Nursing Philosophy

Nursing Philosophy

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Institution:

 

Nursing Philosophy

I selected nursing as my line of work since I honestly believe that the need to assist people through nursing is a vocation, and I feel obligated towards assisting those in need. Nursing is an admirable profession. It should be treated as more than just a source of income. My task is to provide objective care for those who need assistance in spite of race, religious beliefs, disability, economic status, or lifestyle choices. My viewpoint is that nurses have a duty to the public to offer secure, wholesome, patient-centered care. I constantly keep in mind that all my patients are not merely hospital customers, but human beings that need and warrant personalized attention and assistance. Nurses should apply clinical understanding to help in addressing the patient’s needs. As endorsed, nurses should give power to patients by supporting them to assume an active role in their own health and participate in joint goal setting between the medical staff and the patient. Nurses should preserve patient confidentiality except in cases where this confidentiality infringes on the law. It is our job to sensitize patients and their families on ailments, therapies, and healthy lifestyles in order to enhance their outcomes. Nurses should also endeavor to adopt constructive behaviors in our own lifestyles in the belief that we will extend better care to patients if we can illustrate the same amount of care.

Nurses are fully committed to acquiring the latest knowledge and skills and pursue self-improvement through continuous learning. In this way, I do not remain inactive in our profession, but develop professionally via evidence-based practice and scientific advances. My personal visualization as a nurse is that I will constantly continue learning, not only through academic channels but also from collaborations with other members of the medical team and by being engaged in the incidences of the patients. I have a desire to acquire knowledge on a daily basis, and implement what I have learned to enhance my knowledge as a nurse.

My individual internal values and beliefs as a nurse include compassion, honesty, perseverance, lifelong learning, independence, family, and success in realizing my goals. I apply these beliefs and values to make personal choices and make progress in my professional career. I believe that the heart of nursing is extending caring, information, and reliability. The center of nursing is on meeting patient needs, treating the patients, patient wellbeing, and patient awareness. I feel that my private and career philosophies are harmonized because my personal principles extend beyond the motivating factors behind the core of nursing. The features that make an excellent nurse cannot be suppressed after the profession is done (McKenna, Pankhihar, & Murphy, 2014). However, they are part of my character as a person, and I exhibit them in all areas of life. To implement my philosophies on a daily basis, I must accept that while I always perform to my level best, I am human, and have my own flaws. If a procedure does not go as planned, I will study the problem, and attempt to learn from it. I will carry on working with the confidence that I have learnt something new. Constantly, I become a better nurse everyday compared to the previous day. I will also allocate time to observe and reflect on my own choices to ensure I am still on track with what I understand are best nursing practices.

Nurses should sustain the personal and professional moral standards always. When I discover conflict between my individual principles and those of the patient, I should strive to find an adviser to direct me through our divergence and discover a solution that delivers the demands of the patient without going against my own personal values. As a nurse, I must promise to be accountable for my own behavior. I must always keep in mind that my colleagues can be excellent resources. They merit respect and acknowledgment for their constant dedication, dependability, and knowledge. Nurses ought to assist and support fellow nurses, nurse interns, and other healthcare staff to offer a constructive team setting (McKenna et al., 2014). In unison, we can work together to make the most of the patient’s health. As a nurse, I can contribute my part to enhance the reputation of the nursing line of work using daily work principles as well as participation in the society, political, and certified nursing organizations. Through these platforms, nurses can cooperatively enhance healthcare standards both domestically and internationally.

The main reason that I am still in the nursing profession today is that the job offers daily opportunities and experiences medically and otherwise. The nursing sector lacks any space for monotony. If one area in nursing would transform in a way that it could no longer meet my personal needs or career objectives, I have many other alternative areas of expertise that require nurses. I believe that in order to keep up with my nursing profession, education is an important part of the process. Advanced education about medical problems related to care administration is very significant. A wide-ranging study can be used to discover a wealth of information. This knowledge can be transposed to the initial experience I already possess and can significantly improve my skills. In the process, this will permit me to offer the finest quality care. I have faith that the sexual orientation, ethnic settings and cultural viewpoints of the patients and families should be considered. I am also sure of my capability to progress in my profession without illustrating any form of prejudice. I have gone through the demands of ethical codes as prescribed by the American Nurses Association and Joint Commission Standards. I am already practicing most of them. They include offering safe care, privacy and discretion and respecting the patient’s human rights. I try hard to be an instructor, and an advocate of disease consciousness, safe health practices, and a supporter of positive lifestyles.

Since I was three years old, I remember having a strong urge to help the people around me using the knowledge I had seen in my environment. Throughout elementary school and college, I gradually made oblivious decisions that led me to the nursing career. I feel most content when I am taking care of others (Ondrejka, 2014). My personal nursing predisposition is one that is focused on empathy and service. Before entering the nursing profession, it was necessary to examine my individual principles and values and see if they would fit in the specific practice. My nursing philosophy integrates the understanding of medicine while complementing it with empathetic caring that observes the self-esteem of each patient. My attitude is one that concentrates on empowering each patient while giving them appropriate care. My most important input to nursing in the current context is my constructive viewpoint of life, passion, and the capacity to extend encouragement to patients.

 

References

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McKenna, H. P., Pankhihar, M., & Murphy, F. (2014). Fundamentals of nursing models, theories and practice. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

Ondrejka, D. (2014). Affective teaching in nursing: Connecting to feelings, values, and inner awareness. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

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Nursing Philosophy

Nursing Philosophy

Name:

Institution:

 

Nursing Philosophy

I selected nursing as my line of work since I honestly believe that the need to assist people through nursing is a vocation, and I feel obligated towards assisting those in need. Nursing is an admirable profession. It should be treated as more than just a source of income. My task is to provide objective care for those who need assistance in spite of race, religious beliefs, disability, economic status, or lifestyle choices. My viewpoint is that nurses have a duty to the public to offer secure, wholesome, patient-centered care. I constantly keep in mind that all my patients are not merely hospital customers, but human beings that need and warrant personalized attention and assistance. Nurses should apply clinical understanding to help in addressing the patient’s needs. As endorsed, nurses should give power to patients by supporting them to assume an active role in their health and participate in joint goal setting between the medical staff and the patient. Nurses should preserve patient confidentiality except in cases where this confidentiality infringes on the law. It is our job to sensitize patients and their families on ailments, therapies, and healthy lifestyles to enhance their outcomes. Nurses should also endeavor to adopt constructive behaviors in our lifestyles in the belief that we will extend better care to patients if we can illustrate the same amount of care.

Nurses are fully committed to acquiring the latest knowledge and skills and pursue self-improvement through continuous learning. In this way, I do not remain inactive in our profession but develop professionally via evidence-based practice and scientific advances. My personal visualization as a nurse is that I will constantly continue learning, not only through academic channels but also from collaborations with other members of the medical team and by being engaged in the incidences of the patients. I have a desire to acquire knowledge on a daily basis and implement what I have learned to enhance my knowledge as a nurse.

My individual internal values and beliefs as a nurse include compassion, honesty, perseverance, lifelong learning, independence, family, and success in realizing my goals. I apply these beliefs and values to make personal choices and make progress in my professional career. I believe that the heart of nursing is extending caring, information, and reliability. The center of nursing is on meeting patient needs, treating the patients, patient well-being, and patient awareness. I feel that my private and career philosophies are harmonized because my personal principles extend beyond the motivating factors behind the core of nursing. The features that make an excellent nurse cannot be suppressed after the profession is done (McKenna, Pankhihar, & Murphy, 2014). However, they are part of my character as a person, and I exhibit them in all areas of life. To implement my philosophies on a daily basis, I must accept that while I always perform to my level best, I am human, and have my flaws. If a procedure does not go as planned, I will study the problem, and attempt to learn from it. I will carry on working with the confidence that I have learnt something new. Constantly, I become a better nurse every day compared to the previous day. I will also allocate time to observe and reflect on my choices to ensure I am still on track with what I understand are best nursing practices.

Nurses should sustain the personal and professional moral standards always. When I discover a conflict between my individual principles and those of the patient, I should strive to find an adviser to direct me through our divergence and discover a solution that delivers the demands of the patient without going against my personal values. As a nurse, I must promise to be accountable for my behavior. I must always keep in mind that my colleagues can be excellent resources. They merit respect and acknowledgment for their constant dedication, dependability, and knowledge. Nurses ought to assist and support fellow nurses, nurse interns, and other healthcare staff to offer a constructive team setting (McKenna et al., 2014). In unison, we can work together to make the most of the patient’s health. As a nurse, I can contribute my part to enhance the reputation of the nursing line of work using daily work principles as well as participation in the society, political, and certified nursing organizations. Through these platforms, nurses can cooperatively enhance healthcare standards both domestically and internationally.

The main reason that I am still in the nursing profession today is that the job offers daily opportunities and experiences medically and otherwise. The nursing sector lacks any space for monotony. If one area in nursing would transform in a way that it could no longer meet my personal needs or career objectives, I have many other alternative areas of expertise that require nurses. I believe that to keep up with my nursing profession, education is an important part of the process. Advanced education about medical problems related to care administration is very significant. A wide-ranging study can be used to discover a wealth of information. This knowledge can be transposed to the initial experience I already possess and can significantly improve my skills. In the process, this will permit me to offer the finest quality care. I have faith that the sexual orientation, ethnic settings, and cultural viewpoints of the patients and families should be considered. I am also sure of my capability to progress in my profession without illustrating any form of prejudice. I have gone through the demands of ethical codes as prescribed by the American Nurses Association and Joint Commission Standards. I am already practicing most of them. They include offering safe care, privacy, and discretion and respecting the patient’s human rights. I try hard to be an instructor, and an advocate of disease consciousness, safe health practices, and a supporter of positive lifestyles.

Since I was three years old, I remember having a strong urge to help the people around me using the knowledge I had seen in my environment. Throughout elementary school and college, I gradually made oblivious decisions that led me to the nursing career. I feel most content when I am taking care of others (Ondrejka, 2014). My personal nursing predisposition is one that is focused on empathy and service. Before entering the nursing profession, it was necessary to examine my individual principles and values and see if they would fit in the specific practice. My nursing philosophy integrates the understanding of medicine while complementing it with empathetic caring that observes the self-esteem of each patient. My attitude is one that concentrates on empowering each patient while giving them appropriate care. My most important input to nursing in the current context is my constructive viewpoint of life, passion, and the capacity to extend encouragement to patients.

 

References

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Top of Form

McKenna, H. P., Pankhihar, M., & Murphy, F. (2014). Fundamentals of nursing models, theories, and practice. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

Ondrejka, D. (2014). Affective teaching in nursing: Connecting to feelings, values, and inner awareness. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

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The Harm over Population

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The Harm over Population

Introduction

Human overpopulation is a central issue that affects many other different sectors. Indirectly, overpopulation is responsible for driving other global issues including global warming, ecological loss, pollution, wasteful farming practices and the usage of limited natural resources. One of the key factors that have contributed towards the rapid population growth globally is the advancement of medical technology and techniques. The increased ability to save human lives and invent effective drugs are some of the probable causes of the overpopulation. Consequently, this has resulted in increased lifespan and population explosion. The balance between birth and death rates is also affected negatively and this imbalance generates new complications on the economy and society.

With an increase in population, it is also natural to assume that the number of industrial and economic activities will increase. The number of factories, manufacturing and assembly plants, and other heavy machinery sites across the world as increased drastically with the dual pressure of overpopulation and demand for manufactured products. Increased reliance on carbon fuel engines that are fitted in motor vehicles and other household machinery such as generators and lawn mowers has resulted in massive tail gas expulsion (Fowler 67). Overpopulation implies that an increased number of people own and use vehicles increasing the volume of greenhouse gases. While the population explosion results in increased number of private vehicles, it has also resulted in other environmental and administrative issues. These include traffic jams and accidents that worsen the health and lifestyles for people. These problems at the local level have a massive influence on the overall state of the economy in that places a greater amount of expenditure into resolving the problems.

Employment is a significant factor in within any economy and the emerging issue of overpopulation acts to reverse the gains made by different economic stakeholders. Even among the first world countries, employment opportunities are still limited. With an explosion of overpopulation, the number of jobs becomes lesser in the country. Consequently, more people are forced to live below the bare minimum. One can easily conclude that overpopulation is directly related to high poverty levels. As mentioned in the previous section, overpopulation places enormous stress on the economy (Dodds 45). A direct result of this is inflation and economic recession. This feature is mostly evident in the developed world where the state is responsible for funding welfare services. As the population grows, the government is forced to increase its expenditure to assist unemployed people. This financial stress borne by the government is reflected in increased prices for basic commodities such as foodstuff, fuel and power. At the individual level, economic recessions have the effect of creating crises in corporations that result in massive job layoffs (O’Rourke and Cooper 18). As more people lose their jobs, they are forced to depend on government welfare and in the process, completing the recession cycle.

Conclusion

Pollution, congestion, global warming and other forms of environmental issues are directly related to human overpopulation. In turn, human overpopulation has been caused by improved living standards and effective medical approaches. The rapid growth of human population has resulted in greater economic problems that include economic recession, massive layoff and increased state expenditure on welfare services. It is imperative to understand the relationship between the rate of population growth and its related effects on the environment and economy. Understanding this correlation translates into improved planning by the different stakeholders.

 

Works Cited

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Dodds, Walter K. Humanity’s Footprint: Momentum, Impact, and Our Global Environment. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Print.

Fowler, Charles W. Systemic Management: Sustainable Human Interactions with Ecosystems and the Biosphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

O’Rourke, P.J, and Blair, Cooper. All the Trouble in the World: The Lighter Side of Overpopulation, Famine, Ecological Disaster, Ethnic Hatred, Plague, and Poverty. Auckland, N.Z: Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind, 2013. Print.

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Portfolio

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Portfolio

Activity Based Costing

The technique is described as an approach towards monitoring of activities and costs through correlation of consumption of resources and costing the final outputs. Resources are usually assigned to activities and the activities to their respective cost subjects. In addition, the method provides for utilization of cost drivers correlated to activity costs of outputs. Activity Based Costing was first developed in the 1980s by William Burns and Robert Kaplan. It was developed with particularly interest and focus on the manufacturing industry because of the effects of technology and productivity enhancement that had resulted in significant reduction of material costs and direct labor. ABC has emerged as an effective alternative to the traditional method of allocation of overheads to services, products, and customers (Anderson & Young, 2001, p.17).

When compared to the traditional costing approach, ABC initially accumulates overheads across single activities in an organization. This is followed by the assignment of such activity costs to the services, products, or customers (cost objects) that bring about the activities.

ABC uses cost drivers to assign the costs of resources to activities and unit cost as a way of measuring an output. Initial activity analysis has been described as the most difficult element of activity based costing. The analysis of activities is described as a process that involves identification of appropriate output measures of resources (cost drivers) and activities as well as their respective effects resulting costs of developing products or provision of services.

In addition, activity based costing systems have relatively flexibility towards provision of special information such that management in organizations is able to make appropriate decisions in relation to the costs associated with production, sales and delivery of products or services. The main aspect of activity based costing is the focus on accumulation of costs through activities. Organizations are increasingly focusing on costs, their factors, and behavior, as a means of understanding what drives costs associated with delivery of services and production of goods and services. Such has brought about confusion on avenues that may be utilized in understanding costs and distinguishing them from competing cost measurement techniques such as standard costing, activity based costing, target costing and others.

Such has resulted in confusing amongst employees and managers on the appropriate costs to be measured and subsequently controlled for profitability. In addition, increasingly competitive business environments, and organizations seeking to enhance competitiveness through cost control relying on accurate and relevant cost information. Activity based costing has provided organizations with a means to overcome over-generalizations of previous traditional costing systems. Such systems are reliant on cost modeling which identifies organizational expenses (direct and direct) and relating such to services, products, customers and channels that drive such costs.

The growth in interest in activity based costing, according to existing literature, has been because of the displacement of direct expenses by indirect costs in the production of goods and services. It is suggested that the displacement has taken place because of shifts in technology, automation, and emergence of new equipment. In addition, such is attributable to the extensive levels of automation undertaken by companies as they seek cost-cutting measures to enhance productivity and profitability. In addition, such can also be attributable to the gradual proliferation in the different types of service and product lines being utilized by organizations. Over the past few decades, a majority of organizations have focused on improving product and service variety offered by utilizing new manufacturing technologies, distribution, and sales channels.

Furthermore, organizations have also been catering to a consumer base that has grown in terms of diversity of needs, expectations, and wants. Such has introduced extensive levels of variation and heterogeneity resulting in enhanced complexity and increased overhead costs for organizations. It is important to note that the overhead components of expenses are gradually displacing recurring labor costs, may not signify inefficiency or high bureaucracy. Such may be attributed to the provision of goods and services to an increased variety of consumers. The main issue with traditional costing is the relatively high amount of indirect expenses being associated with factors not related to cost drivers. In essence, consumption of resources should be identified and assigned because of their cause and an effect relation, which is appropriately provided through activity-based-costing (ABC).

Activity based costing and activity based management have brought radical changes within cost management systems. The philosophies and principles associated with activity-based thinking are applicable equally to manufacturing and service sectors. In addition, management practices and methodologies have also shifted significantly over the past few decades and will likely change more in the foreseeable future. In addition, organizations have shifted from vertical to horizontal management. Such has also contributed towards process orientation, away from traditional function orientation.

On the other hand, management information systems utilized in tracking and analyzing of information related to horizontal business aspects have not been adequate in catering to the needs of modern managers. Activity based costing and related models provide relief to such needs by delivering operation and cost related information that assumes a horizontal perspective. By utilizing activity based costing, organizations are able to understand their respective business processes and related cost behavior. Such information provides management with the necessary basis for decision-making at operational and strategic levels.

Value Chain Analysis

The international political economy is increasingly structuring itself within the confines of global value chains, which has been associated with increasing international trade, employment, and global gross domestic product (GDP). Globalization has brought about a number of questions related to appropriation of benefits, wealth and production and unequal social and economic developments. In essence, value chain analysis delivers relatively critical perspectives into issues of unequal appropriation, interactions between globalization and inequality and dispersal of manufacturing activities.

Value chain analysis is effective in overcoming a number of critical weaknesses inherent in traditional sectoral analyses, which have a tendency for being static and are bound by parameters. In addition, by being restricted within the confines of sectoral analysis, value chain analysis struggles with the dynamic linkages that exist between the activities, which go beyond the specific sector. Such takes place irrespective of activities being of a formal, informal, or inter-sectoral nature. Furthermore, value chain analysis also extends beyond firm-specific analyses in innovation literature (Cattaneo, Gereffi, & Staritz, 2010, p. 9).

The concentration on inter-linkages provides value chain analysis with an easy means of uncovering the synergism and dynamic movement of organizational, coercive, and economic activities that exist between producers across diverse sectors even to a global scale. For instance, informal sector scrap metalworkers in sub-Saharan Africa are linked to the global export trade. They are provided with prices prevailing in London and the scrap metal is delivered to various locations around the world. Such is illustrative that the notion of inter-linkages between organizations underpins the essence of value chain analysis, which makes it relatively easy to undertake interrelationship analyses between informal and formal work as opposed to viewing them as disconnected elements of activity.

Moreover, value chain analysis is critical for new procedures-including poor economies and producers, seeking entry into new global markets such that they are able to achieve sustainable profitability and growth. In addition, value chain analysis is a critical analytical tool that provides an effective means of understanding policy environments, which delivers a means of efficient allocation of various resources within a domestic economy. Such is achieved notwithstanding the main use, which is to understand means that organizations and states participate within the international global political economy (Cattaneo, Gereffi, & Staritz, 2010, p. 23).

Value chain analysis is important due to three primary sets of reasons, given the incidence of rapid globalization:

  1. First, the high division of labor and dispersion of production and systemic competitiveness in the global market has become important
  2. Secondly, the efficiency levels in production is a condition in successful penetration of global markets
  • Thirdly, entry into the global markets that provides means of sustaining income growth (best part of globalization) needs an understanding of the inherent dynamic factors present in an entire value chain

In essence, existing literature suggests that value chain analysis can be utilized to develop competitive strategies by understanding the factors that contribute towards the development of competitive advantage. In addition, it may contribute towards identification or development of interrelationships and linkages between the various activities that contribute towards development of value in an organization or economy. Competitive business strategies are reliant on integration of activities across the value chain. For instance, the interconnectedness between areas such as research and development (R&D), marketing, information systems, and production contributes towards the value chain of an organization. Thus, analysis of such linkages and interdependencies across activities, the ability to undertake coordination of interrelationships is important towards accrual of competitive advantage (Cattaneo, Gereffi, & Staritz, 2010, p. 25).

Integration remains critical for organizations, as it provides entities with a means of enhancing their respective capacities to implement strategies such as responding to market conditions and improving flexibility in responding to the needs of consumers or reduction of operation costs. Thus, value chain analysis contributes towards development of competitive strategies that focus on the necessary activities essential towards enhancement of value of services or products offered by an organization.

In essence, it is critical to note that competitive advantage and strategy are interrelated. Competitive advantage is arrived at using competitive strategies, which focuses on the creation of value. In addition, value is influenced by the unique integration of attributes of a product or service, which are important to the consumers. Value is added when specific functions or activities are executed in the delivery of a service or product. Competitive advantage and strategy may arise from different configurations of activities and functions within the organization. In addition, competitive strategy must be related to the capacity of the organization to sustain its competitive positive and in the process achieve long-term profitability and growth in its market of operation. In the establishment of competitive strategy, organizations may focus on specialization or cost leadership. Such is further divided into three generic strategies namely differentiation, cost leadership, and focus. It is important to note that generic strategies do not generally promise superior performance to the organization unless it is a sustainable endeavor when compared to the competitors.

Balanced Scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard was introduced in the year 1992 by Robert Kaplan and David Norton as a means of assessing organizational performance in organizations. Kaplan and Norton (1992) note that performance measurement remains critical for management as it provides organizations with a means of enhancing management of their respective intangible assets. Studies suggest that the most successful organizations rely on performance measurement models to understand and make decisions related to utilization of resources and effectiveness and efficiency of operations, activities, resources, and programs (Kaplan & Norton, 1992, p.73).

The balanced scorecard is a measure that includes four perspectives used in the assessment of health and strategic performance. These elements include:

  1. Customer Perspective

Evaluates customer satisfaction based on:

  • Percentage of consumers satisfied with the organization’s timeliness
  • Percentage of consumers satisfied with the organizations product and service quality

Evaluates effectiveness of service partnership based on:

  • Percentage of consumers satisfied with the organization’s cooperation, communication and responsiveness
  1. Internal business processes

Acquisition excellence, which comprises of an effective quality control system:

  • Assesses the ratio of protests that are sustained by general accounting office

Acquisition excellence in regard to effective usage of various alternative procurement practices

  • Covers the number of actions that utilize electronic commerce

Fulfilling public policy objectives

  • Assess the percentage of successful achievement of socioeconomic goals
  • Assesses the percentage of competitive procurement of the total number of procurements
  • Learning and growth

Information availability towards strategic decision-making

  • Assesses the extent of reliable information related to management of the organization

Quality workforce

  • Assesses the percentage of employees adhering to mandatory qualification standards

Employee satisfaction, focusing on quality work environments

  • Assesses the percentage of employees who are satisfied with prevailing work environment in the organization

Employee satisfaction, focusing on executive leadership

  • Assesses the percentage of employees who are satisfied with the culture, values, empowerment practices and professionalism prevailing in the organization, as initiated by the management
  1. Financial perspective

Minimization of administrative costs

  • Assesses the cost to spend ratio

Maximization of contract cost avoidance

  • Assesses cost avoidance by focusing on the utilization of purchase cards
  • Calculates percentage of the number of prompt payment interest paid in relation to the total number of funds released

The four perspectives provide management in organizations with minimized information overload, through limitations on the number of measures utilized. It is critical to note that organizations rarely suffer from utilizing few measures. In essence, the balanced scorecard provides managers with an avenue to focus on the most relevant issues relating to measurement of organizational performance.

The balanced scorecard integrates, into a single report, numerous disparate elements of an entity’s competitive elements such as enhanced customer orientation, quick response times, and improvement in quality, teamwork, and new product development. In addition, the scorecard provides safety against suboptimisation. Such takes place by ensuring that critical operational elements and measures are considered together, and in delivering insights on the effects of strategies on all areas of the organization. In addition, the most important objective may be executed and achieved poorly. Thus, an organization may be able to achieve reduction in time to market through improved product release practices (Kaplan & Norton, 1992, p.75).

Essentially, the balanced scorecard is representative of the significant changes in the assumptions related to performance measurement in organizations. Traditional performance measurement systems have solely relied on the finance function, resulting in a control bias. In addition, they provided specific actions that should be undertaken by the employees, resulting in controlled behavior. The balanced scorecard is appropriate for the modern organization, seeking to gain competitive advantage in global markets marked by uncertainty. Balanced scorecards places vision and strategy at the core, as opposed to controlling activities and behavior of employees. In addition, it develops goals, but does not dictate the behavior of the actors in achieving such goals and objectives.

The new approach towards performance measurement provided by balanced scorecards is highly consistent with the initiatives employed by modern organizations such as customer-supplier relationships, cross-functional integration, global scale, business continuity, continuous improvement, and team accountability. The combination and integration of customer, financial, organizational learning perspectives and internal processes and innovation, the balanced scorecard provides modern managers with a means of understanding diverse interrelationships between activities, functions, and resources in their organizations. Such perspectives can provide managers with the capability to transcend the traditional notions related to functional barriers, and in the process achieve enhanced problem solving and decision-making capacities.

Balance scorecards arose from the need for comprehensive and structured methodologies for performance measurement by enabling establishment of agreeable and realistic performance goals, allocation, and prioritization of resources and informing management on the need to either change or retain policies and programs to meet established goals and objectives (Kaplan & Norton, 1992,p.77) Leading organizations around the world with a framework for translation of the vision and mission of an organization into distinctive performance indictors that are distributed across the four perspectives namely, internal business processes, customer, financial and organizational learning, and growth. It is critical to note that a number of indicators are maintained for the measurement of the progress of an organization towards achievement of its vision. In addition, other indicators are maintained for measurement of the organization’s long-term drivers and factors influencing success. Through balanced scorecards, organizations are able to assess current performance and their respective endeavors to enhance business processes, educate and motivate employees and improve their information systems for efficacious learning and growth.

 

Bibliography

Cattaneo, O, Gereffi, G, & Staritz, C, 2010, Global Value Chains in a Postcrisis World: A Development Perspective, The World Bank, Washington.

Anderson, SW & Young, SM 2001, Implementing management innovations: Lessons learned from activity based costing in the U.S. automobile industry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Kaplan, RS & Norton, DP 1992, ‘The Balanced Scorecard-Measures that drive performance’, Harvard Business Review, p.71-79

 

Assignment 2

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Assignment 2

Question 1.1

            Nutritionally, it is advisable to ensure that there is a balance of nutrients in any meal. In this case, through an evaluation of the labels, it is healthier to choose label 2 more often since it combines a set of nutrients necessary in the body. Label 2 contains a higher level of calcium at 15% that is more nutritious. Calcium being the most abundant mineral nutrient present in the body, it helps in developing strong bones. As much as the bones and teeth require maximum amount of calcium the nerve cells, body tissues and blood also need calcium. More often, it is advisable to choose low fat milk and greens rich in calcium.

Question 1.2

            Calcium is associated with different health benefits. The human body needs to be strong to perform the various tasks that present themselves. The diet rich in calcium that a person consumes may be beneficial since they will develop strong bones and teeth. Bone health helps in maintaining stability. Calcium comes with a set of vitamin D elements that build a strong heart, muscles and nerves that protect against cancer and diabetes. Furthermore, people with high calcium consumption are less likely to experience high blood pressure.

Question 1.3

            Calcium consumption proves to be important to any person who understands the health risks of little calcium. Consuming too little calcium may result to calcium deficiency diseases such as osteoporosis. Such health issues are associated with brittle bones, damaged eyes and abnormal heartbeats. The body uses calcium to level blood pressure through the heart. Consuming little calcium deprives the body the ability to manage the blood pressure in the body. Therefore, it is possible to experience frequent heart attacks and complications due to lack of enough calcium.

Question 1.4

            Although a combination in different foods, rich in calcium prove effective in averting health related issues, an alternative approach to calcium is the use of supplements in pharmacies. Calorate is a supplement consisting of calcium and orate. It helps in the maintenance of healthy tissues. Furthermore, it assists in the development of healthy bones. Calpin is another brand of calcium supplements found in pharmacies. Calpin is rich in vitamin D and assists in calcium absorption. It helps the tissues utilize all the available calcium the body.

 

Question 1.5

            Calcium supplements issued in the pharmacies need to be taken as prescribed by the doctor or physician. For Calpin, it is recommended to take one or two tablets daily or as recommended by the doctor. This will prevent any overdose that may affect the absorption of calcium in the body. In case of Calorates, for adults it is advisable to take 2-3 tablets with the evening meal. Separating the dosage with the different amounts of time food is consumed enables maximum calcium absorption.

Question 1.6

            Evidently, calcium supplements tend to improve the bone density in a person. Different life stages come with their strengths and weaknesses pertaining to the need for calcium. According to the Institute of Medicine in America, different stages have varying recommendations for the consumption of calcium supplements. People aged between 9-18 years need maximum amount of calcium for development. At this age, children experience maximum development. People aged 70 years and above need to consume more calcium supplements with their weakened bodies.

Question 2.1

            Iron is important in the development of a healthy body. In this case, I would chose label 4 with the maximum amount of fibre. Iron is a mineral used to transport oxygen in the blood. fiber help in creating a smooth digestion system that does not strain the stomach. Label 3 has a fiber content of 7 grams with 28% daily value compared to level 4, which has a fiber content of 3 grams with 12% daily value. The higher the content value of fiber in label 3 creates a smoother and effective digestive system. Similarly, the presence of 25% value of iron accelerates the transport of oxygen. Vegetables are rich in iron.

Question 2.2

            Although iron is important in the body, there are health hazards associated with excessive levels of iron in the body. The effect of too much iron is seen to affect areas of the liver where excess iron is deposited causing liver cirrhosis. Similarly, excess iron may cause infections in the liver that may result to liver cancer. Diabetes is also among the effects of excess calcium in the body since it struggles to maintain a balance in the elements.

Question 2.3

            The lack of iron can result to different body symptoms. Some of these symptoms include tiredness, poor performance and weakness, fast heartbeat and difficulties sin breathing. The lack of enough iron in the body causes a deficiency disease called anemia. Failure of the body to utilize the amount of iron in the body causes a risk to the red blood cells. Similarly, low iron may cause cardio vascular disease that is caused by the inability of the body to regulate the amount of cholesterol in the liver.

Question 2.4

            Although nutritious foods provide the necessary amount of iron and fiber to the body to manage digestion, iron supplements prove to be an effective method of ascertaining the incorporation and use of iron in the body. Spatone, one of the liquid iron supplements found in pharmacies help prevent iron deficiency. It ensures a high iron absorption rate of any food. High potency iron is a different brand of iron supplements that prevents low blood levels of iron in the body.

 

Question 2.5

            High potency iron is in tablet form and consumed as per the doctors regulation. The supplement may also be in liquid suspension form. The dietary inhibitors to the efficiency of high potency iron may be if the supplement is not consumed on an empty stomach. Similarly, it should not be mixed with other liquids for consumption. The promoters to bioavailability of high potency iron are the ability to produce it in different forms such as liquid and solid. For Spatone, it comes in liquid form. Low or no consumption of iron foods may inhibit absorption by Spatone. Forty percent bioavailability of Spatone is used in absorption.

Question 2.6

            People who are most likely to benefit from iron supplements are children aged between 7-12 months. These infants need high iron levels that would help prevent the possibility of anemia attacks at a tender age. They need to acquire up to 11 milligrams of supplements. Children age 13-18 years also seem to benefit from the use of iron supplements owing to the energy they use and calories that are burnt in their bodies.

Question 3.1

            Blending the necessary amount of fiber and sodium in the body helps in benefiting from the best levels of nutrients present. In this case, label 5 provides the necessary combination of fiber and sodium at minimum levels to acquire maximum results. Label 5 sodium nutrients at an amount of 190mg compared to the 200mg amount in label 6 is much lower but uses a similar daily value of eight percent. Choosing a lower amount with a high usage becomes the best alternative.

Question 3.2

            A high fiber diet has many benefits in ensuring a healthy body. fiber is important in enabling smooth digestion and absorption of food in the system. Having a high fiber diet helps a person lower the amount of cholesterol in the body by burning all the unnecessary fat. This helps in reducing blood pressure and heart related diseases. A high fiber level also controls the blood sugar level preventing diabetes. It slows the rate at which the body absorbs sugar and improves the blood sugar levels.

Question 3.3

            The health hazards that associate low fiber levels emanate from the failure of the body to digest materials entirely. One of the health risks that ay affect the body involves the digestive system. It causes constipation resulting fro straining. The stomach struggles to digest hardened materials found in food. This may cause inflammation of the colon. The lack of enough fiber may cause cardiovascular diseases. People who lack fiber are prone to heart related diseases such as heart attacks.

Question 3.4

            Fibre plays an important role in managing diabetes. By controlling blood sugar in the body, fiber is able to pass through the digestive system therefore fails to strain the body to allocate energy and blood for transport. This is because fiber is soluble. Availing fiber in the body promotes a lowered rise in the glucose levels and relieves the body of any insulin requirements. Through this, the body is able to maintain the sugar levels and avoid symptoms of diabetes.

Question 4.1

Label 7                                    Label 8

Label 7 shows the amount of fat, 8 grams per serving that relates to a 12% daily value higher that the amount of serving in label 8, which is 8 grams for 10% value. Label 7 may represent fats from meat products while label 8 may represent fats from milk products.

Question 4.2

            Excessive fats pose a great health risk to many people. As much as they are important, the effect of excessive fats may cause atherosclerosis. High consumption of saturated fats causes the walls of the arteries to swell therefore constricting the flow of blood. This may cause heart attacks or stroke. Saturated fats increase the risk of acquiring cancer of the pancreas. The effect is seen through the consumption of animal fats through meat and milk that accumulates in the pancreas.

Question 4.3

            Adopting a low-fat diet may not relieve a person of health disorders associated with fat intake. Moderate fat diets prove to be more effective in handling diseases such as diabetes and heart related issues. Consuming moderate fat foods reduces the cardiovascular effect fats have on the body. People who use a moderate fat diet are likely to have a healthy heart rate. Those who consume low fat foods are likely to struggle during breathing at some levels.

Question 4.4

HDL cholesterol

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol eliminates harmful cholesterol from where it is unwanted. High levels of HDL cholesterol help in reducing the risks of heart disorders. It transports harmful cholesterol back to the liver where it is digested.

LDL cholesterol

            Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is the harmful cholesterol that is microscopic and targets different body parts. High levels of LDL increase the impending chances of heart disease by collecting in the blood levels and causing blockage.

Triglycerides

            These are fats found in meat, dairy products and oil. Normally, calories released in the body are turned into triglycerides and stored for use. Once these fats are beyond that of HDL and the body cannot hold any more, the effect may be atherosclerosis.

Total cholesterol

            Total cholesterol is the overall amount of HDL, LDL and triglycerides cholesterol in the body. In case the total cholesterol is ambiguous and unmanageable, the risk for heart disease becomes high.

 

Question 5.1

Label 9                                                            Label 10

Label 9 highlights the amount of serving of sodium as 890 milligrams at 37% daily value is higher as compared to label 10, 140 milligrams at 6% daily value. The difference for sodium consumed in single serving shows that a larger size shared reduces the amount of sodium consumed therefore lower probability to attract heart disease.

Question 5.2

            Sodium is associated with high levels of salt in the body. Once the body takes in excess salts, the result to the health of the person may be affected. One of the health issues that may arise with excess salts is kidney failure. The kidney may fail to separate waste materials passing through it for excretion. Accumulation of such wastes causes body issues. Research has shown that high blood pressure is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Salt intake increases blood pressure.

Question 5.3

            As much as consumption of high salt levels causes body disorders, it is evident that low consumption of sodium may affect the functioning of the body. Low sodium affects the lipid levels in the body therefore resulting to cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, low sodium may result to development of diabetes insipidus in the body where there is no formation of antiduretic hormones.

Question 5.4

 

 

Digital Storytelling

Digital Storytelling

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Digital Storytelling

Mexico has had subsequent occurrences of drug abuse and drug trafficking owing to the inability of the government and the police to perform to the expectation of the public (Digital Story, 2016). I chose this video since it relays important information about Mexico and drug dealing and it is easily accessible. The authors cover a number of topics highlighting the hidden events that people fail to see and notice. This digital story also provides a point of reference to other people who wish to develop their own stories. It is easy to understand the digital principles that have been applied in the video to create effects that stress specific points. While creating any digital stories, it is important to understand the multimedia elements and principles in order to understand how to make the story effective to the reader or viewer.

The modality principle on the use of visual graphics and narration has been used to make people learn and understand the message being passed. It relays other people’s perspective and reasoning towards drug trafficking in Mexico.

The author makes use of the signaling principle by adding cues to incorporate the essence of the message and stress the effect of drug trafficking to the viewer. This makes learning more effective.

Segmenting in the digital story creates a build up of the story by offering the learner tie to understand the origin and growth of trafficking and abuse as well as the consequences. Initially, the storyteller begins with people’s views as they build up to drug trafficking.

In applying visual design in the story, the author used harmony where they blended subsequent images of drugs and cartels and the effects of trafficking. The images were easy to follow as the author build up the story.

As this digital story applies different design methods and multimedia principles, it is an effective example that would be used by other people as they aim at developing their own digital stories.

 

Reference

Digital Story – Mexico and Drug Trafficking. (2016). You Tube. Retrieved 11 July 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pIv2M38E7Yg

 

Whole Foods Market

Whole Foods Market

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Institution:

 

Whole Foods Market

Introduction

            Organic foods have served a number of nations over the years owing to the natural state of availability and benefits it has. The whole foods market being an extensive supply of foods that contain no traces of artificial preservatives, no additional colors, flavors or fats has gained popularity among the women who term it as a natural and healthy food chain market. Whole Foods Market Inc. controls a wide range of supermarkets that are engaged in the production of organic foods (Whole Foods Market, 2016). With the modern technology and diversity of plant development, the whole foods market has expanded as it adapts to seafoods and a wider range of value products. The objective of the whole foods market is to produce quality goods that meet the natural specifications desired by its diverse consumers (Company Info, 2016). An analysis of the whole foods market will provide great insight of how ABC Company can integrate the use of natural foods in business.

Discussion

Strategic Analysis

            Strategically, the whole foods market has gained massive support from its customers and other companies that associate with its products. Subjectively, the quality standards set by the company along with the systematic practices it employs in production have propelled the success of the whole foods market (Whole Foods Market, 2016). The strategic analysis of whole foods market will take into account the different initiatives and expansion plans that prove effective in promoting the company brand. A major contributing factor to the success of the whole foods market is the positioning of the retailer across different countries and the ability to focus on the core values, vision and mission objectives of the company. The market has been on the rise as the value of goods maintains a steady rise (Whole Foods Market, 2016). Systematic objectives place organizations at strategic positions of advantage against their competitors. Once the employees understand their role in service delivery and the effect of strategic initiatives towards success, they will work towards achieving company goals.

Since the retailer was formed, whole foods market initiated a set of mission, vision and value objectives that would accelerate the attainment of success. The objective mission of the whole food market was to promote the vitality and well-being of all individuals by offering the highest quality, least processed, most flavorful natural and naturally preserved foods available. This mission statement has been a driving force to continue with natural production and sale of organic foods since initiation. The whole foods market had a vision of reaching a diverse population where it would offer a sustainable future even in the modern world (Whole Foods Market, 2016). Their desire was that their children and grandchildren would live in a society that admires the outcome of individual creativity, diversity and choice. It sensitized on the importance of business not undermining the benefits of the environment through the improper use of natural resources.

The values incorporated to the whole foods market strategically provide an avenue of realization on the part of consumers that the organic retailer considers the effects artificial foods pose to people. The eight values clearly show the commitment of the company to its consumers. Whole foods market sells high quality natural and organic produce that preserve the health of the consumers. Evidently, natural foods have proven to contain healthy nutrients therefore beneficial to the body. The company aims at delighting and satisfying their customer needs as the most important aspect in business. As a core value, whole foods market aims at supporting the input of their team members to promote excellence. Whole foods market generates wealth through profit sales and gradual growth (Whole Foods Market, 2016). Supporting the local and global community through service is an important value the retailer possesses. The market promotes environmental preservation, supplier relationships and education on healthy eating.

Strategic goals

            Although whole foods market is one of the rapid growing businesses in many countries, the need for expansion has always been a challenge. Therefore, whole foods market has placed a growth strategy through expansion as one of their goals (Thompson, 2015). To make this possible, whole foods market is to sign merger agreements and purchase low performing companies that act as competitors. As much as the business has this as their primary goals, opening more stores is their first priority. Initially in 2009, the increase in store openings was expected to be between 25 and 30 stores although an economic disadvantage lowered the stores to 15. This generic strategy will assist the business in maintaining a difference with its competitors. Combining generic growth strategies and intensive growth strategies proves to be an effective method of achieving goals for the business.

Whole foods market generic strategy of growth incorporates the use of vast natural foods that contain no traces of artificial additives (Thompson, 2015). Through this, the company is able to acquire the trust of its customers in adhering to its mission, vision and values. Customer satisfaction is portrayed by the post-purchase behavior regarding different commodities. Similarly, the generic applications through marketing takes into account the different customer conditions and preferences regardless the age, gender or nationality. The company does this by avoiding products that contain elements of artificial evidence. Generically, the business aims at expanding its supply chain to farmers and producers. Intensively, whole foods market aims at attaining new market segments and further developing its products. Product development helps in attracting more consumers.

Competitive Market

Although the success of whole foods market is evident, the business has experienced a couple of challenges. One of the major challenges is the presence of diverse competitors who increase as the field of natural food production increases. Local, international and regional competitors joining the organic food business compete with whole foods market by providing exemplary services. Major competitors that affect the success of whole foods market include but are not limited to Wal Mart, which is the most viable competitor sells generic groceries, Kroger that sells medicine and food products and Supervalu markets that sells natural groceries. Most of these privately owned supermarkets have experienced tremendous growth in its sales per year. Although the private sector seems to dominate the organic food sector, a competitive advantage is seen on the part of government owned supermarkets, which focus on capitalizing on the consumer preferences. Similarly, grocery markets that occupy a smaller amount of sale are embracing the sale of organic foods that gain popularity by the day.

SWOT

            Strengths

            Whole foods market has a number of strengths that cause its success. The high quality standards that separate whole foods markets with other supermarkets act as a driving force to success. The ability to attract customers through the quality of goods sold and services implemented act as a strength to any business. Organic food trends are gaining popularity among the public who desire healthy living. The ability of whole foods to avail such goods acts as a strength to the business.

            Weaknesses

            Although Whole foods have a wide range of customers, the persistent perception of customers on the high prices of goods acts as a weakness to the business. Similarly, depending on the fluctuating economy to sustain sales and profits prove to be a weakness of the whole foods markets.         

            Opportunities

            The major opportunity that whole foods markets can accrue maximum benefits from is the returns from international expansion. Increasing the number of stores in different countries will help reduce the competitive advantage possessed by other organic supermarkets.

            Threats

Wal Mart being the largest selling organic supermarket poses as a threat in competitive nature owing to its popularity. The development of local, international and regional organic stores and groceries pose a threat to the success of whole foods market.

Strategic Changes

            Whole foods market needs to make strategic changes that will prove an advantage over competitors and increase the profits. It needs to device better ways of creating brand awareness through sensitizing on the importance of consuming organic foods and not the business objectives (Don Meador et al., 2012). This strategy will assist customers realize a greater perspective of the existence of whole foods markets. A challenge of the size of whole foods market stores has created congestion in stores and the loss in customers. Bigger stores need to be integrated into the expansion plan to handle the increasing customers.

Recommendations

            To maintain the company trend in success, a number of recommendations have been made for how whole foods market can reach more customers. Reaching more customers directly translates to increased competitiveness and an acceleration of the financial performance by the business. Whole foods market owing to its diversity employs a large number of customers in different chain stores and business levels. The labor costs employed in the production process also affect the realization of maximum profits. To minimize on the labor costs and maximize on profits and production, the company needs to evaluate its methods of approach on production. This valuation assists the business determine sensitive areas of concern for the business and eliminate any excess spending. Dealing with excess costs will help the business relieve resources and allow for concentration on customer satisfaction rather than production.

After an evaluation of whole foods market strategies of attracting more consumers, it is evident that the efforts placed on advertising are much lower compared to other organic food companies. Sales emanating from advertising efforts are placed at 0.5% of the total profits in a fiscal year. Furthermore, this percentage owed to the relevance of other shoppers and consumers through verbal advertisements owing to its popularity. As recommended, whole foods market should invest more on advertising that proves to be effective when handling customers. Forms of advertising that could be adopted include mass media sensitization, product sampling and testing, road shows and taste fairs. Through this, whole foods market can also introduce more products in the market and directly inform their customers. Offering discounts and promotional sales to customers may also help the business to realize more customers.

Conclusion

Integrating whole foods market into ABC Company may be a great step in accelerating the sale of organic foods in the needy market. However, as much as customers will benefit from this venture, ABC Company is likely to record a high amount of returns. The approach to the integration of the whole foods market needs to be understood and strategically evaluated before any step is made. Issues such as consumer ability, competitive markets and substitutive products are some of the factors that need careful evaluation. In determining the strategic location of the company, it is advisable to choose a position where acquisition of the raw materials is not strenuous and the environment response is positive. Adhering to the mission, vision and values in business help build the confidence if the customers that will in turn reflect to the financial benefits accrued.

 

References

Company Info. (2016). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved 14 July 2016, from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company-info.

Don Meador, Britton, M., Phillips, P., Howery, A. (2012). Case Analysis – Whole Foods Market. Retrieved on November 7, 2012 from: http://tainted-ink.net/archives/102.

Thompson, A. (2015). Whole Foods Market’s Generic & Intensive Growth Strategies – Panmore Institute. Panmore Institute. Retrieved 14 July 2016, from http://panmore.com/whole-foods-market-generic-strategy-intensive-growth-strategies

Whole Foods Market Inc. (2016). Reuters. Retrieved 14 July 2016, from http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=WFM.O

Whole Foods Market, Inc. – Investors – Financial Information – Annual Reports & Proxy. (2016). Investor.wholefoodsmarket.com. Retrieved 14 July 2016, from http://investor.wholefoodsmarket.com/investors/financial-information/annual-reports-and-proxy/default.aspx

Whole Foods Market: America’s Healthiest Grocery Store. (2016). Wholefoodsmarket.com. Retrieved 14 July 2016, from http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com

HISTORICAL MUSICAL REVIEW

HISTORICAL MUSICAL REVIEW

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Date:

 

Who Tells Your Story is the final act in the musical Hamilton that is focused around Alexander Hamilton’s demise. The introduction song to Hamilton album outlines Hamilton’s childhood and stressful times. After his death, the whole cast teamed up to discuss the fate of the remaining characters in the subsequent years. The notion of legacy is examined as characters speculate if they have contributed enough in their life span to be documented in history books (Miranda 2015, 67). Hamilton the musical and Hamilton the person are centered on historiography and heritage. The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and recall historical events. After their death, human beings lack the ability to influence the narrator of their story. All that is left behind is one’s legacy. The only question is what legacy is left behind after the achievements and developments are attained.

All humans and communities are part of history. An obvious example is ethnic groups speak a language that was adopted from the past. They exist in societies under traditions that have been around for several centuries. Therefore, understanding the connection between history and present is fundamental for a proper understanding of the state of being human. This is why history matters. It is not merely useful, it is necessary. First, Alexander Hamilton was a founding father of the United States and therefore, his contribution towards building the great nation cannot be noticed. To a certain level, his achievements can be ranked alongside other famous personalities. His efforts to rectify the different social injustices included championing the equal rights of Loyalist remnants still in the United States. He also played a major role in shaping the final elements that made their way into the constitution. Lastly, Hamilton also contributed toward shaping the American economic policy through altering the manufacturing strategies and ushering in the Industrial tendencies.

One of the ways through which individual stories enter the historical records is by receiving widespread acknowledgment. The magnitude of the activities or events that occur must be on such a scale that the greater population can acknowledge its benefits. For instance, it must be able to affect people from different demographics such as race, class and age. Alternatively, the event can also affect a large number of people. Either way, it is a memorable event that will not be forgotten easily. The contributions made by Alexander Hamilton in the short period that he occupied public office qualify his position in the history records.

Historians use the past activities to create a relationship that can be valued by people living in the current generation. The historians use personal accounts to recreate the past by searching for a connection that can root people back in time. This is very important since everyone needs a rational explanation before learning to become associated with anything. Therefore, a historian looks at the different aspects of human existence particularly their culture, norms and ways of life. In the case study, Hamilton’s story was cleverly packaged specifically for the American context and this had the effect of transforming the perception of early American political system (Miranda 2015, 243). Politics and the economy have always been at the heart of many America ns and therefore, it was relatively easy to create a connection for the many readers who understood Hamilton. By developing a connection between past occurrences and the varied consequences currently being enjoyed, it is possible to develop a tangible past

The current generation is struggling in that they are a people experiencing a sense of being lost and rootless. In the process, they engage in self-destructive activities that affect their understanding of history. In the same way that some people have no understanding of Alexander Hamilton and his achievements for the nation, many people grapple with scraps of knowledge about their history. Historians generally assume that every person possesses a full historical setting. However, some people for reasons that are not of their making, develop with a lesser understanding of their own position in life. This affects their place within the family unit or the greater society. They require a sense of heritage. For other people, by comparison, the hereditary legacy may represent a strong or even completely repressive topic. In all instances, comprehending the past is central to the right understanding of the state of being human. Historians understand that people need to build on, and occasionally transform a stable foundation. It is relatively difficult to achieve these two tasks without understanding the setting and points of origin for a certain phenomena. In Hamilton’s case, it is relatively difficult to discuss or even alter economic policy without first processing the rationale behind the man’s decisions wile in office. The people living in the present enjoy a wide selection of historical content but are unaware of the collection of  individual stories that made it possible. What is evident is that the conventional American citizen has a regrettable propensity to adapt and retell specific accounts about American history, not excluding that of the founding founders, with greater regularity and interest compared to the stories that demand an actual connection with the past.

It is most unfortunate that the society, rather than the academic fraternity, is responsible for determining the future of past occurrences as far as recording them, in history books is concerned. The society selects the best stories to relay to their peers and descendants based on their simplicity and appropriateness. In the same vein, stories that demand an actual contact or relationship with the specific culture or ethnic group in question seldom attract the same amount of popularity mainly because they demand extra work. Therefore, it is safe to say that stories that resonate well with the previous generation are easily embraced and in the process, captured as apart of American history. It is not surprising to know that the topics of politics and economic have received greater focus in most American libraries and archives to say, American-Indian relations or the invasion of England (Panchyk 2008, 34).

On one hand, one might argue that cultural change occur by retrieving and amending old stories in addition to telling new ones. However, the problem is that the contemporary culture has indicated its preference for promoting different ideologies on an incremental basis rather than in a radical fashion. Who Tells Your Story within Hamilton is unquestionably an open-minded work of art that avoids radical elements. Even more, it is an incremental work and this implies that it carries a wealth of historical information concerning past economic and political occurrences. From the musical, any American has the luxury of being entertained and being informed about their heritage simultaneously.

 

References

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Miranda, L.-M. 2015. Hamilton: An American musical [original Broadway cast recording]. New York, NY: Atlantic Records.

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Panchyk, R. (2008). The keys to American history: Understanding our most important historic documents. Chicago, Ill: Chicago Review Press.

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Action Plan for Root Cause Analysis

Action Plan for Root Cause Analysis

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Action Plan for Root Cause Analysis

Introduction

Within the medical sector, an action plan for root cause analysis is necessary. This is because, in the process of carrying out different tasks in nursing, pharmacy or any other sector of medicine, the patients present various problems that lack a direct explanation. Furthermore, it is important to acknowledge that patient safety is the highest priority for medical practitioners. Consequently, a root cause analysis is a procedure through which medical staff can reach a logical conclusion concerning a problem. To that extent, the activities and decisions by different stakeholders should seek to uphold patient safety and avoid such errors. The development of an action plan will ensure the realization of the objectives above. This paper will focus on the patient concern normally identified as healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs).

Patient Safety Problem

Healthcare-acquired infections refer to illnesses that patients contract while undergoing cures for medical and surgical procedures. It is important to note that most HAIs are treatable. Modern health care uses a myriad of invasive procedures and apparatus to cure patients and to assist in their recovery process. Infections are commonly linked to medical procedures especially during surgery and the equipment used in the activities, for instance, catheters and medical pumps (Gould & Meer, 2011). These categories of infections are a huge cause of morbidity and deaths across the world and are linked to a considerable increase in healthcare expenditure annually (Borkow, 2014). At its optimum, approximately one in every 25 admitted people in the United States is infected by healthcare-acquired infections (Borkow, 2014). These infections happen across all forms of healthcare settings, including intensive care hospitals, surgical areas, outpatient care, rehabilitation facilities, and maternity wards (Esquinas, 2014). The three most frequent manifestations of HAIs include infections that attach the bloodstream through the catheter. CRBSIs are very frequent infections in patients admitted to critical care units (Borkow, 2014). These attacks happen when pathogens and other germs move down the blood circulatory system and invade other systems. The next category of HAIs is pneumonia. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is a disease that affects the lungs. It manifests approximately two days or longer after patients are admitted to a hospital (Esquinas, 2014). This type of pneumonia has a tendency of being more critical, particularly since patients at the hospital exhibit worse symptoms and weaker immunity to fight off pathogens when compared to ordinary people. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is very rampant among patients connected to a respirator device to assist in their breathing. Closely associated with this condition is ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (Gould & Meer, 2011). This manifests itself in patients that breathe via a tube. The last category of HAIs is surgical site infections. Surgical site infections happen after surgery on a patient, and they are normally contracted from the operating room (Borkow, 2014). This last category of infections generally affects the skin. Severe infections can reach the tissues and affect organs or implants.

Causes of Healthcare-Acquired Infections

It is already established that transmission causes all of the infections. As mentioned in the previous section, one of the causes of hospital-acquired infections is through contact with contaminated medical equipment. Indwelling catheters are the most common types of devices that transmit infections. Contact transmission is one of the ways through which HIAs are caused among patients. Practitioners, nurses, caregivers, and other staff who attend to patients have the highest probability of transmitting infections through contact (Gould & Meer, 2011). Whether deliberately delivering treatment or checking up on the comfort of the patient, coming into contact with pathogens from a sick patient and transmitting them to another patient (Borkow, 2014). Different patients have varying levels of immunity, and while one pathogen may have no effect of patient A, it may have destructive effects on patient B. It is important to note that tracing the actual origin of an infection is not always easy and direct. Certain types of infections can be transmitted using natural agents such as wind or water.

Proposed Interventions

Hand washing and sterilization are two key measures that can substantially reduce cases of hospital-acquired infections. Hand washing is very effective as it eliminates the threat of distributing skin microorganisms across one patient to another (Wilcox, 2009). This transmission can also occur from a contaminated site to a nearby patient. Washing hands thoroughly before and after contact with patients and as well as other bodily fluids including blood, waste material, and contaminated equipment (Esquinas, 2014). A small issue with hand hygiene is the inaccessibility of drainage systems and the time used up in washing hands. Alcohol-based hand rubs are a quick solution to this challenge as they can be applied faster compared to ordinary ways. It is imperative that all visitors comply with this hand washing procedure within the medical premises. Furthermore, it is possible that infections can break out and infect the rest of the community (Gould & Meer, 2011).

Sterilization of the working areas, as well as the general environment, is a critical approach that can significantly reduce the transmission of hospital-associated infections. Sanitizing the work surfaces harboring microbes reduces the probability of transmitting infections from healthcare environments (Esquinas, 2014). Current sanitizing techniques including alcohol vapor has proved useful in fighting gastroenteritis and influenza pathogens. Sterilization is also done by hydrogen peroxide vapor that is effective in killing most types of bacterial infection rates and risk of transmission (Gould & Meer, 2011). Hydrogen peroxide works well in killing endospore-forming microbes, a feature that cannot be achieved using alcohol-based sterilizers (Borkow, 2014). Ultraviolet cleaning alternatives are also used to effective in dealing with pathogens and other microbes, especially after the medical procedure is complete.

Closely related to hand washing, gloves are very useful in lowering the risks of infecting patients with pathogens. Gloves act as a protective barrier that prevents large-scale contamination when handling contaminated body parts. Gloves also decrease the possibility that microbes carried by medical personnel can be spread to patients during surgery or other procedures. In this way, it is necessary for all the medical staff to change the gloves after taking care of each patient (Esquinas, 2014). Furthermore, the wearer of gloves should also wash their hands and dispose of the gloves in a sanitary way. Another strategy that can significantly reduce cases of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) is through implementing appropriate policy (Borkow, 2014). Fostering collaboration between different agencies in the medical sector is important as it allows for the proposal and implementation of incentives to promote sanitation within the institutions. The hospital administration can offer financial and other forms of incentives to ensure that the hospital staff maintains high levels of hygiene (Gould & Meer, 2011). Conversely, the administration can also impose fines and other penalties that can discourage employees and departments promoting unsanitary conditions. In the long term, these financial benefits can significantly improve the productivity levels of the institution (Muralidhar, & Muralidhar, 2007). The process of implementing the proposed interventions to reduce cases of hospital-acquired infections is mostly controlled by the availability of finances and level of initiative complexity (Borkow, 2014). Therefore, hand washing and glove wearing will be the first changes to be enforced. This will be followed by sterilizing and sanitizing the hospital premises. The last strategy to be implemented is the policies that demand professional advice to ensure that they are pertinent in the unique hospital situation (Esquinas, 2014).

Conclusion

The problem of hospital-associated infections (HIAs) in the context of the patient safety has challenged many hospitals as well as administrators. They are not necessarily categorized as part of the traditional tasks handled by the institutions. However, they hold the potential for raising the hospital expenditure significantly (Esquinas, 2014). Addressing the causes of these infections as well as the necessary interventions is important both for patient safety and for the sustainability of the institution (Gould & Meer, 2011). It is in the interest of all the stakeholders to lower the risk of hospital-associated infections including practitioners, patients, and the wider community. By cooperating closely and implementing rational precautions as proposed in the previous sections, it is possible to lower the risk of hospital-associated infections (Borkow, 2014). Consequently, implementing these proposals assist in reducing the valid costs linked to the implications of hospital-associated infections, including the research on compound medical treatments, extended hospital stays that reduce bed availability for needy patients and the awarding of supplementary antibiotics.

 

 

 

 

References

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Borkow, G. (2014). Use of biocidal surfaces for reduction of healthcare acquired infections. Cham: Springer,

Esquinas, A. M. (2014). Noninvasive ventilation in high-risk infections and mass casualty events. Wien: Springer.

Gould, I. M., & Meer, J. W. M. (2011). Antibiotic policies: Controlling hospital acquired infection. New York, NY: Springer.

Muralidhar, V., & Muralidhar, S. (2007). Hospital acquired infections: Power strategies for clinical practice. Kent: Anshan.

Wilcox, J. B. (2009). Hospital-acquired infections. New York: Nova Science.

 

On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

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Institution:

 

On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

Von Clausewitz, C., & Graham, J. J. (1873). On war (Vol. 1). London, N. Trübner & Company.

In “On the Nature of War”, Clausewitz reiterates the importance of approaching a subject, war in this case, in a holistic manner. The whole to him is greater than the some of its parts and enables theorists to present a more defined exposition on a circumstance. He defines war in its simplest term, a duel between two opposing parties bent on compelling the other, through the use of force, to submit. Violence is merely a tool towards the end goal, submission of opponent articulated by disarmament. Force is the norm rather than the exception in war. The one with more force emerges dominant and is predisposed to win from the onset. According to Clausewitz war is an extrapolation of the chaotic nature of politics. In a controversial statement he claims it is an extension of actualization of policy.

Keegan, J. (2011). A history of warfare. Random House.

Keegan an otherwise reputable author falls short of his potential in the book A History of Warfare. The author attempts to make the German, Clausewitz, obsolete implying that his readings are bent towards conquest without regard to reality. He departs from the liberal German’s overarching assertion that politics is an integral part of war. He further elucidates that World War I was a not byproduct of politics rather it developed organically without interference of the same. Unlike Clausewitz, he is an enemy of abstraction. Keegan confines himself to practical examples limiting the expanse of his strong themes. Unfortunately, the above approach invalidates his prophetic tendencies as his assertions are narrowly tailored for specific timelines and scenarios.

Shaw, G. B. (2004). Plays by George Bernard Shaw. Penguin.

“Arms and Man” is a play that puts Clausewitz points into context. It demystifies war in modern society by showing an emphasis on practicality and an intentional departure from aristocratic perspective on war. The aristocratic approach on war was romanticized with heroism. It was perceived as a means of achieving nobility, obscuring the cruel realities of war to both the conqueror and conquered. Shaw posits that it is often a pursuit in futility undertaken by irrational men.

Cohen, E. A., & Earle, E. M. (1997). Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler.

This collection of essays attempt to unite and contrast the theories of major historical proponents on war. The book documents the constant utility of strategy and war as a function of politics, society, and economics. The essays supplement each other in documenting the constancy of war’s dynamics in different environments. It also traces the lineage of strategy from the land mark wars in history, from the renaissance to the nuclear age. The essays intersect the primary assertions of war theorists with experience. The authors appropriate the works of Clausewitz and the unending words of key proponents like Churchill to illustrate their points. The book approaches strategy as tool of military power, dissecting its academic essence devoid of its practical implications.

Schelling, T. C. (2008). Arms and Influence: With a New Preface and Afterword. Yale University Press.

Arms and Influence by Thomas Schelling is the baseline for the theory of coercion isolated from its enduring connection with violence. Schelling, a key game theorist, approaches the war proponents as rational actors in order to properly define a theory. Akin to his predecessor Clausewitz, he strives to stick with abstract scenarios giving his concepts longevity. He is nonetheless in touch with reality. The book is a metamorphosis of Clausewitz concepts aligning them with modern realities. Schelling illustrated that the nuclear weapons gave the concept coercion of a paradigm shift. It completely changed the incentives of war decreasing its propensity. The book demarcates a new epoch where the origin of war in politics is accentuated; coercion becomes a tool of negotiation rather than war.

Van Creveld, M. (1986). The Eternal Clausewitz. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 9(2-3), 35-50.

In the “Eternal Clausewitz”, Martin van Creveld shows the relevance of Clausewitz in contemporary society arises from his commitment to abstraction. He emphasized the lack of constants in war. To him, war is unpredictable and dynamic hence beyond the scope of scientific principles. As such, generalization of concepts towards creating predictions is invalidated.

 

References

Cohen, E. A., & Earle, E. M. (1997). Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler.

Keegan, J. (2011). A history of warfare. Random House.

Schelling, T. C. (2008). Arms and Influence: With a New Preface and Afterword. Yale University Press.

Shaw, G. B. (2004). Plays by George Bernard Shaw. Penguin.

Van Creveld, M. (1986). The Eternal Clausewitz. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 9(2-3), 35-50.

Von Clausewitz, C., & Graham, J. J. (1873). On war (Vol. 1). London, N. Trübner & Company.