RE: Interview of Judge Thomas Ambro

To: MSM

From:

RE: Interview of Judge Thomas Ambro

Date:

Hallo, can you please start by telling me your full names? “Hallo, yes of course I am Judge Thomas L. Ambro” the judge responded as the interview kicked off. I am going to ask you a few questions about you and your career hoping to shed some light on the reasons why you pursued the discipline the benefits derived from the practice. So, can you please tell me your current occupational basis? Where do you work, is it with a firm, the military, the government judicial system or for a business organization? The judge responded by stating his first base of operation which was in the private at the law firm at the law firm of Richards, Layton and Finger (Zelden 295). However, the judge said that his office is currently in the United States Court of Appeal.

The next question was on what motivated Judge Ambro to becoming a judge. His response was thoughtful as he recalled the past for about thirty seconds. He broke this silence by saying that his first encounter that of business law was the root to his career. “I like what I do and who I do it with” he responded. For how long have you been a lawyer and in what areas do you mainly focus? Have you at any point in your career switched your areas of practice? He had been a lawyer for 24 years at the law firm of Richards, Layton, and Finger where his focus was on business law and bankruptcy. He proudly responded. However, judge Ambro said he advanced as a judge where he has been for the past 15 years in the United States Court of Appeal for the Third Circuit (Zelden 295).

What do you like most about practicing law? He takes a moment, “I like what I do, and my principle for fair judgment always makes the practice relevant.” Moreover, Judge Ambro said that the cases are very interesting and working with pro-active colleagues who have similar interests makes him enjoy the practice. What do you dislike about the practice of law? “Well, over the years lawyers and judges use the position to concentrate resources for personal gain through corruption and manipulation without adherence to the stated policies” was his response. He argued that the people trusted with a duty to end the prevalent nature of corruption are the ones who promote it. This builds a negative perception on the part of the clients or suspects who consider all judges as part of the corrupt (Zelden 125).

In the many years of your career as a lawyer and a judge, what was the most intriguing case you worked on? What was your worst case? “My favorite case was that of Fair v. Rumsfeld in 2004.” The military forced the students to relay a message they rejected. Judge Ambro after great thought said that he did not have a case he resented since all offered new challenges. Is a lawyer happy being a lawyer? I asked. His response was immediate stating that as much as their practice is within the confines of the law, a lawyer is happy. Before interviewing the judge, my perception was that the law was straightforward and easy, but after the interview, I learnt that the practice has numerous faults within it. Judge Ambro advised that to achieve in law, a person must have perseverance and integrity.

 

Work Cited

Top of Form

Zelden, Charles L. The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2007. Internet resource.

Bottom of Form

Policy Recommendation Paper

Policy Recommendation Paper

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Institution:

 

 

Policy Recommendation Paper

Description of the Policy Recommendation and Rationale

The policy provided is aimed at improving the social and environmental conditions of schools, thereby reducing incidences of bullying. one of the recommended policies is the mitigation of effects of bullying through including every stakeholder to participate in the process of interaction and communication. As such, it becomes necessary for students to interact in a way that reduces discrimination, which is one of the chief causes of bullying. Storey, Slaby, & Donelly (2011) state that an avenue of respect and tolerance will go a long way in helping stakeholders to let their issues be known to others, which will bring about efforts to achieve solutions. The policy will involve strategic forums carried out within the education institutions, and those that allow equal chance for stakeholders to speak, thereby airing their problems. It may be particularly challenging for younger people, as they experience more trouble communicating thoughts and emotions about their situations.

As such, it is important to have a psychologist who will be able to facilitate this type of communication. It is crucial for figures of authority such as teachers, parents, and community leaders to emphasize and encourage young people to speak out and present their issues. The meetings can be held within the school auditoriums or other large halls, which allow sufficient space to allow people to attend and participate. Depending on the type of institution, environment, and population, education leaders will be able to determine the frequency of these meetings. For instance, at risk children, such as those who do not come from stable homes, and those who come from a lower economic demographic are more likely to face social issues dealing with bullying. As such, schools, which have large proportions of such children, should hold more meetings.

Time Line and Lifespan of the Policy Plan

The timeline of the policy plan will be used to determine how effective it has been throughout the institutions of learning. Several factors will be taken into consideration when determining the length of a sensitive policy such as this. Foremost, the level of success in implementation will be a key factor to consider when deciding on how long it will take. In many cases, it is likely to experience less success when education institutions have not taken enough effort to make it effective. Secondly, the timeline will be decided on how successful it will be within a year. Success will be measured through evaluating the difference in environment atmosphere of the institution. This can be measured through determining the difference of number of bullying reports before and after the policy was implemented. It can be measured on a monthly or quarterly basis to evaluate the sequential progress from a quantitative aspect (Dunn, 2008). Another method that can be used to determine success is through the evaluation of student’s state of mind before and after the policy implementation. A qualified professional psychologist will be able to determine this from a general perspective rather than an individual one. Lastly, another method to be used is through evaluating the experiences of victims of bullying within the school. Should the general result indicate that bullying has not been mitigated from the program, this would mean that it is not successful.

Placement of the Organization’s existing Operations Overview

The existing operations of bullying do not contain any solid measures of preventing bullying. Granted, many educational institutions openly condemn bullying of any kind within the schools. However, there has been little effort to punish, provide counseling, and incorporate preventive measures. In some cases, the culture of bullying may not be taken with the level of gravity it so deserves, which leaves victims suffering in silence. As such, it is important to place strict measures that prevent bullying. Through taking bullying seriously, it will allow young people to become more sensitive about its effects, thus strive to report, mitigate, and prevent it. One of the placement strategies will involve inclusion of school counselors as part of the overall meeting program. They can be used to identify specific issues dealing with the mental and psychological overview of students as far as bullying is concerned

Provisions for Monitoring and Evaluation

It is important that the United States Department of Education provide a practical system of organization, which allows them to measure progress of the implemented policies. For instance, elected officials will be able to receive reports of the programs from each public education institution within the state, thereby facilitating a statewide analysis. If possible, the official can be able to attend some of the meetings to gain a firsthand experience of the specific issues, solutions, communication strategies, and participants of the school, which enhances their quality of analysis. This is a measure of providing effective supervision within the country, which allows the government to institute measures geared towards solving presented problems. Such a type of supervision will allow stakeholders to identify specific issues of bullying. This will go a long way in enhancing feasible solutions.

 

 

 

References

Dunn, W. N. (2008). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction (4th ed.). Retrieved from The    University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Storey, K., Slaby, R., & Donnelly, E. (2011). Bullying Prevention [PDF]. Education Development Center, Inc.

 

Financial Plan Instructions 02

Financial Plan Instructions 02

Current Situation

I reside in Sydney working as a financial analyst at an investment firm. Over the past five years I have been able to focus on accumulation of a number of assets namely a mortgage for a three bed-roomed apartment, a 10-year maturity bond and savings amounting to an estimated AUD$36,650. I currently pay an estimated AUD$1,650 monthly for my mortgage, which I expect to complete in the next 11 years.

Goals and Objectives

My primary objective is to gain financial independence before I achieve the age of 35, which only be made possible if I focus on accumulation of adequate savings to make new investments and more clearing my outstanding debt for my mortgage.

Reducing Expenses

Financial Strategy

Budget

Plan Of Action

 

 

 

 

Current situation – your age, where you reside, study and work status, current assets and liabilities, income and your current expenses (from expense-tracker), insurance, wills etc. Putting this information is bullet-point format or a table is a good idea.

  1. Goals and objectives – a list of short, medium and long-term life and financial goals that are specific, measurable and achievable. It is preferable to set dates for each of your goals. An example of a goal might be, “To buy a Town House in SW Sydney for approximately $350,000 by 1/7/20XX”. Goals should be descriptions on what you would like to have achieved by a certain date. They can be either financial milestones or lifestyle goals. Remember that your goals should be S.M.A.R.T. which stands for ‘specific’, ‘measurable’, ‘achievable’, ‘resourced’ and ‘time-specific’. This section should not include detailed descriptions of how to achieve a goal (which should be covered in the Financial Strategy section later). For instance, “starting a savings plan” is not a goal but a financial strategy. The goal might be “to accumulate $50,000 deposit for my first home by 1/7/20XX”. In that case, the savings plan would be a strategy to achieve that goal. Where possible, you should justify your goals with financial calculations.
  2. Reducing expenses – identify some specific options to reduce your total living expenses by ten percent. The purpose of this is to brainstorm (creatively) some alternatives to reduce expenses and to free up some savings to achieve your goals. I recognise that some students may find this more difficult than others. However, it is important to be creative and consider various alternatives for reducing expenses (whether or not you plan to do so).

 

 

  1. Financial strategy – a detailed list of strategies for achieving your life and financial goals using the principles outlined in this course. This is the most important part of your financial plan. It should demonstrate a deep understanding of the course and an ability to specifically apply it to your situation and goals. It should also be the longest section of your plan (at least 5 pages) and should go into a lot of detail. There should be elements of your plan that cover both your student life and your expected life after graduation. The relative proportion that you allocate to each should be appropriate according to how close you are to graduation. If you plan to live overseas, then you are welcome to customise the strategies to what is appropriate for that country. If you are uncertain of what you will do after you graduate then you should base it on the ‘most likely’ scenario.

You should include the following sub-sections:

o Income: Your strategy for steadily building your income over the next ten years through both your salary and investments. This may include your plans for matching your career to both your personality type and what skills are in demand in the economy. You should also discuss how you plan to develop your skills over time and reduce the risk of any prolonged periods of unemployment. You can also briefly identify how any investment strategies (discussed later) will add to your income.

o Expenses: How you plan to manage your living expenses so that you can consistently save towards your long term goals. It’s a good idea to specify target total monthly living expenses here as a percentage of income and then detail those expenses in your budget (next section).

o Savings: Regular savings plans that you need to establish for your various goals and objectives. When will you start and finish saving? How much will you save each month? You should use financial calculations to justify your strategy.

o Investments: How will you invest your various savings? Cash investments, fixed interest, shares, investment properties, managed funds etc? What specific product(s) are most appropriate to your situation? Show evidence of some research here and be specific! How are the products appropriate for your tolerance of risk and your investment time horizon?

o Superannuation: What do you plan to do with your current superannuation account(s)? If you don’t have an account, which one will you use when you first start working? Why? Which investment option will you select? If you plan on moving overseas then you should do some research on the retirement savings system in that country and include some details here (they are usually called ‘pension systems’ overseas rather than ‘superannuation’).

o Taxation: Any legitimate strategies that you plan to implement to make sure that you don’t ‘over-pay’ tax.

o Insurance: What do you plan to do with life insurance, health insurance, travel insurance and general insurance (house and motor vehicle) over the next five to ten years? Be specific.

 

 

o Estate planning: How will you draft your will? Who will be executor? Who will be the beneficiaries? If you don’t have one already, how will you go about arranging for a valid will?

 

You should also include the names of specific products that you have researched and may use (however, please do not copy and paste information from product websites about these products into your plan or an Appendix).

  1. Budget – your planned average monthly expenses (by category) for the next year. If you are close to graduating then it is probably also a good idea to create a separate budget for after graduation (you may need to make assumptions about your situation at that point in time). It is a good idea to use the expenses that you recorded over this session as a basis for constructing this budget.
  2. Plan of Action – a specific list of tasks to implement your strategy with deadline dates for them to be achieved. This is like a one-page “task list” with tick boxes that you can put up on the refrigerator for implementing your chosen strategies. This section may repeat some elements of your ‘Financial Strategy’ section and can be laid out using a bullet-point or check-box format. However, the key difference is that the plan of action is a brief one-page task list of things that you must do to implement your strategy (1 page) while the financial strategy section provides detailed information about the strategies themselves (5+ pages).

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

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Executive Summary

The UAA aviation seminar was an enlightening experience for me. It was not only educational and informative, but it was enjoyable as well. I got the chance to interact with other students and players from the aviation industry. I meant and interacted with notable leaders, who are recognized nationally for the role they play. The visit to the national air space museum was an unforgettable experience. I got the chance to learn more about the aviation industry from its early stages. This made me appreciate the beginnings of the industry and the present efforts made to improve it. The most interesting part for me was seeing the many aircrafts and other space artifacts. I got a chance to experience the different historical events as they were represented by the aircrafts and artifacts I saw. Every piece had a story to tell, and that moment of seeing history was most interesting for me.

The different aircrafts at the museum are a way of recording history and achievements in the industry. I saw the 1903 Wright flyer, which pioneered the industry. I am well aware of the importance of this maiden equipment in our industry. However, seeing it at the museum was a different experience for many other students and me. One gets a sense of accomplishment and pride seeing how far the industry has evolved since that time. A person appreciates the technological development that has taken place since that time. Other the Wright flyer, the Spirit of St. Louis, and the command module, Apollo II made a significant impression on me.

The visit to the FAA and the NTSB was informative as well. Many people are involved in the formulation and establishment of aviation regulations. This was interesting. I learnt many things there as well. I already had an idea of many of the things that I learnt during the trip from the class work and textbook notes. However, a visit to the institutions made me realize the impact of it all. Overall, there have been many changes in regulations over the last few years. Many of the implemented changes are concerned with security and safety measures. The regulatory process has some stages, which require the collaboration of the FAA, NTSB, and Congress. The different parties have to work together for the benefit of the industry, the consumers, and the country.

I learnt some surprising things during the visit. Perhaps the most important concerns the large collection of artifacts on display. I did not know that the museum has so many objects on display. The surprising thing is that we did not even finish seeing them all. The film, video, and photographs are important in enhancing learning. The museum has a large collection of them, and it is not possible to go through all of them on the first visit. There are many galleries, and they cover different topics. Other than aviation students, people in other sectors such as history, astronomy, technology, and filmmaking gain invaluable lessons from going to the museum. I think that it is important to note the existing relationship between technology and history after visiting the museum.

Technology always aims at improving the present. It aims at improving the present features and ensuring that the present objects are distinct from those used in the past. However, it is impossible to improve on this technology if there is no knowledge of history. A clear knowledge of history is important to people in the technology sector. They have to know where they are coming from before determining where they want to go. This aspect is important, and I think there is a need to examine it further in the curriculum. It also applies in areas concerning safety and security. For the security of people and the safety in the industry to improve, one has to consider the past efforts. This will help in identifying the areas that need to be examined more closely and the improvements that need to be made.

The aviation regulatory process is important. Lawmakers in Congress have to decide on important issues that will affect the industry. It is important to know the roles of the FAA and the NTSB. The two institutions may not agree on everything. Students should have a clear understanding of the roles of each institution. They should understand how Congress determines regulations that concern the industry. It is important for the students to have a clear idea of how Congress can contribute to the growth and success of the industry. They also need to be more aware of the obstacles and challenges that can emerge. Conflicts between the industry players and the lawmakers can emerge. The curriculum should include the possibility of such conflicts occurring. It should examine how Congress can limit the industry and the obstacles it can present

The seminar was informative, engaging, and educational. It was a wonderful experience for me and the other students I interacted with during and at the end of the seminar. We all had different experiences to share. It offered invaluable and practical lessons and information concerning the industry, most of which we would not have acquired if we had not attended. The seminar helped to enhance my understanding of the aviation industry. I would recommend this trip to other students and the faculty as well. Admission to the museum is free. Therefore, it would be better if people took the time to visit the museum at their own time and got the chance to see most of the galleries and objects on display. They can use the seminar as a way of enhancing their understanding.

 

Utility Ethics

Utility Ethics

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Institution:

 

 

 

Utility Ethics

Amazon Inc Company Profile

Amazon.com is an e-commerce retail company that has been operational since 1996. Initially, the company sold a wide variety of books that could be bought and delivered online. After a few years of operation, the company was able to diversify. Amazon is now the largest retail-based company that sells their commodities online. In the process of diversification, Amazon was able to include DVDs, BLU-Rays, videos, MP3s, and audio books, among several other items (Cone Communications, 2015). Its main headquarters is in Seattle, Washington, although the company operates worldwide. Some of the subsidiary companies include Amazon Web Services, Good reads, Internet Movie Database, Digital Photography Review, and Alexa Internet. The total revenue has been estimated at 107 billion dollars (for the year 2015). The company today employs about 231,000 employees worldwide at its various locations such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and others.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Over the years, Amazon had received much criticism on the little effort made to maintain a sustainable ecosystem especially in the areas within which it operates. Amazon has been rated as having a successful business model that incorporates social responsibility as a means of making positive contributions to the society. Foremost, the high reputation has stemmed from the ability to provide high-quality products that cater to the consumers (Greene, 2015). They have also been able to enhance convenience, reliability, and good value through innovations. Secondly, the company has received much acclaim for the job satisfaction levels reported by the clients. This has been achieved by enhancing the quality of the workplace environment. Energy efficient buildings, availability of necessities such as foods, as well as the “bring your dog to work” policy were among the highest praised policies adopted by the company.

Thirdly, Amazon has received certification and awards such as the Alliance for Young Artists and Writers, Tools for non-profits, and the LEED Gold Certification by the United States. Some of the environmental responsibilities that Amazon has taken up include using locally sourced woods in the manufacture of goods as well as their utilization of the buildings. Other environmentally sensitive projects of Amazon include utilizing 100 percent natural lighting within their areas of operation in China, thus avoiding consuming thousands of kilowatt-hours of electric power (Cone Communications, 2015). Future goals include a shift in the packaging process, where decision makers intend to avoid over-packaging in a bid to save on material as well as avoid environmental pollution.

Amazon has also taken part in contributing to relief programs both locally and internationally. During the September 11 bombings, a total of 6.9 million dollars was donated. 12.4 million was donated to the relief program of Hurricane Katrina in the year 2004. Amazon Donated 1.8 million to Japan as part of the relief contributions of the Tsunami. Amazon regards writing as an important part of education and community development (Greene, 2015). As such, the company has taken part in providing funding such as grants to the less advantaged in the local and international communities. Amazon offers grants to not for profit groups and authors dedicated to writing and publishing books. Amazon also stands out as one of the companies that make the largest contribution to charity and nonprofit organizations. In November 2013, the company formed the Amazon Smile, a website that transfers 0.5 into charity organizations every time a consumer shops for an item online. The site also allows users to help donate any amount of money to the organizations.

Reference

Cone Communications. (2015). Is Amazon Beginning to Embrace CSR? Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://www.conecomm.com/amazon-csr

Greene, J. (2015). Amazon taps former U.N. adviser to guide corporate social responsibility. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 February 2016, from http://www.seattletimes.com/business/amazon/amazon-taps-former-un-adviser-to-guide-corporate-responsibility/

 

Study of Visual Images

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Study of Visual Images

Representational Art

In paintings, sculptures and other forms of images, representational art can be described as the depiction of images as they are, and which does not require much interpretation from an audience. These figures are drawn clearly and are identifiable by most people immediately. These forms of art may include figures such as trees, the human body, cars, streets, landscapes, among others. This form of art depicts the physical form that is consistent with reality. It depicts an object or series of objects that form part of people’s day-to-day lives. An example of this type of painting is that of Arnolfini Marriage by Van Eyck. Painted in 1434, it depicts two human figures, Arnolfini and his wife standing in front of a room. The mirror is also used to reflect the special dimensions of the room. As such, it is a representation of reality. Another example of representational art is The Rocky Mountains painted by the American artist Albert Bierstadt. The painting clearly depicts a range of mountains from a distant. It shows sharp peaks that are covered by clouds from a distance. The sheer distance together with the cloudy appearance shows that these peaks are high.

Abstract Art

Abstract art was a trend developed in the early twentieth century. This form of art does not seek to represent art in its vivid images, but rather employs new shapes and colors to represent them. In art, abstraction implies a deviation from reality, and can be partial or complete in nature. Therefore, abstract art can be said to exist on a continuum between realism and imagery. As such, abstract art can be diverse in that it can be able to partially represent an image that is recognizable or not able to represent anything at all. A good example of abstract art is The Starry Night by Vincent van Gogh. This painting can be classified under partial abstract art. One can be able to recognize a village depicted at night, and whose heavenly bodies such as the moon and stars give abundant light. Another example is Nude Descending a Staircase by Marcel Duchamp. It consists of nested body parts in the form of shapes. The abstract elements of the body parts are nested together to illustrate movement down a staircase.

Non-objective Art

Also known as, concrete art, non-objective art describes any type of artwork that does not hold any physical illustration to the natural world. It uses forms and shapes in the form of geometry to represent other forms of images that are subject to a variety of interpretations to the audience. It also uses color, brushstrokes, size, scale, and process to depict these shapes. An example of non-objective art is the Dispersion by Julie Mehretu. This painting depicts lines and shapes such as triangles, rectangles, and trapeziums painted in different colors over a beige background. The shapes cover the entire space of the painting, and thus an audience can be able to interpret the illustration in many different ways. Another example is the Black Square by Kazimir Malevich. This painting depicts a black square in which shapes and forms are visible, but do not hold any specific meaning for the general audience. Kazimir painted the Black square to to represent a form of art that was free from the mainstream subjectivity that was evident in the representational and abstract art.

Interpersonal Communication Report

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Interpersonal Communication Report

The communication competence simulation had the objective of assessing the participant’s capacity to communicate effectively in divergent scenarios. Despite the many divergences in stress and complexity in the inquisitions, common to all ten prompts was that interpersonal communication had to consider the second party as a unique human being prior to giving a response. This follows Woods’ conceptualization of interpersonal communication as a systemic and selective process that facilitates an individual to construct personal knowledge of associative parties in order to create meanings (19). None of the scenarios showed superior complexities that would negate the ability to communicate competently. This is mainly because, in all events, one could reflect easily on past interactions and employ the experiences to create meaning. All ten inquisitions in the exercise affirm the Interpersonal Needs Theory by Schurz in that all scenarios depicted the requirement to acquire affection, control, and social inclusion.

Several questions in the exercise gave a cognitive dilemma in interpersonal communication as one had to balance or choose between the need to satisfy emotional requirements or facilitate inclusion continuity. For instance, in question two, ten, and six, the participant has to communicate on his or her friend’s inadequate behaviors. The act may result in termination or loss of cohesion in the friendship. The dilemmas follow Woods’ argument that communication is a complex function as there are many dynamic variables involved for consideration (Woods 17). In all three inquisitions, the response on whether communication would be clear was not strong or affirmative. This was because emotional and inclusion needs had almost the same weight. In meaning, one perceived that through satisfying emotional requirements, one would acquire short-term peace but negate the long term.

Interpersonal communication cannot occur in isolation as it necessitates contextual analysis of the physical and conceptual environment surrounding an individual. The statement follows Woods’ fourth principle that individuals construct meaning through their interpretation of the world (30). In questions one, five, and seven, one had to integrate the cultural and situational contexts of the prompts to structure meaning for a good response. For example, in question five concerning the painting, one had to include all the rules taught in class in creative writing to assess the talent. In addition, one had to include the learned behaviors of the individual that influence his interactions. Through these contextual examinations, one could communicate rationally without using words that give negative perceptions that in turn result in hurt feelings.

The fourth exercise was the only one that depicted the need to ascertain control in the interaction in order to gain control of the heated debate. Despite Woods (29) arguing that interpersonal communication encompasses moral choices, strong emotions and perception have the capacity to negate the inclusion of ethics. Dependent on the emotional intensity involved in a debate, one may not employ moral principles arguing as to why the response given to the prompt was not completely satisfactory. Inquisitions three and nine were the simplest or straight forward in the exercise as they revolved around the satisfaction of emotional needs in interpersonal communication. In both events, one had to examine the relational contexts of the other party to get a basic understanding of their probable reactions. To ensure positive responses, the objective would be to interact briefly through messages that can only be understood in one way (Woods 36). In this, complexity is reduced, and there is least emotional harm and maximum understandability.

Economic Causes of Poverty

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Economic Causes of Poverty

Executive Summary

Problem Statement

Unemployment is a leading cause of economic inequality within the nation.

Key Stakeholders

The Constitution mandates the federal government to ensure the presence of a favorable environment that allows citizens access to gainful employment. As such, skilled and unskilled workers are integral in addressing this problem. It is also noteworthy that owners of various manufacturing jobs are partly responsible for the existence of income inequality due to their adoption of automation systems. A low education level amongst the populace is another factor as well.

Cause of Dilemma

Addressing the issue of wealth inequality is problematic due to the need for increasing the wage bill. Raising the level of expenditure would reduce revenue streams hence affecting the profitability of businesses. Whereas the government and other policy makers would want to make this happen, most of the unemployed lack the technical capacities for the jobs hence enhancing the poor status. In fact, the application of a capitalistic culture rather than a welfare system prohibits such blanket assistance to the population. Rather, the American Dream lays an emphasis on hard work. It is, however, imperative that something is done to lowers income inequality. As such, can reduction of poverty be pegged on employment alone?

Policy Options

Types of Options

Creation of caps to limit the incentives given to the wealthy would be a better way of ensuring income distribution across the divide is even. Increasing of income tax rates especially on capital income would also optimize such sectors while the initiation of programs to engage the unemployed is also welcome. In these forums, the new recruits should be subject to higher minimum wages thereby having disposable income for use. It is thus evident that lowering the gap between the rich and the poor would entail the input of many entities. For instance, the involvement of employers can be secured by obtaining additional and better apprenticeships to increase the number of proactive personnel.

Pros and Cons

Curtailing tax breaks to wealthy corporations and individuals would lead to their shifting to offshore tax havens thereby reducing the chances of employing American citizens. It would however, lead to the installation of financial discipline. An increase in minimum wages would also disrupt the various sectors due to the clash that would pit labor unions and companies. Such hostility could cause a rise in turnover or even confrontations that are risky to economic development. In contrast, this would ensure that workers are rewarded for their services hence boosting productivity that is relatable in GDP performance. Long-term investment in apprenticeships would also be needed hence increasing expenditure. It is, however, beneficial to the economy because the practical skills and mentorship forums enhance employment chances of attendees thereby offering them hopes for the future. As such, they are able to reduce the rich-poor gap.

Recommendations

Clear Choice

Investing in apprenticeship programs pitting employers and potential employees is the best choice for addressing income inequality in the country. Such an action would lead to the development of useful networks between the two groups while also enhancing productivity in different industries. The practical lessons offered on these platforms would be necessary for offering skills with a ready job market hence aiding in the circulation of money within the economy upon gaining employment. It would also be an ideal way of igniting competition among the unemployed because they would be stirred into acquiring a competitive advantage over each other. Their determination and eventual absorption into the job market would enhance their financial positions as well. In fact, it would be a precursor to the much-needed job growth that is essential in spurring economic growth.

Additional Justification

Low employment levels have been blamed for numerous societal vices such as an increase in crime rates. Upon the occurrence of these incidents, investors lack the confidence to locate their investments in such an area citing instability. Notably, such an environment degrades the standards of living thereby affecting the poor more than the rich. Ensuring that such people are not idle prevents them from engaging in such crimes. Imparting them with practical skills enables them to be self-reliant or even employed in complementary industries. It also helps them to cater for certain responsibilities such as rent payment and purchase of food thereby aiding the circulation of money within the economy. It manages to make such people self-sustaining thereby lowering the gap between the wealthy and the poor. As such, wealth discrimination is better addressed by having unemployed workforce join relevant industries within their locales. These developments would empower the poor thereby helping them live a decent life. Having the means to pay one’s bills is a powerful way of eradicating poverty in one’s life. It would offer them the autonomy to make consumer decisions without having to rely on the state. By reducing the dependency, culture championed by welfare enthusiasts, the rich-poor divide narrows, and the society experiences a boom in its prospects. In some cases, it would develop into long-term friendships between the employees and employers hence increasing chances of engaging in repeated business transactions for longer durations.

 

Training and Development

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Training and Development

The goal of a training needs analysis is to identify the deficiencies of an organization and forming frameworks designed towards solving them. A needs analysis is focused on improving the performance of an organization by establishing the difference between the current state and the desired one. There are four steps associated with the process of evaluating a needs analysis. The first step is normally associated with the identification of a concern. It is an inadvertent process that helps decision makers take action to improve the situation of the organization. The second step is for the decision makers to establish whether these problems will affect the performance at a significant level. The third step is to bring together the parties that are capable of solving these issues.

Within an organization, stakeholders such as investors, employees, or customers are normally informed and consulted about the issue at hand. The fourth step will involve obtaining further information about the issue at hand through data collection, personnel organization, and delegation of duties. Within the process of training, types of sessions must be conducted depending on the objectives. Sessions include in-house courses, public courses, conferences, on the job training, attachments, and competency programs. An annual training plan is established every year by the managers that are based on the deficiencies of the previous years. A manager will attempt to identify each employee’s weaknesses and determine the type of training they will receive to improve their skills.

The frequency of the training programs will depend on the available courses either in-house or hosted by another party. The three tools of the training and development process include organization analysis, task analysis, and person analysis. In organization analysis, a strategy of the objectives is established. Resources and the context of climate are evaluated to examine the collective materials and attitudes of employees. A learning culture is developed among the team members. This allows them to be more receptive towards implementation of new ideas to improve the organization. Organizational flexibility will depend on the ability of all the stakeholders to be flexible to changes that bring about the enhancement of performance systems.

Some of the task analyzes include establishing the target jobs to be carried out, obtaining the job description, develop a form of measurement that grades the importance of each task together with its frequency, surveying the sample of job incumbents, analysis and interpreting the information and providing feedback. Task analysis involves the examination of competency regarding personnel skills and abilities to perform the required tasks. Training and development courses are a significant contributor to the overall development of an organization. Foremost, a learning environment allows employees to become more creative, thus paving the way for higher performance.

Training and analysis are also important because they focus on an employee’s weaknesses regarding professional skills and abilities. Thus, they are able to improve on such skills through effective management. Regular training would imply that an employee would need to change their modes of operation, such as working with improved systems or different team members. This allows the worker to become more flexible and, therefore, able to adjust quickly and effectively to different environments. Through training, the skills of an employee will be aligned to those of the company. It will, therefore, be easier for managers and employees to work together if they are aware of the company’s mission.

Motherhood

Motherhood

Name

Institution

 

Motherhood

I interviewed my mother via Facetime, through my iPhone. I am in Oxford, Ohio and she is in Beijing, China. We had often talked about my childhood but I had never asked her any questions concerning her pregnancy. We had our conversations early in the morning. I had to factor in the time difference between Beijing and Ohio. It was early night in Beijing when I contacted her. We started the conversation casually. I took advantage of the fact that she had missed me and she wanted to talk. She was bored, as my father had not yet come home from work. As we began our conversation, my mother told me she had big and grand expectations of pregnancy. She and my father had been married for some time and they had waited for a child for quite some time. They were living in Beijing China and the situation at the time was that parents were restricted to only one child. Therefore, even before she became pregnant, she had already started preparing for a child. She tells me that she had bought many clothes and my father had already started buying many toys. However, she would have to stare at them for quite some time because it took her a while to become pregnant. She started experiencing the signs of pregnancy even before she confirmed this to be the case.

When she confirmed her pregnancy, she became so excited to the point that she told everyone she knew about it. This included her friends, colleagues at work, and her extended family. Most of them were just amused at her excitement but they were happy for her. She did not even have a clue about the suffering she would go through before I was born. This was despite the fact that she knew medicine since she is a doctor. She told me she had a fantasy-like experience of her pregnancy. She imagined glowing and becoming even more beautiful when she became pregnant. She did not imagine that her pregnancy would cause a rift in her marriage. She often imagined how happy she would be once I was born. She had already informed the hospital where she worked that she would take her leave early and that she would take some time off after I was born. She thought that the time would be sufficient for her to take care of me.

The morning sicknesses during the first months came as a surprise to her, and so did the changed facial appearance. She suffered a lot. She would experience nausea and she would vomit every morning. Her stomach could not stomach any meat. She had to eat selected vegetables and rice for most of her pregnancy. This was because she would vomit most of the things she ate. She began sleeping a lot too. This was unusual for her because she had been a very active woman before her pregnancy. She tells me that during that time, she almost divorced my father. She had developed such as hot temper that she would lash out at my father for no reason. She always got angry with him. However, my father endured it all and he would just look for ways to calm her down.

By the time she was in her sixth month of pregnancy, she was not experiencing morning sickness. However, she had become heavy and she started walking long distances. She would walk for hours even though she did not have a particular destination in mind. She was a practicing doctor and she understood the importance of getting enough exercise. My mother experienced labor pains for a short time. She tells me that she had expected to suffer a lot during labor but this was not the case. The long distance walking she had done had helped her a lot. They had helped her to loosen and relax her muscles and this helped her when she was giving birth. She had desired to have a natural birth. She was excited when the doctors told her that this would be possible.

I asked my mother where she got information concerning pregnancy and giving birth. She told me that she heard a lot of information from well meaning friends and family members. Most of them had good intentions. However, being a doctor, my mother knew the best sources of information. She consulted with the other doctors at the hospital whenever she had someone talking about traditional beliefs of pregnancy. Some of the stories she heard were unfounded. Most of them depended on rumors and she did not believe it. She also bought many reading materials concerning pregnancy and giving birth. She wanted to be as knowledgeable as possible. This was the only way to ensure that she took better care of herself.

My mother told me that she and my father had great expectations when she became a parent. They worked to ensure that their child would not lack in anything. They had already booked a place for me in a nearby kindergarten even before I could walk. This is because of the stiff competition in for schools in Beijing. Hence, it was usual for parents to make plans concerning school even before their children were born.. I did end up going to that school eventually since it was nearest home. My parents enrolled me in different activities. I was not good in many of these activities. I had to do them when I cleared school. My parents are professionals and they are aware of the high competition in the job market. Therefore, it was important for their child to acquire as many skills as possible. Moreover, many of the parents were taking the same measures

My parents did not have any big plans for me during my formative years. They had already spent most of their time with me ensuring that I had all that I wanted. They did not form any plans for me when I reached ten. My mother told me over our long conversations that she dreaded the teenage years. She was not sure how much I would change. She had read literature indicated the big changed that most teenagers tend to change for the negative. She did not want that for me. She told me that she was especially concerned that I would no longer listen to her. I asked her how she viewed the dreaded teenage years now that most of them were already past. She was pleased to inform me that they were not as dreadful as they had seemed. I still listened to her and obeyed her; this was more than she had asked for when I was younger.

As we neared our conversation, I asked my mother if she continues to have any expectations for me. I had become an adult and I was living far away from home. My mother is not sentimental and she rarely displays her emotions. She told me that the distance between us did not stop her from being a parent. She continues to wish that I succeed in life and that I become the best that I possible could. My parents’ decision to send me overseas was influenced by the desire they had to see me succeed. They worked hard all their lives even if they did not have to. This was to ensure that I succeeded in life. They continue to parent me even when I am in America. They call me constantly and they have to ensure that I am okay.