals who suffer from mental health problems voice their concerns on the social stigma connected to their condition, as well as the discriminatory experiences they undergo making their difficulties even worse and harder to recover. Stigma shows a mark of particular disgrace with a specific circumstance, person, quality, or condition. It expresses a form of shame, ignominy, humiliation, and dishonor at the expense of the victim. Mental illness on the other hand indicates a disease that causes disturbances in thought, ranging from mild to severe, as well as behavior. The victim is thus unable to cope with the ordinary demands in life and obvious routines and abilities. There are over two hundred classified forms of mental illnesses and disorders. They range from personalities, moods, social withdrawals, and personal habits. In the world all over, cases of mental health, illnesses are common and widespread. Different communities and cultures have varied forms of dealing with the opposition towards the victim circumstances, with acceptance and rejection in equal measure. Victims of mental health illnesses suffer from stigma, while offenders point to societal rejection increasing the need to eradicate the mark of disgrace.

Discussion

Possible Causes

There are different causes to mental health illnesses experienced in humans. They can be physical, emotional, or psychological. The first instance shows that mental illnesses can be hereditary from a family setup. Blood relatives that have mental illnesses increase the certainty of genes in developing the conditions to younger offspring. Secondly, the environmental exposures at birth can contribute to development of some of the conditions. For example, toxins, drugs, alcohol, and infiltration can lead to development of the mental health condition. The third condition is the brain chemistry. In the transmission of signals from one part of the brain to the body, neurotransmitters are responsible for the functionality (West 9). Any form of impairment in the neurotransmitters is capable of causing the mental illness or certain condition. Additional causes point to stress and emotional breakdown due to aggregate factors in the surrounding. In addition, psychological deprivation also increases the chances.

Warning Signs and Symptoms

Individuals with mental illnesses usually exhibit cluster of various symptoms, which can be persistent, or life therefore interfering with everyday routines, work and life. In the adults, confused thinking, prolonged depression, feelings of extreme lows and highs are all pointers. In addition, delusion and hallucinations, suicidal thoughts and tendencies, and the growth in inability to cope with daily activities and problems that are obvious, all indicate mental health struggles (Davey 16). In the pre-adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, excessive complaints, intensive fear of gaining weight, and frequent outbursts of anger also indicate the mental health illnesses. In the younger children, changes in performance of education, hyperactivity, persistent nightmares that were never there before, frequent tantrums and tempers, as well as excessive anxiety are all alluded to issues surrounding mental health illnesses. However, all the above may vary from one individual to another, and might not be factual of the disorders.

Treatment

Treatment of mental health illnesses depends on the early prognosis of the conditions and tests done to the victims at the earliest stage before manifestation. Various medications can be used in the treatment of the conditions. Antidepressants are the most common forms of treatment drugs used in helping with depression and anxiety. They help in facilitating better moods, lack of energy, and the difficulty in concentration. Anti-anxiety medications are also used in panic disorders as well as anxiety-related conditions in the victims (Ruggiero 13). Mood stabilizers reflect on the need for arresting any bipolar tendencies as well alternations to insomnia and sleep deprivations. Antipsychotic medications are relevant for the mental disorders of schizophrenia and bipolar complications in order for the leveling of depression. They are also instrumental in calming down the nerves of the victims of mental illnesses due to their catalyst compositions.

Psychotherapy has been used in helping alleviate the conditions experienced by the victims of mental health illnesses. Different methods with distinct approaches are used in ensuring that establishment of moods, conditions, complications, and victim responses through talking are obtained. The length and duration of the sessions in the process are determined by the medial practitioners according to the extent of them as well as the response and recovery exhibited by the victims. Other forms of treatment include the brain stimulation especially for those with depression disorders. They inculcate electroconvulsive therapy and the transcranial stimulation through magnetic machinery. Hubbard (17) argues that the function is to enable the brain’s response according to simulation of the vagus nerve. The risks and benefits of the procedure are explained to the patients and family members before the procedure is carried out, as it is a delicate and expensive one.

Statistics

From the indicators and relevant studies, it is stated that one in every four individuals experiences a mental health problem or disorder at some point in their lives (Mental Health Association 1). In the children category, one in every ten can claim to have experienced mental health problems at different stages of their growth and development. One of the major causes of mental health, depression, affects one in every twelve persons in the whole population given the quadrant basing. According to Mental Health Foundation (1), in the United Kingdom for example, the rates of self-harm are highest within Europe. The figures account for almost four hundred in every a hundred thousand. In the worldwide stature, about four hundred and fifty million people suffer from mental health problems. In the United States alone, over sixty million people can be attributed to the same, on an annual basis.

Common Myths

There are several myths associated with mental health illnesses, and are varied from one culture, community, ethnic background top another. One of the common myths is that the condition only affects a select few people. Instead, the condition is prevalent in any part of the world, despite the educational level, gender, income generation, age, culture, or lifestyle basis. The second myth is that mental illnesses are caused by personal weaknesses or flaws (Harpine 16). It should be categorical to everyone that the condition is caused by biological, genetic, environmental, and social factors around all humans. The third myth is that individuals who have mental health issues and disorders never get better. The fact of the matter is that with the appropriate method and timing of treatment, majority of the victim can lead a normal live, healthy, with satisfaction, just as the normal people do.

Stigmatization

Social stigmatization is common especially towards people who exhibit any of the mental health illnesses, disorders, and concerns at any stage of their lives, growth, and development. Indeed, individuals with such complications are able to acquire a normal life, with satisfaction and abilities just as the normal people do, if only they get the appropriate treatment at the earliest stage possible. Despite the huge statistics and numbers provided for the affected persons in the societies, increased incidences of stigmatization are rampant, based on the held myths, common thoughts about their inabilities or condition, as well as cultural influences. Bharadwaj, Pai, and Suzidelyte (14) note that with the stigmatization, incidences of discrimination creep up based on the findings of the disorders and conditions of the mental health illnesses. The different aspects and experiences of the victims lead to increased chances of slower recovery or none at all in terms of progression.

Majority of the stigmatization incidents carried out from external sources, depending on the circumstances. For example, society members have varied beliefs about the victims of mental health illnesses, and therefore their treatment in the open is not ideal. Instances where the victims are mocked, shunned away, repulsed, rejected, or even avoided are a common sight to hold in the world all over. The discriminatory expletives and deliveries from the normal people are all contributors to the extent and growth of the practice amongst different cultures (Chase 22). According to the incidence rates provided from statistical analysis and carried out samplings, nine out of the ten victims who have undergone the discrimination allude to stigmatization, as the contributing factor towards the negative effects in their lives. In addition, the emotional, psychological, and physical experiences scar them for life without any help.

Some of the common struggles experienced by the victims of stigmatization affect their overall placing within the society. In the first instance, they find it hard to get employment or any reliable source of income generation due to their conditions. The normal people discriminate against them citing lack of ability and capability to execute their required roles. In matters of their personal lives, they find it difficult to get into relationships, maintain them, and enable a long-term basis in their lives with the appropriate partners (West 9). Majority of the stigmatization discourages them from attempting any advances and expression of their interests in relationships circle. Other areas that are common degradation points to the victims of mental health illnesses include housing demands and mainstream society. Housing becomes a challenge for the victims since they cannot manage to achieve the common tasks with ease.

The problem of stigmatization is complicated and made worse by victims of mental health illnesses who experience it from their family members. The family represents the basic unit of every society, and its formative elements determine the extent of the child’s growth and development in the external surrounding. In the family setup, support offered to the members who have mental health illnesses is crucial in their ability to face the external world, as well as improve their condition whiles seeking professional and medical help to alleviate the condition. In this instance, integration into the society becomes easier and acceptable. Davey (13) argues that families that stigmatize their own from a tender period increase the chances of societal rejection. The mirroring effect created from familiar surrounding is resounding proof of the discrimination experience at the external confines. The inclusion of distant and closer relatives affects the self-esteem of the victims and general ability to confront the stigmatization effects within the society.

Stigma on the part of the mental health illness victims causes different experiences and feelings. It brings about the feeling of shame, especially when the conditions rid one of the ability to execute the normal and simple functionalities and activities within the home or society. The victims began to blame themselves depending on their circumstances faced or experiences met at the initial stages. Once the experiences and feelings increase at every developmental stage, hopelessness is sure to creep in, at different times of the individual’s life. Chase (23) observes that the occurrences of distress become often and very intense especially when short durations are witnessed. Due to the burden and feeling of guilt, the victims are prone to encounter reluctance of acceptance to the situation and conditions. In addition, they shy away from ay opportunity of seeking either medical or professional help. Another factor of misrepresentation in the policy-making bodies and impact within the media, all contribute to the extended stigmatization in the society.

The impact of stigmatization in the society is amplified by the misrepresentation of the problems and policies. For example, the portrayal n the media of the victims of mental health illnesses is not affirmative. On a given incidence rate, very few or countable number of times are the issues and conditions facing the victims highlighted to the society (Hubbard 17). The very few mentions are characterized by diminutive detailing and low advice towards the other members of the society on ways of helping the victims, increasing chances of treatment of the conditions, and implementations of ways to reduce stigmatization. In terms of misrepresentation, very few governmental institutions and policies are administered with capacities to fight for the rights of the victims.

Opposition

Opposition towards the established means of stigmatization of the mental health illness victims has been an ongoing debate throughout human history. In the social stigma, offenders of the stigmatization process allude to the prejudices based on attitude of the discriminating behaviors. In this regard, due to the passed down stereotypes concerning the victims, few of the members of society are willing to eliminate the stigmatization process. For example, in the rational settings of the Asians and Africans, any mental health illness victim was considered bad omen to the community or a sign of a curse, depending on the ethnicity (Bharadwaj, Pai, and Suzidelyte 14). In addition, several steps were taken into eliminating the individual from the society at all means. This was a cruel and inhuman act to the people, as it was not their fault at all. Today, with increased civilization, technological advancements, and breakthroughs in the medical fields, the continued practice of stigmatization should be abolished.

In the second perceived stigma category, the discrimination is based on internalization of different perceptions of the victims into discriminating against them. For example, the social myths and prejudices against the victims of such conditions allude to their incapacitation towards various normal life functions. Other members of the society hold onto the common belief that such victims are incapable of executing responsibilities, thinking, and living like other normal individuals. With this prejudice, the stigmatization is witnessed in the manner of treatment, discrimination from employment opportunities, rejection and is therefore discarded from other members of society. Science has proven that apart from incapacitation, mental health illnesses victims can achieve basic functionalities just as normal people with the rightful treatment and help. Consequently, with the advent of better technologies, equipment and medical transformation, discrimination should not be condoned, as the victims can get appropriate help in time to be incorporated into the society.

The third category of stigmatization in the society is due to the fear held about the victims of mental health illnesses. Throughout history, victims of mental health illnesses have been treated differently, even to the extent of being brutalized. Hibbard (16) notes that majority of the society members view the victims as being unpredictable and violent in nature. The misguided view is responsible for the initial reception that the victims receive, especially in any circumstance of misunderstanding. The first reaction from the normal people is to get physical with the victims in order to contain them or ensure that they do not get closer. Other beliefs commonly held against the people include possession of demonic attributes or closer association with evil dimensions. The generated fear and caution increases the instances of discrimination towards the victims, without there blame at all. However, dispelling of the myths and falsehood beliefs is important in reducing the brutal nature of their treatment.

Coping with Stigma

Mental health illness victims can deal with stigma in different ways. The victims should learn not to isolate themselves. The victims should learn that keeping quite about the situation or condition without seeking help from their closest family members raises the chances of the indifferent feeling and succumbing to depression (Corbiere, Samson, and Villoti 12). Another strategy includes overcoming the mental aspect of equating oneself to the illness. Rather than calling oneself according to the condition, experts say that acceptance is easier and a better way of dealing with the issue as opposed to held fear of the unknown concerning the illness.

Victims of the conditions are also advised on joining different self-help groups as well as support ones. Different institutions within the funding of governmental and non-governmental organizations offer programs aimed at helping such individuals. Internet resources aimed at educating the society on the different conditions affecting the victims and their conditions facilitate similar programs that the victims can take advantage of and seek help. According to Corbiere, Samson and Villoti (9) increased membership of such groups also helps champion for policy-making steps towards their recognition and advocated protection. Individually, the victims should not be involved in thoughts of self-shaming and doubt.

Lastly, the victims should seek immediate treatment and tests once the conditions start manifesting in their normal lives. As stated in the treatment procedures, victims of the illnesses have every chance of attaining a normal life after adequate treatment is administered at the earliest stage possible. Therefore, regular checks and tests should help the victims on the path to recovery and avoid further stigmatization (Ruggiero 13). They are also advised to speak against stigmatization in the society in order to break down the stereotypes and prejudice. It will also help in encouraging better cooperation standards with other members of the society once the myths and falsifications about them are discussed and exposed.

Conclusion

Victims of mental health illnesses suffer from stigma, while offenders point to societal rejection increasing the need to eradicate the mark of disgrace. There s a widespread culture of stigmatization of the victims due to social attitudes, internalization of prejudice and feared attributes by the society. The different conditions of the illnesses can be treated if realized at earlier stages, and the victims return to normalcy. More efforts should be placed on the federal representation concerns of the victims, as well strict measures to ensure discrimination and stigmatization is curbed.

 

Works Cited:

Bharadwaj, Prashant, Mallesh M. Pai, and Agne Suziedelyte. Mental Health Stigma. Cambridge: UOP Press, 2014. Print.

Chase, Ronald. The Physical Basis of Mental Illness. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print.

Corbiere, Marc, Esther Samson, and Patrizia Villoti. “Strategies to fight stigma toward people with mental disorders: perspectives from different stakeholders.” Scientific World Journal, 3.1 (2012): 1-12. Print.

Davey, Graham. “Mental health and stigma.” Psychology Today 20 August 2013. Print.

Harpine, Elaine C. Group Interventions in Schools: Promoting Mental Health for At-Risk Children and Youth. New York: Springer, 2008. Print.

Hubbard, L R. Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. Los Angeles, Calif: Bridge Publications, Inc, 2007. Print.

Mental Health Association. What is Mental Illness? Triad Mental Health. Web. 15 October 2015. < http://www.triadmentalhealth.org/what-is-mental-illness/ >

Mental Health Foundation. Stigma and Discrimination. Mental Health Organization. Web. 15 October 2015. < http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/s/stigma-discrimination/ >

Ruggiero, Adriane. Mental Health. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.

West, Keon. “Rethinking mental health stigma.” European Journal of Public Health, 3.11 (2010): 1-17. Print.

 

 

Response Paper

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

Response Paper

The organization was effective in utilization of the persuasion theory in education the public over the importance of immunization. In addition, it provided the entity with a means of developing appropriate and relevant messages, which would readily influence the decisions of the target audience upon understanding the necessity of immunization in the community settings. Based on the persuasion theory, information conveyed to the audience plays the primary role in enabling them to understand the alternative decisions and outcomes of each respective choice made.

By using the media, program partners and physicians, the entity was able to achieve its anticipated goals and objectives of increasing the number of immunizations within the identified community setting (The Franklin County Hospital Council 2). Additionally, these provided the identified stakeholders namely the physicians, program partners, and media with a sense of shared responsibility in enabling an increase in the number of immunizations in Ohio. The utilization of a strategic public relations approach that was reliant on external and internal management of public relations activities ensured adequacy and effectiveness in coordination of the public relations program.

The use of quantitative research enabled an overview of the incidence of lack of immunizations in Ohio. The research was effective in illustrating the prevalence of lack of immunizations and the possible implications this would have for communities in Ohio (The Franklin County Hospital Council 2). Moreover, the utilization of numerous stakeholders can be termed as ethical, given that the primary intention was to eliminate the risks of spread of a variety of diseases presumed controlled. The planning, research conducted, evaluation, and communication with all potential and necessary stakeholders was efficacious in enabling the achievement of set out goals and objectives of immunization of children in Ohio.

 

Works Cited

The Franklin County Hospital Council. A Shot of Success: Public Relations Drives Solution to Community Immunization Problem. New York: Public Relations Society of America, 2004. Print.

Hawaii’s Last Queen

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

Hawaii’s Last Queen

Part 1

Question 1

Is it true that Queen Liliuokalani was misled into abolishing the Bayonet Constitution?

  1. Yes because the proposers wanted to trap her
  2. No since she did it on her own volition
  3. No because she was answerable to the two main political parties who had shown support for the move hence she wanted to appease them
  4. Yes because supporters of this move were beholden to the sugar barons

Question 2

What was the main motivation of her imprisonment under house Arrest?

  1. Her alteration of the constitution
  2. Her frequent opposition trips abroad denouncing the overthrow
  3. Her incitement of the public through the various compositions she made
  4. The sugar merchant’s determination to limit her influence over the citizens in order for them to profit from the annexation through trade (Senegalandbukinofaso 1).

Question 3

What do the Blount and Morgan reports establish about the annexation of Hawaii?

  1. America’s overthrow of Hawaii was legal
  2. The overthrow was a response to the needs of the citizens who needed a democratic style of governance in their kingdom
  3. America acted illegally in the forced abdication of the queen and overthrow of the duly elected officials
  4. Both C and D because the former identified the actions as an invasion of a sovereign territory while the latter justified its actions as a form of defense of US citizens who were threatened by foreigners abroad.

Part 2

Question 1

The queen was justified in her relentless pursuit for the US to apologize for its role in her annexation

  1. True
  2. False

Question 2

The overthrow of the Hawaiian queen was a divisive issue due to the economic rather than the moral variable

  1. True
  2. False

 

 

Work Cited

Senagalandburkinofaso. Hawaii’s Last King. Dailymotion. December 15, 2006. web. October 15, 2015.

Summary and Analysis

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

Summary and Analysis

In the video Fixing the System, it becomes evident of the presence of inequality, injustice and biased in access to appropriate legal assistance and justice for a large number of incarcerated individuals in the United States. In addition, the video makes an important note of the incarceration of a large number of non-violent offenders, leading to overcrowding of prisons and large expenses by the department of justice seeking to sustain this trend. In addition, it is important to that the system is inherently discriminatory given the excessive number of minorities who are incarceration in the United States. The primary issue noted in the video is the high incidence of over-incarceration in the United States due to discrimination, which leads to altercations between the justice system and the population as evidence by recent clashes between law enforcement and civilians in Fergusson, Missouri.

The video also explores the incidence of discrimination propagated by the justice system through law enforcement agencies, especially against minority communities. The discrimination and stereotyped behavior as exercised by the law enforcement agencies in the video and more so the entire justice system, is based on prejudices such as race and social status. Laws instituted by the justice system such as mandatory minimums have contributed to unnecessary incarceration of individuals who should only be serving relatively short sentences for non-violent crimes that are prevalent across all social classes and races in the United States.

The overarching message from the video is the need to proffer harsh judgments and sentences to presumed offenders irrespective of the magnitude of a crime based on the premise of mandatory minimum sentences. Fixing the justice system in the United States would amount to reevaluation and institution of new policies, which would take into consideration new challenges such as racial discrimination and social stereotypes.

Beyond the Isolated Nuclear Family

Beyond the Isolated Nuclear Family

Name:

Institution:

 

Beyond the Isolated Nuclear Family

In the chapter ‘Structural Functionalism Theory of Family’, Smith and Hamon (2012) analyze the theory when it was in preeminence. Structural functionalism was the premier paradigm on family in the 1950s. The leading proponents of the theory during its prominence were Talcott Parsons and his students. To them, the social evolution of the institution of family was consistent with society’s transition from an agricultural to industrial society. Similarly, the post World II family had metamorphosed from an extended to isolated nuclear. This entailed cutting off kinship ties subsequently waning the influence of blood ties on the family matters. The emphasis of privacy was the primary differentiation from its previous form (Smith & Hamon, 2012). However, the key members of this new family model maintained the fundamental aspects of its previous form. The husband was the task leader and provider of the home whereas the wife functioned as the homemaker and nurturer for the former and their children. The pursuit of career achievement by the wife was against the norm. Having accomplished her designated roles, she could engage in community development. The man was the ultimate authority in the household. The model thrived owing to the economic prosperity of the era. The family had alternative sources of livelihood that gave them financial freedom. They did not require harnessing the utility of relatives akin to the agricultural period. The nuclear family was virtually self-sufficient. The overlying principle of structural functionalism was the adherence to the existing norms.

The key tenets of this theory had multiple shortcomings. Parsons assumed that society has reached the peak of industrialization hence the family was correspondingly at its zenith of evolution. He did not contemplate the possibility of the family structure advancing beyond its current state. The change in family structure was uniform across the cultural paradigm. This meant that nations with extended families would strive towards the United States’ exalted ideals and values. Another deficiency of the theory was it diminished the capability of human agency. It posited that political, economic, and demographic factors defined the cultural dictates. An individual had no alternative but to conform (Smith & Hamon, 2012). It did not consider the problem solving potential of people in response to unique circumstances. Hence, when changes emerged in the family structure owing to empowerment of individuals to make decisions pertaining to sexuality, marriage, divorce, and abortion, SF termed them as deviations.  It could offer no better explanation. This marked the begining of the decline of Parson’s structural differentiation. The family evolved following the trajectory of independence from kinship ties but with multiple combinations outside the isolated nuclear model.

The SF theory had been officially discarded in favor of alternative theories that could better explain the aforementioned changes. Despite conservatives’ efforts to increase the longevity of the paradigm, it remained terminal. They posited that conformity is the basis of social order and deviance would lead to social pathology (Smith & Hamon, 2012).The new sociological questions arose to answer the innovative actions by individuals. In contemporary society there is a recent transition back to the tenets of SF. Theorists attempt to explain the behavior that contravenes the norms in a branch called dysfunctional deviance. For instance, children from broken families are prone to be deviants. Though almost no theorists proclaim association with theory, the above testifies of its enduring impact. In retrospect Parson’s main fallibility was underestimating the concept of human agency, a mistake that contemporary theorist s aspire to evade. The theory has nonetheless tried to adapt to recent developments.

 

Reference

Smith, S. R. & Hamon, R. R. (2012). Exploring family theories. Oxford University Press, USA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beyond the Isolated Nuclear Family

Name:

Institution:

 

Beyond the Isolated Nuclear Family

In the chapter ‘Structural Functionalism Theory of Family’, Smith and Hamon (2012) analyze the theory when it was in preeminence. Structural functionalism was the premier paradigm on family in the 1950s. The leading proponents of the theory during its prominence were Talcott Parsons and his students. To them, the social evolution of the institution of family was consistent with society’s transition from an agricultural to industrial society. Similarly, the post World II family had metamorphosed from an extended to isolated nuclear. This entailed cutting off kinship ties subsequently waning the influence of blood ties on the family matters. The emphasis of privacy was the primary differentiation from its previous form (Smith & Hamon, 2012). However, the key members of this new family model maintained the fundamental aspects of its previous form. The husband was the task leader and provider of the home whereas the wife functioned as the homemaker and nurturer for the former and their children. The pursuit of career achievement by the wife was against the norm. Having accomplished her designated roles, she could engage in community development. The man was the ultimate authority in the household. The model thrived owing to the economic prosperity of the era. The family had alternative sources of livelihood that gave them financial freedom. They did not require harnessing the utility of relatives akin to the agricultural period. The nuclear family was virtually self-sufficient. The overlying principle of structural functionalism was the adherence to the existing norms.

The key tenets of this theory had multiple shortcomings. Parsons assumed that society has reached the peak of industrialization hence the family was correspondingly at its zenith of evolution. He did not contemplate the possibility of the family structure advancing beyond its current state. The change in family structure was uniform across the cultural paradigm. This meant that nations with extended families would strive towards the United States’ exalted ideals and values. Another deficiency of the theory was it diminished the capability of human agency. It posited that political, economic, and demographic factors defined the cultural dictates. An individual had no alternative but to conform (Smith & Hamon, 2012). It did not consider the problem solving potential of people in response to unique circumstances. Hence, when changes emerged in the family structure owing to empowerment of individuals to make decisions pertaining to sexuality, marriage, divorce, and abortion, SF termed them as deviations.  It could offer no better explanation. This marked the begining of the decline of Parson’s structural differentiation. The family evolved following the trajectory of independence from kinship ties but with multiple combinations outside the isolated nuclear model.

The SF theory had been officially discarded in favor of alternative theories that could better explain the aforementioned changes. Despite conservatives’ efforts to increase the longevity of the paradigm, it remained terminal. They posited that conformity is the basis of social order and deviance would lead to social pathology (Smith & Hamon, 2012).The new sociological questions arose to answer the innovative actions by individuals. In contemporary society there is a recent transition back to the tenets of SF. Theorists attempt to explain the behavior that contravenes the norms in a branch called dysfunctional deviance. For instance, children from broken families are prone to be deviants. Though almost no theorists proclaim association with theory, the above testifies of its enduring impact. In retrospect Parson’s main fallibility was underestimating the concept of human agency, a mistake that contemporary theorist s aspire to evade. The theory has nonetheless tried to adapt to recent developments.

 

Reference

Smith, S. R. & Hamon, R. R. (2012). Exploring family theories. Oxford University Press, USA.

 

 

 

Nursing

Nursing

Name:

Institution:

 

Nursing

The difference between a group “at risk” for poor health to ‘vulnerable” population, is the common identified risk exposure to a threat on health. For example, a vulnerable population can be expressed as adults who face the threat of cardiovascular diseases due to being hypertensive and overweight. On the other hand, population at risk can be expressed as group of people with tendencies o smoking developing the risk of contracting lung cancer. The group at risk is evidenced by the homogeneity of exposure levels while that of vulnerable population is evidenced by the common identified risk due to containing the health threat (Huber, 2010). Members of the vulnerable populations cannot advocate for themselves due to the potential risk associated with their conditions. I would advocate for preventative measures and information at the very instant that the risks are identified and the potential groups at risks as well as vulnerable populations.

Nurses can apply various strategies of cultural competencies in their practice through cultural preservation, accommodation, repatterning, and brokering (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2014). Preservation is through using cultural methods that are scientific like acupuncture in Chinese patients. Cultural accommodation uses the facilities and support mechanisms of cultural practice like placing a coin on the umbilicus of Latino children. Cultural repatterning involves working with the patient in order to help change harmful cultural practices like abstinence of certain harmful herbs. Cultural brokering is the ignoring of different cultural differences in order to give health care like mentoring on the adoption of different cultural strategies amongst different patients. Possible barrier in the application of a cultural strategy like accommodation can be religious views with the patient as well as communication. The hesitance from the patient would scupper any success.

 

References

Huber, D. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management. Maryland Heights, Mo: Saunders.

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2014). Community & public health nursing. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby.

Exploding Dreams

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

Exploding Dreams

Lorraine Hansberry’s play  A Raisin in the Sun and “A Dream Deferred “  a poem by Langston Hughes’s converge to show the similar struggle that a man of color experienced in the pre-Civil Rights Movement era. The two writers both highlight the importance of dreams that the African American community has been denied to actualize. The two authors attempt to inspire social change through their art. They posit that dreams of these individuals cannot be ignored as they result in dire repercussions regardless the course of action taken. While Hughes the suggests a number of possible reactions to dreams deferred and its inevitable conclusion, Hansberry illustrates the financial and social constraints that result from this delay, the only way to remedy it.

All the characters in Hansberry’s play have individual dreams despite the obvious impediments. The institutionalized and overt racism inhibits the family’s capability to achieve their dreams. The money inherited from their deceased father is leveraged as they opportunity to advance closer to their dreams (Sutton 13). Although the father died before witnessing his aspirations for better living conditions for their family, it is going to occur. This shows the longevity of a dream deferred. Rather than die with its owner, the dream is passed on to the next generation in form of finances. In the same fashion, Walter hopes to live Travis a better legacy. Medeana, already in college, sees a chance to pursue a career in medicine. Walter wishes to emulate the lifestyle of the prosperous clients he chauffeurs; subsequently, resolving the social problems in his family. His relationship with his wife is plummeting, hopefully after investing in a liquor store; they will have a brighter future. Though Walter’s purpose is disillusioned by the allure of material success, he is an enterprising individual. He knows that the depressed Blacks are bound to drown their sorrows under the bottle making a liquor store a promising investment.

Enlightenment helps to solidify one’s resolve. The girl has exposure to both her cultural African heritage and the perspectives of the elite African American. She recognizes her true worth, the gravity of her purpose in more pronounced (Sutton 23). Her Nigerian love interest helps her to aspire for independence and shed off her unconscious chains of complacency. The matriarch of the younger family is the only one that exhibits the real meaning of an exploding dream. To her financial success is a mere means to their inevitable end, freedom. Her wealth of experience from two generations informs her intelligent worldview. Her lines corroborate Hughes’s theory of the dream evolving with time.

The main impediment to achieving their dream is epitomized by institutional racism and overt racism. Mr. Karl Lindner, the envoy from Clybourne Park’s White association embodies the overt racism that the family faces. The said man aims to capitalize on the desperation of the family to hinder their movement into their posh neighborhood (Sutton 26). The housing system has institutionalized discrimination to the extent that moving to a good neighborhood is a risk. The term good housing contrasts the dangers it accompanies as elucidated by the Younger’s neighbors. As Walter’s ending remarks suggest, fighting for a cause is considered a threat to the social stability. The family recognizes that to achieve their dreams they have to challenge the existing social order. Complacency facilitates the sun, racial discrimination, in drying the said grapes into raisins. Walter in a defining moment realizes honor is an enduring legacy than material wealth. Concomitantly, standing up one’s rights, good housing is the only path to self-actualization.

 

Works cited

Sutton, Gabriel. “Theme Analysis: Lorraine Hansberry’s” A Raisin in the Sun”.” (2011).

 

 

Role of Information Technology in the Organization

Role of Information Technology in the Organization

Name:

Institution:

 

Table of Contents

Abstract 3

Introduction. 4

Scope of the Paper 5

How the company uses IT. 5

How IT helps to address challenges now.. 10

Future of IT in the Organization. 12

Conclusion. 12

 

 

Abstract

This paper discusses the role played by information technology in eth organization. Companies are increasingly adopting IT as the preferred solution for their existing and emerging challenges. This is because IT offers a wide range of solutions including flexibility, adaptability, and interconnectivity. Software developers have taken advantage of these and other benefits of IT to create applications that ease business activities, reduce redundancy, and generate reports of analyzed data. The paper will focus on the strategies and systems adopted by Google Inc.

 

Role of Information Technology in the Organization

Introduction

The magnitude of corporate information technology (IT) infrastructure has augmented significantly over the last ten years. With numerous firms, it has relocated from buildings containing several servers to advanced data centers harboring tens of thousands of super computers. In the early 90s, networked storage was unheard of but which currently accounts for the biggest expenses in major IT organizations. This massive infrastructural and conceptual change is largely motivated by several appeals. Infrastructure administers the applications that deal with transactions, processes the consumer data that generate market forecasts, and supports the logical applications that assist executives arrive at and convey the decisions controlling complex organizations. Largely, infrastructure has facilitated a greater part of the corporate rise and mounting productivity in the last decade. However, the omnipresent nature of these networking, backup, and computing technologies gives off the impression that IT infrastructure is a necessary product and service (Glaser, & Salzberg, 2011). This is an oversight.

It is true that components such as backup servers and storage as well as support processes have been stripped of value and commodified extensively. Despite that, a functional infrastructure operation fosters value by making sensible choices concerning which technologies to adopt and the best way of integration. Technology solutions acquired from a vendor may be highly commodified. Conversely, the competence to combine hardware, applications, and support to create the optimum arrangement of expenditure, durability, and features for new applications cannot be distributed arbitrarily (Taylor, 2004). Particularly in the current age, where every cost and financial item is subjected to detailed inspection, infrastructure figureheads must collaborate with business leaders and software developers to produce potential points of value, reach a consensus on priorities, and gauge not only the expenditure but also the effect of infrastructure.

Scope of the Paper

This paper is prepared to discuss the technical and functional aspects of information technology implemented at Google Inc. In particular, the paper will analyze the way in which Google has used its IT infrastructure to support business strategy and achieve competitive advantages. Apart from this, the paper will propose the various ways through which information technology can assist in tackling challenges faced by Google Inc.

How the company uses IT

Google Inc. has been one of the top internet-based product and service provider that has implemented various aspects of information technology in its business activities that has resulted in more advantages for the company compared to its competitors. Initially, when Google was starting up, nearly every aspect of business was carried out manually including calculations, inventory, distribution, and manufacturing. In this context, Google operated for several years between 1995 and 1999 in a small capacity. Most of the work was done by a single employee who administered all the company’s needs from a garage office. Storage and access to internet resources was a significant challenge. Since Google was started while the founders were still in college, they had launched it on the college’s servers. However, with increased popularity that generated an increased user volume, Google eventually overwhelmed the Stanford bandwidth. This created backup and service provision problems. The increased demand for online search engine services prompted the relocation of the company to bigger premises as well as the recruitment of seven more employees. In 2000, Google made sweeping decisions in favor of dedicated applications that would enhance the quality of services offered to Google clients.

Google’s approach towards management in the 1990s was focused on the conventional approach that involved a hierarchy of project managers who supervised over engineers who were considered their subordinates. This company structure was not in line with one of the founders, Larry Page. Page proposed that adoption of sweeping radical changes in the way supervision and the development of products and services were to be done. These new changes in the working environment encouraged innovation, creativity, and independence among the engineers. By 1998, the effects of management change were evident (Bouwman, 2005). During this period, Google’s engineers developed the Google Toolbar as well as Chrome browser and much later, the Android (Chan, Cheung &Liu, 2008).

Most of Larry’s strategies revolved around increasing efficiency within the workplace, maximizing on the existing resources, and encouraging creativity in all activities including science. A significant number of his approaches towards management and production have been maintained until today. In 1999, the approach taken by most large internet and IT firms such as Amazon, Yahoo, and eBay acquired bigger server space in anticipation of increased consumer traffic (Glaser, & Salzberg, 2011). The trend was to acquire complete servers and stored them in physical cages in massive warehouses controlled by third-party vendors (Chan et al., 2008). Theses warehouse companies were responsible for maintaining the power bills, air conditioning, and security. Google’s minimalist approach involved reducing unnecessary expenses and improving profit margins using all techniques. Therefore, its company engineers set to maximize the number of servers in the warehouses by stripping them down and assembling new ones. This marked the start of independent engineering initiatives by Google that contributed towards independence and market differentiation (Chan et al., 2008).

Google has also adopted information technology solutions to assist in addressing the human resource challenges that affected employee’s productivity and communication. Conventionally in business, Google Inc.’s policies and processes were formulated and conveyed by human beings employed in the human resources department, an approach that eliminated any participation of line employees. Google perceived its employees as the genuine subject matter experts. Consequently, the company maximized on its shared document technology to exclude all elements of the top-down approach in decision-making. Within the company, most, if not all, of the problems at a certain layer of management or operations are solved by the individuals at that level (Bouwman, 2005). These groups of engineers or designers leverage different software suites that facilitate people to generate spreadsheets and documents in real time. Furthermore, these groups of employees enjoy teleconferencing facilities that enhance collaboration with other peers in the United States, India, and Ireland. The collaborative features allow for bigger groups of information gathering, opinions, and reviews as well as the development of an idea until its perfection or completion. In this way, the information technology adopted by Google benefits the company in two ways (Hunter & Tan, 2007). First, it fosters increased collaboration and cooperation between and among the colleagues. Two, this type of cooperation supersedes the conventional types since it transcends the obstacles created by distance. It also rises above the challenges of creativity normally experienced in organizations with a smaller number of employees (Chan et al., 2008).

Still on communication, Google Inc. has managed to infuse information technology and communication in the operations within the firm as well as external contact between the organization and consumers. Nearly all the meetings held among Google members employ their own communication applications that include Google Hangouts, GMail, You Tube, and Google Plus to accommodate absent or distant employees, as well as those posted in other stations. Regardless of their location, people attending a meeting have the alternative of using cameras on their multiple devices and communicate face-to-face with whomever they want (Bouwman, 2005). However, it is interesting to note that even with all the technology and gadgets available at their disposal, Google employees still find time to have ordinary communication session without the aid of devices. Once every week, the top executives meet in town halls to compare notes and ideas (Salazar, & Sawyer, 2007).

Google has also implemented information technology in the manufacturing and distribution functions within their ranks. The company has embraced a similar approach to that adopted by Dell in refining and familiarizing their operations and departments for dominantly digital systems that are integrated with the internet. Rather than the conventional distribution chains and assembly plants, Google’s supply networks comprise of storage devices, servers, switches, data centers, and fiber networks. From this viewpoint, Google’s business model is very similar to that of Dell’s (Bouwman, 2005). Google’s main objective is to offer search results as well as information in the fastest and cheapest way possible. To that extent, Google’s business model has been enriched through the inclusion of information technology that improved the accuracy of results, the speed of retrieving a results web page, and the cost of conducting searches (Salazar, & Sawyer, 2007).

Google still has a long way to go in terms of offering optimal results for their search engine. However, they are satisfactory when compared to their competitors. The company currently occupies 64 percent of the global search market. Frequently, a typical Google query can be a fruitless act but most users overlook this flaw since the results are quick. Most results are wrong but users just start the process again. The concept behind Google’s search engine is fast results in the browsers are enough motivation to deter users from switching to a competitor’s search engine (Bouwman, 2005). This strategy supersedes the element of effective software methodology. The quicker and more resourceful its infrastructure, the easier Google can keep attract and benefit from the ad-based niche. In other words, Google’s main objective is to ensure that the search engine is always fast in generating results. A random query on Google takes between 0.15 to 0.07 seconds. This is a fast performance compared to industrial standards.

Clearly, the search engine is Google’s main source of income. The search engine model is enhanced using an information technology strategy called indexing on the Internet. The advanced indexing strategies used by Google enable them to deliver search results at fast speeds, and this demands infrastructure (Bouwman, 2005). In particular, it requires a massive amount of bandwidth as well as dedicated hardware that are designed to handle internet traffic. Against this environment, it is prudent for Google to assemble their own servers, internet switches, storage systems and possibly acquire their own optical transport facilities in the future. The typical IT infrastructure for Google contains interconnected hosts including server systems and storage facilities at high speeds of 10 GB/s that are linked in a way that permitted any-to-any associations. The amount of stands, cables, routers, and related devices in between is astonishing. If the Google system were assembled using equipment from industrial hardware manufacturers, it would be virtually impossible for the personnel to make it work (Bouwman, 2005). In other words, the utter expense to maintain such an assembly online would consume significant resources from the infrastructure. An enhanced alternative is to acquire equipment that is modified for the specific organizational processes. In particular, these should be processes that the company has a greater operational advantage. Many of the firms in the telecommunications sector have been rendered bankrupt by overwhelming operational costs. Apart from optical systems, Google has developed or acquired most of their equipment. Google has been cited as a customer of dark fiber to link its data centers. This investment cost the company approximately $3.8 billion to acquire. Economists and computer experts have argued that assembling adapted equipment is an expensive approach. However, a company of Google’s magnitude, expending funds on security and efficiency is hardly an issue. This is because developing a process-optimized system ensures that the company maintains the costs of providing search engine services down. To conclude everything, Google’s massive infrastructure is a significant barrier to entry for other competitors, and the company spends billions of corporate funds to maintain this gap. However, the company should also learn something else from Dell, the company from which they borrowed their model.

How IT Helps to Address Challenges Now

Information technology is one of the tools that firms employ to tackle management, personnel, and industry-specific problems. The whole procedure of problem solving entails collecting and analyzing data, and then presenting alternatives that solve a challenge in the business. Decision-making requires technological instruments that assist management and other departments in their decisions. There is a close relationship between decision making and information technology within the organization. One of the ways through which information technology addresses organizational challenges is through management of resources through enterprise resource planning software (ERP). This application used for business management purposes collects and analyzes business activities such as marketing, inventory, and product planning. Most of the developers of ERPs are progressively altering this application to serve the specific demands of organizations. Multinational corporations including Google already exploit ERP to offer solutions to efficiency challenges across different departments as well as productivity issues among personnel. Where an obstacle emerges in the business procedures, management uses ERP software to generate the most appropriate solutions that could solve the issue. At the customer level, ERP software can greatly improve the consolidation of marketing and sales data by collecting the information from different sales points and processing it to generate chats, graphs and other processed data. Some of the common ERP software used in the industry includes Adaxa Suite, LedgerSMB, and Tryton.

Information technology also has the capability to ease the process of collecting business data and processes for further analysis. Large firms have the luxury of recruiting employees and running a whole department dedicated to business analytics. This implies that with access to updated and accurate data, an organization can use IT solutions and experienced employees to analyze the business as a whole. Smaller companies immensely enjoy the benefits of such software since the owner takes up many other roles including that of the analyst. The software has the added advantage of reducing costs related to employing extra employees such as consultants. These smaller companies can process a massive amount of data that can guide future decisions. For instance, the software can collect the annual, monthly, and weekly sales figures, process these numbers and make future projections concerning the company’s performance. The results of such software can also guide the stakeholders on the best area to increase their efforts and salvage their business (Laudon, & Brabston, 2015).

One of the most advanced uses of information technology in the organization is the use of decision support systems. These information systems offer decision-making solutions for activities by combining computer intelligence and human skills and compiling the results in a format that can be understood by management executives. The concept of DSS has been in existence for long but with the development of the internet and increased dependence on computerized systems, the role played by these equipment and software in assisting executives make relevant decisions has increased drastically. DSS systems can also work to collect raw data and synthesize it in a way that can predict business problems that cannot be processed by the human brain. The DSS also has artificial intelligence that is useful in fields that require creativity since it can generate applicable solutions (Wallace, 2013).

Future of IT in the Organization

In the future, it is predicted that the significance of information technology in the organization is bound to increase drastically. Currently, specialized software that carry out unique tasks for the major processes are being used by managers and employees. This trend is set to increase as more software developers emerge (Laudon, & Brabston, 2015). Within organizations that deal predominantly with internet and digital content such as Google, Yahoo, and Amazon, the future is filled with massive opportunities. This is because they already possess advanced software and hardware infrastructure that can only be improved with research and development. One of the aspects that will definitely be embraced is cloud computing (Glaser, & Salzberg, 2011). Google has already started the process of transferring their storage system from traditional servers into cloud storage. Cloud systems have infinite facilities including offering virtual devices and interconnectivity (Wallace, 2013). The future of IT will also have aspects of increased collaboration among firms dealing with the same products and services.

Conclusion

The increasing role of information technology in the 21st century has contributed greatly towards expanding the presence of corporate entities, realization of organizational objectives, and the creation of new niches within the existing ones. Google Inc. represents one of the modern companies that have embraced information technology in their business activities as well as other operations. Google has adopted IT in their communication networks among employees and customers. Within their workplace, performance is enhanced using applications such as Hangouts and GMail for information sharing and collaboration. The firm has also invested in sophisticated hardware partially or fully developed by internal engineers (Wallace, 2013). This approach is initially expensive but Google balances off the costs by maximizing on their fast access to query results on their search engines. The future of organization sis definitely determined by the pace at which managers can adopt emerging IT products and services. Cloud computing is one of the few popular innovations that will be exploited to increase server storage and backup capacity (Laudon, & Brabston, 2015). Lastly, Google’s decision to adopt a fully computerized system also acts as an appropriate competitive strategy. The vast assembly of information technology infrastructure acts as a barrier to entry for smaller firms.

 

References

Top of Form

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Top of Form

Bouwman, H. (2005). Information and communication technology in organizations: Adoption, implementation, use, and effects. London: SAGE.

Chan, M.-C., Cheung, R., Liu, J. N. K., & International Conference of Information Management. (2008). Challenges in information technology management. Singapore: World Scientific.

Glaser, J. P., & Salzberg, C. (2011). The strategic application of information technology in health care organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hunter, M. G., & Tan, F. B. (2007). Strategic use of information technology for global organizations. Hershey, PA: IGI Pub.

Laudon, K. C., & Brabston, M. E. (2015). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm. Toronto: Pearson.

Salazar, A., & Sawyer, S. (2007). Handbook of information technology in organizations and electronic markets. New Jersey: World Scientific.

Taylor, J. (2004). Managing information technology projects: Applying project management strategies to software, hardware, and integration initiatives. New York: American Management Association.

Wallace, P. M. (2013). Information systems in organizations: People, technology, and processes. Boston: Pearson.

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

 

Bottom of Form

 

Bottom of Form

 

TED Talks: A Critical Analysis

Name:

Tutor:

Course:

Date:

TED Talks: A Critical Analysis

Hanna Rosin Presentation Analysis

Hanna Rosin’s presentation about the reversed gender roles and economic status in the society is quite revealing of the effects of modernization and the rise of the female gender. She claims that women have become economically superior to men in the work places, as they are bagging the best career positions. Women have become the men of the household in terms of providing for the basic needs. This does not stop here, as young girls in schools are performing better academically. It is true that women have risen in the society, as the economy ahs shifted and the once female related jobs are now marketable, as the manufacturing industry has faced out men. To add to her observations, I think that this gender reversal has been caused by the glorification and empowerment of the girl child, which is subconsciously sidelining the men. This issue should be addressed, as when the boy child is neglected, there will be various social implications that might not be attractive.

Norman Spack Presentation Analysis

In his talk, Norman Spack addresses the issue of sex changes in adolescents and adults as well in today’s society. He claims that by the time a child hits puberty, and feel that they are in the wrong body, chances are that he or she will eventually become a transgender, at whatever age in life. I agree with his perspective, as puberty is the onset of adulthood. Therefore, it is considered the beginning of assuming gender roles. The society has been socialized in a manner that there are various expectations of gender roles naturally assigned to an individual. This explains the constant pressure a child feeling trapped in the supposedly wrong body endures. These children go through intrinsic battles trying to figure out the way forward when they perform a sex change, largely because the society has not yet fully accepted those who go through sex changes. Norman’s presentation is quite useful as it provides deeper insights into the sex change phenomenon.