Core Muscle Activity during Suspension Exercises

Core Muscle Activity during Suspension Exercises

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Core Muscle Activity during Suspension Exercises

Strengths

The article “Core Muscle Activity during Suspension Exercises” by Mok et al. elaborates on the importance of improving stability within the core of individuals that have musculoskeletal issues as well as those that seek to maintain their health. When evaluating the article, several strengths are observed in terms of the gathering and presentation of the information and the process of conducting research and conclusion development. Firstly, it is evident that data analysis was carried out in a progressive manner (Mok et al., 2015). The primary aim was ensuring this procedure ascertained the eradication of any bias in the evaluation. One can observe this analysis from the charts developed in the findings sector. The values that are compared in Table 1 are the level of muscle activation against the varied values of suspension workouts (Mok et al., 2015). This form of tabulation offers the reader the chance to observe and deduce the correlation that exists between the two variables hence support the findings established. It is important to note that the validity of the results was guaranteed using the SPSS 20.0 software that incorporates ANOVA in analyzing the extent of muscle activation levels within the context of same exercises as well as similar muscle groups (Mok et al., 2015).

The second strong point observed is that for the correlation between the two variables to be validated and established, the study employed empirical data analysis as well as literature review in the discussion on the findings. The empirical study provides the scientific values and facts that shed light on the effect of suspensions exercises on muscle activity whereas literature reviews provide more elaborate explanation on further studies conducted on other related variables and the relation of the findings to this particular experiment.

Weakness

The weakness noticed concerning the article is the non-specific aspect in the literature review. In the discussion part, the authors have failed to delve clearly into the studies conducted detailing other aspects that are considered in suspension exercises. One can also observe the studies are not specified in terms of the organization that conducted them and the primary objectives. Additionally, there is no indication of the type of experimental research method that was employed as well as the number of participants involved.

The informative aspect of this literature review is the inclusion of recommendations only. For instance, some of the studies discussed in the paper recommend electrode replacement in the abdominal region to increase validity and reliability (Fong et al., 2015). Others suggest that enhancement of efficacy can be attained through monitoring lumbo-pelvic alignments (Stutzig & Siebert, 2015).The third weakness of the study is the limitations implicated. According to the authors, the number of the members participating in the study was limited. Thus, this begs the question whether the data collected was adequate for analysis and the eventual establishment of conclusion and application. Secondly, the correlation variables were indirectly represented hence making the findings seem somewhat unclear as compared to those indicated by other studies.

Application

The information provided in the article can be provided to trainers as a guideline in directing suspension exercises. For further activation, the instructors can apply enhanced effort in directing their trainee to perform exercises that work the lower limbs more (Mok et al., 2015). Thirdly, the principle of increased activation on unstable surfaces can be applied to conducting exercises on Swiss balls (Mok et al., 2015). Lastly, it is important to understand that suspension exercises in overall improve the strength levels with different sets of muscles. With this understanding, trainers can aim to increase more activation through increasing the length of period dedicated to conducting a suspension exercise session as opposed to other workout routines.

 

References

Fong, S., Tam, Y., Macfarlane, D., Ng, S., Bae, Y., Chan, E., & Guo, X. (2015). Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine, 2015, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/910168

Mok, N., Yeung, E., Cho, J., Hui, S., Liu, K., & Pang, C (2013). Core muscle activity during suspension exercises. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2013, 189-194.

Stutzig, N., & Siebert, T. (2015). Influence of joint position on synergistic muscle activity after fatigue of a single muscle head. Muscle & Nerve, 51(2), 259-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.24305

Evidence of Attendance

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Evidence of Attendance

Electronic business is the use of internet technologies in transforming key business processes. It has been observed that this method bears success stories in many companies. This is a summary of the main elements of the lecture on 23 October in relation to a recent news article.

On October 29, Minerds wrote a news article on how the F1 Moto Company had won a local E Business award (1). The company mainly conducted its business through e-business. They sell motorcycle sports power parts, engine parts and accessories through the internet. The issues they face as online retailers have also been illustrated such as working for long hours. E-business utilizes web 2.0 technologies. This form of new internet technologies supports peer-to-peer exchange, social networking and collaboration. Companies are able to advertise their products through collaboration techniques such as youtube, wikis, blogs and Facebook. This is facilitated because of the recent innovations on smartphones applications such as social networking, banking, music and sports that give customers easier access to products online.

In this course, it is important to distinguish e-business from e-commerce. Electronic commerce is the broad concept that covers business transactions using information communication technology. Hence, it can be out looked as a subset of e-business. Under e-commerce, there are terms that are significant to the topic. Online perspective is the business transactions that take part through online basis alone. A business process perspective is applying technology in business transactions automotive. Communications perspective means deliverance of products or payments electronically whereas service perspective is enabling cost cutting while increasing speed and quality of business transactions. In addition, e-business is controlled by the IT department (via intranet), marketing department (via internet) and purchasing department (via extranet).

 

Works Cited

Minerds, Aaryln. F1 Moto Win Local E Business Award. Fullhouse.com.au, 2013. Web. 31 October 2013.

 

features That Differentiate Lean Organizations from Other Organizations

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Features That Differentiate Lean Organizations from Other Organizations

The following are the features that differentiate lean organization from other organizations,

Lean organizations focus on creating customer value, which is seen as the path to a continued business success. They not only seek to understand customer’s requirements but also their expectations of product quality, price and delivery.

Another feature that differentiates them from other organizations is flexibility of the workforce. This means that they have the ability to react to changes in customer need.

Unlike other organizations, lean organizations value partnerships. Teams are seen as important assets in the organization because they form an absolute carve of the product from the idea of innovation to the release of the product.

Organizational alignment is also a feature that distinguishes lean enterprises from other organization. They focus on making workers to understand their purpose but not the tasks assigned to them.

Lean organizations empower their employees encouraging them to share responsibilities to enable the success of the organization.

 

Would rather work in a lean organization or a traditional organizations

One would prefer working in a lean organization than in a traditional organization simply because they focus more on creating value for customers with fewer resources. A lean organization focuses more on creating processes that require less capital, time, space and human labor to make products unlike in traditional organization whereby a lot of money is spent in the manufacture of products. Working in a lean organization is advantageous in that they outweigh traditional organization in they way they respond to changing customer desires.

 

Information management in lean organization is more accurate compared to traditional organizations as they embrace technological innovation, which enhance easy flow of information between workers and customers. Other advantages of working with a lean organization is that, there is reduced cycle times, greater throughput, better productivity and improved quality of products compared to traditional organizations.

 

How does a successful strategy program help a company to become lean?

 

A successful strategy program is important in that it makes operational changes to become part of a company thus influencing both the management and workers to work towards the achievement of organizational success. They also mark the transition from operational planning to choosing a direction for the organization. With this programs, companies are able to forecast population shifts and concentrate on understanding changing technological developments, competitor initiatives and stakeholder needs.

 

A SUCCESSFUL stareategy program is essential in helping a company to become laen in that it focuses on the  benefits and the external and internal threads that make an organization achieve its goals.

 

It also helps in integrating Human resource policies and talent management with effective implementation needs

 

Help companies discover controls and incentives to control and motivate performance including methods to achieve effective coordination.

 

It helps an organization in building a knowledge management roadmap

 

A successful program helps organization achieve an active and full executive support, employee inviolvement, effective communication and thorough organizational competitive analysias and planning

  1. Why does reducing set-up times lead to improved operations

Reducing set-up times leads to improved operations because they enable companies to schedule lesser batches, which reduce a company’s inventory in finished goods. The also enable an organization to fulfill customers demands with reduced employee efforts.

The operation is also important in that it raises productivity, reduces lead time, increases flexibility  and improvers quality of products which leads to improved organizational operations.

 

 

 

  1. How is supplier-customer teamwork in a supply chain achieved

 

In an integrated supply chain, suppliers and customers must work together to reduce end-to-end effects from operations and materials to create innovations that reinforce competitiveness and deliver a sustainable business value.

 

 

 

6.In what ways would applying lean principles to the University of New Haven improve the education for the student?

 

 

 

 

4What are the disadvantages and advantages of focused factories

Disadvantages

Focused factories are less proficient in creating modified products for high-ending consumers.

A focus factory is disadvantageous in that it does not allow manufacturing of many products which makes it monotonous.

Focused factories are limited to only one manufacturing task at a time which is time consuming.

It requires large investment especially when the factory decides to move from a convebtional to a more focused process,

 

Advanatages

Concentration and repetition in one area allows its managers and workforce to become experience and effective in the task required for success.

A focused factory is controllable and manageable despite the fcat that its prbklems arelomited in one scope.

A focused product has the ability to undersell and outproduce to quickly gain a competitive advantage over the compelx factory.

A focused factory is easy to manage as it strives for a narrow range of  customers, products and processes.

America

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America

Ginsberg in his poem America passionately and openly criticizes America. Through his sharp criticism, he remarks on America’s state after the post-World war II era. Themes of politics, anti-communism racisms come up throughout the poem. Opinionated, he expresses his cynical resentment towards the American society. Having roots traced back to Russia through his mother, he spews over the democratic stance taken by the country politically. His views champion for a socialistic Society within the United States of America. There are different tones used throughout the poem to highlight the issues being addressed. Sarcasm is a technique seen in his manner of speech.

I strongly believe that Ginsberg in this poem views himself as an isolated member in the community. This is seen throughout the poem as he uses a sarcastic tone to express his views against America. Occasionally he makes reference to himself as America but this is used momentarily so as to sensitize the people of the society of the repercussions of deeming the country as someone else’s problem. This has a ripple effect of shifuing responsibility and making people believe that they area not part of the problem yet they want a solution to be found. Ginsberg thus begins the poem by expressing his diligence to the country but he receives nothing in return. His bitterness distances himself from the community showing that in deed he is alone in the quest to fight for change.

Beginning his sentences with America, he shows that he is making reference to the state of the country. He therefore sees himself as a single entity as opposed being part of the country. The repetitive use of the pronoun ‘I ’shows a high level of conviction on his part. Similarly, the use of third person shows that he is making reference to another party other than himself. Emphasis is based on repetition and it is for this reason that I believe Ginsberg continually repeats this pronoun and further segregates himself from the American society. He does not read the Times magazine as he feels it directs the country’s thoughts that are geared to be against him

The feeling of segregation usually arises from lack of identity to a majority group. Having a mother of Russian decent shows that he could have felt he was not fully part of the American community. This shows that there was no sense of belonging. Naomi Ginsberg, his mother had strong communist views and this was seen as he was constantly taken to meetings of the local communist party. The mere fact that he was not apologetic for having communist view shows that he identified with those of similar opinions. It is through this association with a communist group that he draws inspiration to condemn and ridicule America. Being of a majority group makes people believe that they are part of the community therefore giving them a sense of identity.

Ginsberg self-belief in his productivity makes him isolate himself as he does not want to associate himself with the laziness of the American society. I think that it is through t his isolation that he sees himself a hard worker and even has the audacity to tell the public to get down with the job. The lack of faith in the government’s visions and missions is a clear indicator that he is not part of the society. In conclusion, I feel that this consistent denial of the ways and norms of the people show that Ginsberg viewed himself as an island.

Managing Energy Efficiency

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Managing Energy Efficiency

Question 1: PC VS LAPTOP

Total expected yearly energy usage (kWh), energy cost ($):

PC Energy Consumption (kWh)

Maximum:

Annual hours: (350 X 4) hours = 1400 hours per year

Wattage = 195.04

Maximum energy consumption for PC per day = Wattage X hours/100

= (195.04 X 4) ÷ 1000 = 0.7802 kWh

Annual maximum consumption = 0.7802 X 1400 = 1092.28 kWh

Low-power sleep mode:

Annual Hours: (350 X 7 hours) = 2450 hours per year

Wattage: 1.75

Energy consumption per day: (1.75 X 7) ÷1000 = 0.01225

Annual consumption: 0.01225 X 2450 = 30.0125

Off mode:

Annual Hours: (350 X 13 hours) = 4550

Wattage: 1.03

Daily Energy Consumption: (1.03 X 13) ÷ 1000 = 0.01339 kWh

Annual energy consumption: 0.01339 X 4550 = 60.9245 kWh

Total Energy consumption:

Total Daily consumption: 0.7802 + 0.01225 + 0.01339 = 0.80584 kWh

Total Annual consumption: 1092.28 + 30.0125 + 60.9245 = 1183.217 kWh

Total for 275 PCs = 325384.675 kWh

Laptop Energy Consumption (kWh)

Maximum:

Annual Hours: (350 X 4) hours = 1400 hours per year

Wattage: 53

Daily Energy Consumption: (1.1 X 4) ÷ 1000 = 0.0044 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0044 X 1400 = 6.16 kWh

Low-Power sleep mode:

Annual hours: (350 X 7 hours) = 2450 hours per year

Wattage: 1.1

Daily Energy consumption: (1.1 X 7) ÷ 1000 = 0.0077 kWh

Annual consumption: (2450 X 0.0077) = 18.865 kWh

Off mode:

Annual hours: (350 X 13 hours) = 4550

Wattage: 1.1

Daily Energy consumption: (1.1 x 13) ÷1000 = 0.0143 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0143 x 4550 = 65.065 kWh

Total daily laptop energy consumption: 0.0044 + 0.0077 + 0.0143 = 0.0264 kWh

Total Annual: 6.16 + 18.865 + 65.065 = 90.09 kWh

Total for 275 laptops: 24774.75 kWh

Energy Costs of the PC ($)

Peak hours Energy Costs Calculation:

Stand by 2pm-7pm = 5 hours

Annual stand by and peak hours = (5 X 250 weekdays) = 1250

Wattage: 1.75

Daily consumption: (5 x 1.75) ÷ 1000 = 0.00875 kWh

Total annual consumption: 0.00875 x 1250 = 10.9375 kWh

Off 7pm-8pm = 1 hour

Annual off and peak hours = (1 x 250) = 250

Wattage: 1.03

Daily consumption: (1 x 1.03) ÷ 1000 = 0.00103 kWh

Total annual kWh: 0.00103 x 250 = 0.2575 kWh

Total annual peak energy costs = (0.2575 + 10.9375) x $ 0.25 = $ 2.79875

Shoulder hours Energy Costs

Off 7am-8am = 1 hour

Annual shoulder and off hours: (250x 1) = 250

Wattage: 1.03

Daily Consumption: 0.00103 kWh

Total annual: 0.2575 kWh

Stand by 8am-10am = 2 hours

Annual stand by and shoulder hours: (2 x 250) = 500

Wattage: 1.75

Daily consumption: (1.75 x 2) ÷ 1000 = 0.0035 kWh

Total annual consumption = 0.0035 x 500 = 1.75 kWh

Maximum 10am-2pm = 4 hours

Annual shoulder and maximum hours: (4 x 250) = 1000

Wattage: 195.04

Daily Consumption: (195.04 x 4) ÷ 1000 = 0.78016 kWh

Total annual consumption: 0.78016 x 1000 = 780.16 kWh

Weekends

            Maximum 10am-10pm = 12 hours

Annual maximum and weekend hours: (12 x 100) = 1200

Wattage: 195.04

Daily consumption: (195.04 x 12) ÷ 1000 = 2.34048 kWh

Annual consumption: 2.34048 x 1200 = 2808.576 kWh

Off 7am-8am = 1 hour

Annual hours: (1 x 100) = 100

Wattage: 1.03

Daily consumption: (1.03 x 1) ÷ 1000 = 0.00103 kWh

Annual Consumption: 0.00103 x 100 = 0.103 kWh

Standby 8am-10am = 2hours

Annual hours: (2 x 100) = 200

Wattage: 1.75

Daily consumption: (1.75 x 2) ÷ 1000 = 0.0035 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0035 x 200 = 0.7 kWh

Total shoulder hours cost: (0.7 + 0.103 + 2808.576 + 780.16 + 1.75 + 0.2575) x 0.19 = $ 682.4

Off-Peak hours Energy Costs

            Weekdays

Off 8pm-7am = 11 hours

Annual hours = (11 x 250) = 2750

Wattage: 1.03

Daily consumption: (1.03 x 11) ÷ 1000 = 0.01133 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.01133 x 2750 = 31.1575kWh

Weekends 10pm-7am 9hrs

            Annual hours: (9 x 100) = 900

Wattage:  1.03

Daily consumption: (1.03 x 9) ÷ 1000 = 0.00927 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.00927 x 900 = 8.343 kWh

Total off peak costs: (31.1575 + 8.343) x 0.11 = $ 4.345055

Total annual energy costs for one PC = (4.345 + 682.4 + 2.799) = $ 689.544

Energy costs for 275 PCs = $ 189624.6

Energy Costs of the Laptop ($)

Peak hours Energy Costs Calculation:

Stand by 2pm-7pm = 5 hours

Annual stand by and peak hours = (5 X 250 weekdays) = 1250

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (5 x 1.1) ÷ 1000 = 0.0055 kWh

Total annual consumption: 0.0055 x 1250 = 6.875 kWh

Off 7pm-8pm = 1 hour

Annual off and peak hours = (1 x 250) = 250

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (1 x 1.1) ÷ 1000 = 0.0011 kWh

Total annual kWh: 0.0011 x 250 = 0.275 kWh

Total annual peak energy costs = (0.275 + 6.875) x $ 0.25 = $ 1.788

Shoulder hours Energy Costs

Off 7am-8am = 1 hour

Annual shoulder and off hours: (250x 1) = 250

Wattage: 1.1

Daily Consumption: 0.0011 kWh

Total annual: 0.275 kWh

Stand by 8am-10am = 2 hours

Annual stand by and shoulder hours: (2 x 250) = 500

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (1.1 x 2) ÷ 1000 = 0.0022 kWh

Total annual consumption = 0.0022 x 500 = 11 kWh

Maximum 10am-2pm = 4 hours

Annual shoulder and maximum hours: (4 x 250) = 1000

Wattage: 53

Daily Consumption: (53 x 4) ÷ 1000 = 0.212 kWh

Total annual consumption: 0.212 x 1000 = 212 kWh

Weekends

            Maximum 10am-10pm = 12 hours

Annual maximum and weekend hours: (12 x 100) = 1200

Wattage: 53

Daily consumption: (53 x 12) ÷ 1000 = 0.636 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.636 x 1200 = 763.2 kWh

Off 7am-8am = 1 hour

Annual hours: (1 x 100) = 100

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (1.1 x 1) ÷ 1000 = 0.0011 kWh

Annual Consumption: 0.0011 x 100 = 0.11 kWh

Standby 8am-10am = 2hours

Annual hours: (2 x 100) = 200

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (1.1 x 2) ÷ 1000 = 0.0022 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0022 x 200 = 0.44 kWh

Total costs: (212 + 11 + 0.275 + 763.2 + 0.11 + 0.44) x 0.19 = $ 187.53475

Off-Peak hours Energy Costs

            Weekdays

Off 8pm-7am = 11 hours

Annual hours = (11 x 250) = 2750

Wattage: 1.1

Daily consumption: (1.1 x 11) ÷ 1000 = 0.0121 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0121 x 2750 = 33.275 kWh

Weekends 10pm-7am 9hrs

            Annual hours: (9 x 100) = 900

Wattage:  1.1

Daily consumption: (1.1 x 9) ÷ 1000 = 0.0099 kWh

Annual consumption: 0.0099 x 900 = 8.91 kWh

Total off peak costs: (33.275 + 8.91) x 0.11 = $ 4.64035

Total annual energy costs for one laptop = (4.64 + 187.535 + 1.788) = $ 193.963

Energy costs for 275 laptops = $ 53339.825

 

  1. NPV for Option 1:

Annual Energy costs

Laptop: 53339.825

PC: 189624.6

NPV of Option 1:

R = 189624.6

n = 5

i = 7

PV = 189624.6 x (1- (1.07%) ^ (-5))/ 7% = $ 831, 923.1796

NPV= 831,923.179 – 412500 = 419423.179

NPV for Laptops:

NPV = 53339.825 x (1- (1.07%) ^ (-5))/ 7% = $ 234,013. 081

234013.081 – 440000 = (- 205986.919)

 

C

            The best financial option of the two is the laptop option because it registers a higher return in future than the laptop option. The negative NPV shows a higher future return on investment for the laptops than Option 1.

            The best option energy wise is the laptop because the amount of energy consumed by the laptops is lower than that consumed by option 1 and thus less costly.

E

A rise in electricity costs by 10% mean that the cost paid by the institution for electricity will also rise by 10%:

Laptop: 53339.825

PC: 189624.6

The above original costs will rise by 10% i.e.:

Laptops energy costs: 58673.805

PCs energy costs: 208, 587.06

PV for the laptops: 58673.805 x (1- (1.07%) ^ (-5))/ 7% = 257414.378

NPV: 257414.378 – 412500 = -155085.622

PV for the PCs: 208587.06 x (1- (1.07%) ^ (-5))/ 7% = 915115.497

NPV: 915115.497 – 440000 = 475115.497

F

            If electricity costs rise by 10% in the next five years, the laptops will register a positive NPV while the PCs will register a negative NPV. This means that with an increase in energy costs the PCs will be causing losses to the company. A ten percent increase in energy costs will lead to negative returns from the PC option while the laptop option will register positive returns due to its energy saving quality. It is therefore prudent and cost saving to choose the laptop option over the PC option.

 

QUESTION 2

Pressure drops:

Duct 1 3 Pa/m x 0.36 = 1.08

Duct 2 1 Pa/m x 5.625 = 0.5625

Duct 3 0.25 Pa/m x 1 = 0.25

Calculating velocity:

Volume of ducts:

1: 0.006 x 0.006 = 0.000036 m2

2: 0.0075 x 0.0075 = 0.00005625 m2

3: 0.01 x 0.01 = 0.0001m2

 

Duct velocity:

vm = qm / Am

vm = air velocity

qm = air flow

Am = area of duct

 

A

Duct Average velocity (m/s) Pressure for frictional losses Pressure to supply air Total pressure Suitability in kW
1 39.33 1.08 1092500 1,011574 5.9
2 8.39 0.5625 148977 264849 3.4
3 1.18 0.25 11800 47200 2.7

 

B

Fan and duct combination (Electricity costs) Weekday ($) Weekend day ($) Week ($) A year ($) Ten years ($)
0.75/ duct 1 8.5  10.089 62.7 3009.6 30096
0.75/duct 2 5.6 4.845 37.7 1583 15830
0.75/duct 3 5.2 3.8475 33.6 1411.2 14112
1.1/duct 1 16.7442 12.331 108.162 4542.8 45428
1.1/duct 2 9.6492 7.106 62.5 2623 26232
1.1/duct 3 7.7 5.643 49.8 2091 20910

C

QUESTION 3: COGENERATION

A.

Peak = 2pm-8pm

Shoulder = 7am -2pm and 8pm-10pm

Weekends 7am-10pm

Off peak = 10pm- 7am weekdays and weekends

Peak costs for the aquatic pool:

1961.47 x 0.23 = 451.14

Shoulder 1635 x 0.17 = 277.95

1426 x 0.17 = 242.42

1631 x 0.17 = 277.27

Off peak 738 x 0.09 = 66.42

Total daily energy costs for the aquatic plant = $ 1315.2

B.

 

Graph of energy consumption against time.

 

C.

Cogeneration unit maintenance costs:

The electricity maintenance costs for the unit are charged at 0.03 kWh. These charges can be spread across the charging system to get the overall cost.

Peak costs= 0.03kWh x 6hrs x $ 0.23 = $ 0.0414

Shoulder; 0.03kWh x 9hrs x $ 0.17 = $ 0.0459

Off peak: 0.03 x 10 x 0.09 = 0.027

Weekends 0.03 x 14 x 0.17 = 0.0714

0.03 x 10 x 0.09 = 0.027

Daily maintenance costs (Weekdays):

0.0414 + 0.0459 + 0.027 = $ 0.9

Total Daily electricity maintenance (Weekends):

0.027 + 0.0714 = $ 0.0984

Cost per week:

(0.9 x 5) + (0.0984 x 2) = 4.5 + 0.1968 = $ 4.6968

Cost per year:

4.6968 x 52 = $ 244.2336

D.

Total gas consumption for the year:

The gas consumption for the year is a sum of the total monthly gas consumption levels. Therefore the gas consumption for the year = 60157 Gj

The gas charge per GJ is $ 11. Hence, cost of gas per year= 60157 x 11.00 = $ 661727

E.

Cogeneration unit 1:

1200 – (606+106+591) = (-103)

Cogeneration unit 2:

1600 – (790+134+796) = (-120)

Cogeneration unit 3:

2000- (978+178-1012) = (-168)

F.

Each of the cogeneration units listed demands a high amount of electricity to run. The cogeneration units should run during times of the day when the demand for electricity and heat by the plant is higher.

Cogeneration unit 3:  This unit produces more electricity but also uses more it should therefore run between 8pm and 10pm. During this time, the energy requirements of the plant are moderate and can sustain the unit and there is enough demand for heat to warrant its operation. Cogeneration unit 2 should run when there is a higher electric consumption and demand by the plant. In this case, the times between 12pm and 4pm would be ideal. Cogeneration unit 1 has a lower production of electricity and is suitable for the time between 11pm and 4am.

 

G.

           

 

 

Creating a Purpose Statement, Defining Variables and Formulating a Hypothesis

Creating a Purpose Statement, Defining Variables and Formulating a Hypothesis

 

 

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Creating a Purpose Statement, Defining Variables and Formulating a Hypothesis

The aim of this project is the creation and implementation of a risk management plan in a healthcare setting. The plan should be effective and in line with the healthcare’s vision and mission. In order for the objective to be met, the paper will discuss various risk situations that can be experienced at the workplace by patients, employees and other parties. It establishes the factors bringing about these risks and their management. The paper will use both the qualitative and quantitative methodologies in data collection and analysis in order to make accurate deductions, ensuring that the plan created is effective enough to achieve its intended purpose of risk management.

In a hypothesis, various factors interact for the assumption to be true. Some are influenced by changes in other participating factors while others remain constant with a change in the other participating factors. An independent variable in a hypothesis is one the does not change when exposed to different situations thus, it cannot be manipulated by an alteration in the other factors. Regardless of a change in other factors, the independent variable remains constant. Thus, the independent variable is used as the factor against which other variables are measured. In this case, it is referred to as the active independent variable where it is varied in order to measure the extent of response of the other variables in relation to the change in the independent variable (Roger, 2004).

A dependent variable, on the other hand, alters depending on the factors affecting it. The dependent variable changes in response to the independent variable. Hence, the purpose of the dependent variable is to help the researcher identify if the alteration of an independent variable has an effect thus helping in the measurement of the magnitude of the change in response to change in the independent variable (Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania, 2013). The dependent variable is crucial as it identifies the significance of the effects resulting from alteration of an independent variable. This creates an accurate solution and one that is effective to the situation at hand.

In this paper, the hypothesis involves identifying the potential risk factor that poses a hazard to patients and employees in the healthcare facilities. By identifying the factors, it is possible to deduce the effects of each and the magnitude of the effect that the factor poses. A possible hypothesis that I could use in this research paper would be as follows. Miscommunication among healthcare personnel is a factor that results in risky situations for patients in health facilities, in the form of occurrence of medical errors. In this case, miscommunications are the independent variables while the risk situations in the form of medical errors arising from the miscommunications are the dependent variables.

Here, a qualitative risk analysis approach will be used to collect data on the various occurrences of miscommunications and the number of medical errors that have resulted from that. The amount of medical errors that have occurred in healthcare facilities where the level of miscommunications is high leading to hazards to patients’ health will be compared to the amount of medical errors that have occurred in places where few and no miscommunications have occurred. This will bring out the relation between miscommunication and the medical errors arising from the miscommunications, indicating the magnitude of risks that miscommunication poses to the healthcare industry.

 

 

 

 

References

Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania. (2013). Independent and dependent variables. Retrieved from: http://www.lhup.edu/sboland/independent_and_dependent_variab.htm

Roger, M. Ph.D. (2004). The Whole Art of Deduction: Research Skills for New Scientists. Retrieved from: http://www.sahs.utmb.edu/pellinore/intro_to_research/wad/wad_home.htm#contents

Business Strategy – Factors to Consider

Business Strategy – Factors to Consider

 

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Business Strategy – Factors to Consider

Business strategy is fundamental for any business. It is a plan of action that a business undertakes in order to achieve a desired outcome such as a goal. It gives the general direction a company by integrating the company’s workforce and utilization of available resources to lead to the implementation of the laid down plans. Business strategies also give foresight to the vision and mission of the company and how to find solutions in the event the company is faced with challenges. It is therefore; the guiding set of principles for a business company that gives it direction and is useful for both the companies themselves and to their existing and potential investors and share holders.

Apple Inc. is a multinational American cooperation that deals with manufacturing of electronic consumer products. Established in 1976, it has grown to be a major player in the electronics industry as it is currently ranked 17 on the fortune 500 company lists. Over the last decade the company has established itself as worldwide brand with the unveiling of products such as the revolutionary iPod, iPhone, and iPad. The introduction of the iPod was seen as a game changer as it broke into the mp3 music player industry and managed to be adapted by consumers as the preferential product. This meant that their business strategies had changed as they had a growing demand for their products. This is seen in the year 2007 when the company dropped the name ‘Computer’ to cater for their ongoing development.

Current financial trends aid the owners, employees and investors to know the company’s status and how they may be able to plan for the near future. This is based on the current market conditions and the stock value of the company as they play a key role in determining the likelihood of investment. As it stands, Apple Inc is very well positioned in the tech industry as they have in place competitive strategies that ensure they are still profitable. This is because they give research and development high priority which consequently enables them to come up with innovative products that appeal to the consumers. Currently, there is a dip in the stock value as there are quality products being manufactured by their competitors. In an attempt to remain competitive there needs to be more innovation or revision of the business strategy otherwise there could be reduced profit margins.

In the last fiscal year, there was a peak in their stock value as Apple shares went up to a recon-breaking $705 per share (Apple Inc. 2013). This trend was realized due to the anticipation and expectation of the release of their iPhone 5 product. The success of the company was attributed to meeting the industry’s demand of more innovative products. Another factor is that they had healthy financials as they had good operation efficiencies and liquidity figures (Schoenig, Sundberg ,Pazoki, Torres, Marshall. 2005). The recent trends also indicate that it is a fairly stable company as their profit margins remained stable as they managed to clear their debts. This is usually very difficult to achieve for companies in the tech industry and in doing so it implies that the company strategy changes. Resources that could have been used to repay debt can be pumped into other areas such, as research and development which would ensure their continual growth.

The company’s strategic intent is shown by going beyond the normal strategy and planning for what cannot be seen. This means that the company now has to be proactive and account for things they have not taken into consideration (Mantere, & Sillience, n.d). The way they strategize takes a new form new ways to address growing market demands. Apple through their products has shown that they are innovators as they have released revolutionary products that have been broadly adapted. The slogan “Think different” resonates synonymously to all people across the world. This is a clear declaration of their stand, on producing exemplary products. Their financial objectives of not being in debt and conversion of gross profit into net income are proving to be successful. They are not n debt and they are still having good profitability margins.

Organizational culture is important in understanding the values and working mechanisms of an organization (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2008).  The Apple has established a popular organizational structure that’s based on the principle of self motivation and a top-down philosophy. Decisions are made even at the lowest levels possible by employees on a daily basis. This means that they have competitive advantage over rival companies as there is faster responsiveness of employees in the decision making process. This reduces micromanagement as employees believe in themselves. The management only oversees the decisions made by the workforce.

The strategic element of cost is highlighted by the fact that the company is among the admirable companies that are not in debt. This means that the recurrent expenditure is less and those resources can be used elsewhere, which give the company competitive advantage over other companies. The human resources practices are done in a bid to achieve loyalty from the employees. For Apple to retain their highly qualified personnel there are benefits that entice the employees to work there. Benefits offered to the employee are dependant on position, location and how long one has worked for them. There are many positions within the company therefore career growth path is available. This means that employees would want to remain at the company. As a result these elements steer higher productivity which leads to higher profitability.

 

 

 

 

References

Alvesson, M., & Sveningsson, S. (2008). Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. New York: Routledge.

Apple Inc. (2013). Stock information. Retrieved from http://investor.apple.com/stockquote.cfm

 

Mantere, S, & Sillience, J. (n.d) The Social Construction of Strategic Intent. Retrieved from http://tuta.aalto.fi/fi/tutkimus/tyopsykologia/julkaisut/tyopaperit/mantere-sillince-strategic-intent.pdf

Schoenig, C, Sundberg M, Pazoki, C,  Torres, D, Marshall, H. (2005). Comprehensive Business Analysis. Retrieved From http://mmoore.ba.ttu.edu/ValuationReports/Apple.pdf

 

Toward a Sustainable Future

Toward a Sustainable Future

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Toward a Sustainable Future

Greenhouse gases are any gases present in an atmosphere that are able to absorb and emit thermal radiation within a specified infrared range, therefore, containing heat in the atmosphere. This constant absorption and emissions of radiation leads to an increase in heat in the atmosphere, consequently causing greenhouse effects. Over time, the greenhouse effects ultimately cause global warming. There are several greenhouse gases. Some are natural while others are because of industrial emissions. The key greenhouse gases are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are the only non-naturally occurring gas.

Carbon dioxide has the highest concentration of all the greenhouse gases that are attributed to the industrial revolution. This is because; fossil fuels such as coal are needed for the energy production process. The continual use of fossil fuels results in anthropogenic carbon emissions, that is, emissions due to human activities. Methane, though having a lower concentration, is actually more efficient as a greenhouse gas. It is released when fossil fuels are mined from the earth and burned, and through anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure. Nitrous oxide, despite its even lower concentrations, has greater greenhouse gas efficiency. Nitrous oxide is emitted from the use of fertilizers during agricultural activities, deforestation of trees and combustion of fossil fuels.

Global warming is the gradual rise in the average temperature of the earth due to extensive greenhouse effects. Global warming has adverse effects that are felt throughout the world. Therefore, it should be controlled as future generations will suffer increasingly for the global warming occurring today. According to Lallanilla (2013), the earth is 1.4 degrees hotter than it previously was 100 years ago. The melting of glaciers and icebergs in the North and South poles leads to the rise in sea water levels and anthropogenic climate warming. This results in reducing land mass in Greenland and Antarctica (Potsdam-Institut and World Bank, 2012). This means that they are slowly being covered by the sea.

Sound science refers to the making of a conclusion based on decisive results from observation, experiments and investigations. These results have to be verified through scientific methods before they are documented, as they are used to form the basis of a conclusion brought about by consensus. Some of these methods include the use of clear and proper hypotheses, systematic data collection techniques, accurate data analysis equipment and well represented results. Citation of possible references used is also important as it gives the documentation credibility. Sound science supports the theory on global warming in this research paper as the sources used for data collection are from existing institutions. These institutions, for example, the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), have the mandate of providing accurate and credible data and information.

Emission reductions can be done by taking preventive measures where possible, and controlling the current emissions experienced from human activities. One way of reducing emissions is by embracing new technologies that are independent of fossil-based fuels. Hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly popular aiming to reduce the carbon footprint on the earth. They run using modified internal combustion engines powering electric motors that run the car. Electrical power is used to charge the vehicles as opposed to fossil fuels. This helps reduce emissions. Another effective method is by using eco friendly products. They can be easily recycled, thus creating sustainability within the environment. Putting up stiffer penalties for industries that solely use fossil-based fuels will encourage the use of renewable energies.

 

References

Lallanilla, M. (2013). Effects of Global Warming. Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/37057-global-warming-effects.html

Potsdam-Institut für Klimafolgenforschung, & World Bank. (2012). Turn down the heat: Why a 4°C warmer world must be avoided. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Network Troubleshooting Products

Network Troubleshooting Products

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Network Troubleshooting Products

There are several graphical troubleshooting tools that can be used with a Microsoft Windows network. Some of these are, Nmap (zenmap), inSSider, pathping, Route, Wireshark/tcpdump, PTRG Network Monitor, ipconfig/ifconfig and Tracert/traceroute. The three being focused upon here are Nmap (zenmap), Wireshark/tcpdump and Pathping. These are the most commonly used network troubleshooting tools.

Network Mapper Nmap (zenmap) is a free open source utility that acts as a security scanner (Lyon, 2008). Its main objective is port scaning though it performs other functions such as, operating software scanning and detection, ping sweeps and version detection. This is useful for auditing purposes as it searches an entire network. Other capabilities are managing service upgrade schedules and carrying out inventory on the network. The service uptime is also managed by the Network Mapper. This is achieved by sending packets to the network target hosts which are analyzed before creating a ‘map’. It is through this map that the tool is able to scan the network and dectect possible vulnerability points before returning the feedback. Advantages of Nmap are; flexibility: this implies that it is suited to support several network mapping techniques that range from conducting ping sweeps, to taking advantage of both UDP and TCP port scanning methods (Held, 2013). Nmap is easy to use as it has both command lines and graphical user interface versions. It is a free utility available to all users. One limitation to the Nmap utility tool is that the fingerprinting method it uses is slowly being outdated by SinFP tools.

Wireshark is an open source networking tool used to develop protocol communication  in the network. It does troubleshooting by analyzing the captured packets and filtering some of the communications. This packet scanner analyzes the network traffic through the use of network interface controllers. All traffic is not able to be captured through the network switch therefore, other tools are used with it in promiscuous mode. This poses as one of the limitations. Another limitation is that it not able to capture data between frames. This is because it is centered on packets and not data. This implies that one cannot obtain 100% of the data line. It is also difficult to find errors because there are possible gaps between frames. In instances of large network file capture, it is limited because its performance cannot be increased. It is still a powerful tool as seen when used with the display filters available to it. Deep protocol inspection is possible as it has decryption support for several protocols.

Pathping combines the functionality of both ping and those of tracert (Morimoto 2008) with a route tracing tool that neither of them has independently. It is path-centric; therefore, each router receives packets over time which is used to determine the feedback results. Ping usually tests the connectivity between the requesting host and the destination host. An echo packet is what is transmitted between the two hosts. If here is a to and fro communication, then the host is reachable. The tracect is used to give more detailed information between the two hosts and the route that was used by the packets. It also gives the response time of the communication done between the hosts. Problems within the networks can easily establish as the links and the routers  show the degree of packet loss. Its major advantage is troubleshoots faster than other tools as it uses a single command thus saving time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Held, G. (2013). Windows networking tools: The complete guide to management, troubleshooting, and security. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Lyon, G. F. (2008). Nmap network scanning: Official Nmap project guide to network discovery and security scanning. Sunnyvale, CA: Insecure.Com, LLC.

Morimoto, R. (2008). Windows Server 2008: Unleashed. Indianapolis, Ind: Sams.

 

 

 

 

 

Efficient capital structures for manufacturing companies

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Efficient capital structures for manufacturing companies

A capital structure refers to the percentage of different kinds of capital involved in a certain commercial organization. These types of capital may either be debt or equity capital. The analysis of these types of capital is essential in the proper management of any business. They influence both the company’s gains as well as the possibility of incurring losses. The equity capital entails the money owned by the business’ stakeholders in terms of both dividends and initial capital. On the other hand, the debt capital refers to the money loaned to the business either as short-term or long-term loans.

There are various types of capital structures that are applicable in a manufacturing company. Mezzanine debt is one of these structures. It provides the manufacturing company with loans depending on the size and value of their company. It is appropriate for manufacturing industries since the manufacturers are able to retain a vast portion of the company’s profits despite the debt. Moreover, the manufacturer gets to retain full ownership of the company. Additionally, one can have more than one loan lenders that ensure that the company has sufficient money to run the business.

Furthermore, the participating debt type of capital structure can suit many manufacturing companies. Depending on the company’s value, one can get a huge sum of money from a money-lending institution. It similar to the mezzanine debt structure in that one can repay the money in several installments. However, unlike in the mezzanine debt structure, one can only get the money from one lender. It is beneficial to the manufacturer, as he may need large sums of money that he does not have, to run the business.

Use of these two types of capital structures will ensure a high cost of capital. In most cases, lack of sufficient cash is the main hindrance of manufacturing companies from expanding their firms. These structures allow the manufacturers to pay their loans in installments that protect them from experiencing extreme difficulties in the repayment of these funds. Moreover, the manufacturers are assured of full ownership of the company under these capital structures. This means that they will not have to share their profits with the lenders unlike in other types of capital structures.