Lecture on Inequality

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Lecture on Inequality

All men are born equal before the law and before God. When an individual or a group of people create situation where their rights supersede that of other individuals or groups, inequality is said to have taken place (Glaeser 2005, p.1). Equality is the foundation upon which democracy and most religions are built. Equality is the basis upon which people develop their sense of morality. It is the fabric that holds our societies together an allow us to coexist in peace and harmony. Inequality on the hand tilts the scales in favor of a selected few. In doing this, it effectively denies the most people access to opportunities and resources to help them develop and improve their lives. However, it should be noted that this is both a good and a bad thing. Inequality is bad as it robs the needy of much needed resources and opportunities to improve their lives. Without adequate empowerment, these people could be able to work their way out of poverty. This would also benefit their overall economies from the increase in output. Inequality stems from poor policies that allow selfish interests to prevail over the allocation of public resources. It should be noted that rights in resource allocation only comes into play when addressing public resources. This is because private entities have discretionary control over the management of their resources.

Inequality is a good thing as it inspires innovation and creativity and has been instrumental in the development of the entrepreneurial spirit (KESSELMAN and GREEN 2006, p.25). Necessity being the mother of invention, the disparities caused by inequality has forced people to turn to ingenuity for their livelihoods. This has resulted in the development of products and services that have revolutionized the way we work and live in unprecedented ways. Through frugal innovations, entrepreneurs have been able to identify untapped potentials in their environments. There are five kinds of inequalities in our societies today. First, political inequality is the result of oppressive regimes and political systems that deny the people the right to choose their leaders. Civil rights and liberties have seen significant growth and development due to increasing democratization and mounting global pressure. There are still some regions in the world where there is blatant disregard for civil rights and impunity. Political equality can be further enhanced by more participation from the public. Second, wealth and income inequalities have been a sore thumb for many countries around the globe. Governments’ main source of revenue is taxation. The people who earn relatively little money are taxed more, leading to a growing gap between the rich and the poor. It should however be noted that the rich create businesses that help the government solve unemployment by creating many employment opportunities. Expecting them to pay high taxes again would be subjecting them to inequality as well and might be counter productive.

Third, there is a great disparity in opportunities for personal and group advancement. Many governments have failed to develop and enforce sound policies to ensure that all their citizens have assured fair access to all available opportunities for their development right from birth. Fourth, there is a high level of inequality in treatment brought about by the intricacies of social development and governance. The establishment of a ruling class and a followers’ class has unwittingly created disparities in treatment with regard to access to social and public amenities and facilities. The powerful always get preferential treatment against the commoners. Last, there is a global inequality of membership as is even evident in the country membership of global bodies such as the G8 and OECD. With the increasing complexities that come with the development of societies, there has been an increasing disparity in membership to schools, clubs, churches, and even neighborhoods.

 

Bibliography

Glaeser, E. L. (2005). Inequality. Cambridge, Mass, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Kesselman, J. R., & Green, D. A. (2006). Dimensions of inequality in Canada. Vancouver, UBC Press.

Development of the American Police System

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Development of the American Police System

Early Policing in America

America is the only country in the world that can boast of having the most intricate policing system with over a thousand agencies of law enforcement and hundreds of thousands of men and women working in harmony and complimenting each other. Early policing in America was a largely private affair with communities organizing themselves into units of volunteering people who helped patrol their areas to ensure safety. This later evolved into a system that saw the appointment of unpaid magistrates who were tasked with overseeing the enforcement of law and order and levying of penalties on criminals and wrong doers. The military was also used in part to ensure that there was law and order in the land. The most significant appearances of public policing started when counties were allowed to pay their law enforcement agents with money from their tax revenues (Monkkonen 1992, 30). This later evolved to a more official hiring and compensation of constables and borrowed much of its structure from the policing systems in England.

Early American society relied heavily on the church for guidance and control of crime and criminals though faced a lot of challenges from the period’s lack of an effective justice system. They relied on excommunication of the errant people that caused them to be isolated in their societies and corporal punishment that involved the public flogging of miscreants in the town squares which served to set an example of the consequences of breaking the law. The policing system has undergone a lot of changes and reforms throughout the years to what it is today. The early frontier days were characterized by the settlers believing in their own ability to protect themselves, which saw a lot of violence with disputes being resolved crudely through duels and brawls. Most communities formed groups of lawmen known as posses that were tasked with fighting bandits and outlaws who would terrorize them. This led to the leaders of these areas establishing paramilitary outfits that were completely under their control, to maintain order and security with this era being known as the political era. As the population grew, it became impossible for the few officers to maintain order and security effectively by patrolling the large expanses of which they were in charge. This necessitated the establishment of structured police units that understood the needs of their communities and could adequately address the challenges they were experiencing.

Work Cited

Monkkonen, Eric H. Crime & Justice in American History: Historical Articles on the Origins and Evolution of American Criminal Justice. Westport: Meckler, 1992. Print.

Police System Enhancement

This period was known as the reform period and can be traced as the roots for the establishment of the many different levels of police agencies throughout America (Worrall & Schmalleger 2013, 5). The police units across the land lacked uniformity and professionalism and most found it difficult to find recruits resulting in poor service delivery. The need for an efficient police system led to the development of service oriented policing with a focus on customer service spearheaded by O. W. Wilson whose reforms brought an end to police brutality and corruption. This ushered in the community era that brought with it the development of standard police training programs to ensure uniformity in skills and procedures and to make the force more customers centric. This also led to the differentiation of the police forces into different roles and ranks to increase efficiency within the units and enhance communication between different agencies. This era also placed more emphasis on the importance on community policing which enabled the police to have the good will and help of their communities in the execution of their duties. Currently the police system is highly sophisticated and employs science and technology in their daily tasks to ensure that they are able to detect and even prevent crime before it happens especially with regard to terrorism.

Work Cited

Worrall, John L, and Frank Schmalleger. Policing. Boston: Pearson, 2013. Print.

Reflection

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Reflection

God’s love for humankind is clearly portrayed in the story of Noah. The population was growing, and with it came social and moral degradation. God, however, found a savior for humankind in Noah whom he qualified as being relatively blameless. God entered into a covenant with Noah and his family to ensure their safety during the floods that were to purge the world of evil. At the time of Noah, there were abominations that roamed the earth and subdued mankind due to their superior strength borne of angelic pedigree. These giants were the product of lust and sin that caused angels to admire women on earth and lay with them. Therefore, God in his wisdom and love, sought to free his people from these creatures and, therefore, sent forth the great flood. He gave Noah and whoever accepted to help him in his quest to build the ark the chance for redemption. God also limited the amount of years that man could live since the years seemed to corrupt and this corruption was especially influential on younger generations. The people ignored Noah’s warnings of the floods to come and of the call to repent. In doing so, they would regain the favor of God and be spared along with Noah and his family in the ark.

The story of Noah teaches of God’s undying love and patience with his greatest creation, man. For the entire duration of the ark’s construction, He used Noah to call the people back to his fold. However, full of pride and vanity, the people ignored Noah’s warnings and went on with their sinful pleasures. God’s encourages Noah to focus on the task, the construction of the ark, and not to be bothered by the impunity of the others. God’s wisdom is evident when he knows that addiction is hard to break. Addicts also never realize their faults until it is too late. Therefore, God keeps Noah and his family busy for close to 100 years working on the ship. 100 years are sufficient time for one to be corrupted a thousand times. Maybe this is the origin of the proverb “An idle mind is the devil’s workshop…” During this period, the wickedness of men increased as they experimented with other ways of pleasuring themselves. God saw that Noah’s heart was troubled and offered him counsel and Noah took heart in knowing that he had tried. In their vanity, they believed that they could come up with a solution to outlast the storm and the floods.

Therefore, the floods came at the end of the century. Noah, his family, and a pair of all the animals of the earth were safe inside the belly of the Ark. For forty days and forty nights, the storms razed and the waters covered everything on the face of the earth. I think this was a testament to the absolute power of God, no half measures so to speak. God’s faithfulness is also manifest since he destroys every living thing on earth with the flood. Even the clever ones that thought they would camp out on the mountaintops could not have survived. The waves were higher than mountains! Through this story, the greatest lessons of his graciousness and mercies are learnt. It is unfathomable that one so powerful would entertain the sheer disrespect and contempt of his puny creations for so long in the hopes that they would change.

All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten

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All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten

Life is a sum of all experiences and lessons we get from childhood. A good foundation in one’s early years sets a good foundation for better future life. The laws that guide our adult lives are simply a larger version of what we were taught in kindergarten. As children, our first days and even months in school mainly consisted of teachers breaking our bad habits. Back home, we were the centers of our households. Everything seemed to revolve around the baby. This leads to the child growing up expecting the same treatment from others which is a recipe for disaster. If everybody grew up thinking they were the center of the universe, our society would be a mess! So to make sure that children grow to be social and mindful of others, we were taught how to get along with others. We learned the virtues of courtesy and peace by being taught to be nice, not to bite others and to put back our toys when we are done playing with them. We were taught to be careful with our bodies and to eat healthy and take baths to be clean and healthy. The importance of rest in growing up healthy was also an important lesson.

After a long day of learning and playing, we would be put to sleep in the afternoon. Our parents would find us well rested in the evening when they came to pick us. We would have enough energy to tell them of the wonderful things we had learned. At school, we also learned that life begins and comes to an end for all living things. We saw life develop when we planted seeds and cared for them until they grew into plants. We saw life come to an end when our class would need a new class pet because the old one had passed away (Fulghum 3). This also taught us to be gentle with other creatures and people because being rough could bring harm or even death. We also learned the important lesson that loss brings sadness. When our favorite hamster or goldfish passed away, we did a lot of crying. But in all we did, the most important lesson was to always look and wonder and explore. The rules that guide our adult life are not so far from those we were given as children. The problem is that as adults we like to think too much and we end up stuck. We get stuck because we take in too much information and add up problems making them seem impossible.

Keeping things simple is important to finding solutions. If everybody did their best to keep problems small and simple, I am sure the world would be a better place. There would be much more joy and cheer everywhere, and we would have a healthier society. Approaching a problem gradually ensures a better outcome in the same way kindergarten did for us (Douglas 5). If we had been started off with lessons on the laws that govern our countries, it would have been too much too soon. So it is very important to start small, then build up from there. I believe that everybody has everything they need to succeed in life if only they remember what they already know. These simple lessons can also help governments manage their resources and lead their people better.

 

 

Works Cited

Douglas, Ann. The Mother of All Parenting Books: An All-Canadian Guide to Raising a Happy, Healthy Child from Preschool Through the Preteens. Etobicoke, Ont: Wiley, 2003. Print.

Fulghum, Robert. All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten: Reconsidered, Revised & Expanded with Twenty-Five New Essays. New York: Ballantine Books, 2003. Print.

Comparison and Contrast of Maximum Performance and Typical Response Tests

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Comparison and Contrast of Maximum Performance and Typical Response Tests

Maximum performance tests are administered to assess employees’ ability to maintain high production rates while working under optimal conditions. These tests help organizations when setting expected production levels for relatively short periods with the assumption that all factors of production would hold constant. Maximum performance is only attainable when an organization expressly directs their employees to maximize their output and take steps to enhance production supervision and these performance evaluations should be confined to short periods to enhance staff concentration on the assigned task. Typical performance tests assess employees’ ability to produce at different conditions and provide a more holistic and realistic determination of an employee’s true potential by showing the employer what they will do. These tests take place over longer periods and provide insight on an employee’s flexibility and ability to adapt to changing work conditions.

Maximum performance employs extrinsic motivation methods to enhance employees’ performance and ensure maximization of production. Maximum performance tests are more practical when applied in organizations where processes are highly standardized and there is little room for innovation and creativity on the part of the employees like in production and assembly plants. The intellectual functioning abilities of employees in these industries has a negligible effect on the performance of the organization with their attitude and ability to follow instructions and carry out assigned tasks being of more importance. Typical performance requires intrinsic motivation on the part of the employees as their operations occur under uncertain and dynamic conditions. These require employees to be flexible and have increased problem solving and critical thinking abilities to enable them to adopt their production methods to prevailing conditions to ensure continued good performance.

The differences in the operating conditions of different industries are the basis of the differences in the development of performance tests to ensure that they select the best employees. Performance tests feature questions that test an individual’s aptitude by assessing their intellectual, social and integrity capabilities. Intellect assesses an individual’s knowledge of operations and productions processes and enables them to be efficient and effective at their tasks. It also highlights their ability to adapt quickly to changes in production environment and conditions top ensure continuity and maintain output consistency. Intellect scores higher in typical performance testing since their operations occur in dynamic environments with uncertain conditions requiring flexibility and high process knowledge to adapt and maintain high output. High performance environments ensure high performance levels through standardization of processes and systems that are little affected by variations in employee intellectual abilities.

Social factors help management assess a persons ability to work well with others and help them assess their level of perseverance. This holds more importance in high performance environments where employees are exposed to longer periods that are more strenuous and have high performance expectations. Their standardized processes are also often interrelated with one sections success being dependent on its predecessor’s success, which requires high levels of interactions between employees. Typical environments also require their employees to have some level of social ability to allow them coordinate people effectively throughout their assignment to ensure consistent high levels of output. Integrity scores highly in both since it enable employers to know that their employees will uphold high levels of professionalism in the execution of their tasks to ensure that they are efficient and effective. It would also ensure that they are paid commensurate to the work they accomplish by being honest in their appraisals and logging of tasks performed and time worked. Whether operating in typical or high performance environments, all organizations have targets for their employees, which form the basis for their performance appraisals and these normally form the basis for the development of performance testing strategies.

Dr. Nugget’s Medical Practice

Dr. Nugget’s Medical Practice

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Dr. Nugget’s Medical Practice

Question 1

The practice manager broke privilege when she took the confidential patient files from the hospital for further study at home. Medical ethics prohibits the publicizing or failure to secure patient medical records in such a manner as to lead to the contents of that document being made public. She was further careless with the patient documents while in her home that led to the leakage of the medical records to the press. The practice manager handled her discovery of Dr. Nugget’s complicity and hypocrisy in the abortion issue poorly and unprofessionally. As the practice manager, the safeguarding of the practice’s reputation and ensuring compliance to legal and ethical requirements of the profession by their employees is her main responsibility as this goes to further the organizations continuity and productivity. I would have approached the doctor with the evidence obtained and ask for clarifications on why he had gone against his principles and why he had shares in the abortion clinic. I would then advice the doctor to change his hard liner stance on abortion and adopt a more pro-choice leaning, which would help the practice save face from any blow back from the revelations. Ethics would also dictate that he discloses his interests in the abortion clinic and reasons for his referrals so the earning are not suspected to be kickbacks from referrals.

Question 2

The doctor, the practice manager, the boyfriend who leaked the medical documents to the press and the press themselves all bring a variety of ethical issues to this case. The doctor is hypocritical as he publicly condemns elective abortions while secretly benefiting economically from referrals and procedures he makes to the abortion clinic in which he is a secret shareholder. The practice manager violates the confidentiality and privilege of the patients when she takes medical records home as she diminishes their security and leads to the publication of confidential information. The boyfriend who leaked the information also brings a breech of confidentiality when he intentionally leaks his ex-girlfriends confidential medical records most likely out of spite. The press’s expose on the doctor’s hypocrisy and using confidential illegally obtained patient records as evidence inadvertently hurts the reputation and standing of the exposed patient.

Question 3

There are several legal issues arising from this case arising from the point where the patient documents left the hospital. The practice manager put the hospital at risk of negligence when her actions led to the publication a patient’s confidential and privileged documents. The practice manager and jealous boyfriend also open themselves up to theft charges as to how they came to be in possession of confidential medical records. The press in using illegally obtained confidential records leave themselves open to charges of defamation and malice as the patient would lose her standing in her community and her source of livelihood.

Question 4

If the practice manager had remained objective and confronted the doctor with the evidence of hypocrisy she had found, this situation could be averted. At the point of the discovery, the only issue was the doctor’s hypocrisy to his community by publicly condemning elective abortion while secretly benefiting from its practice. At this point, the issue could have been easy explained away with the doctor changing his stance on the abortion issue. The need to disclose his shareholding in the abortion clinic and his past operations could also have been foregone. By being a hypocrite, the doctor had not broken any laws or contravened any ethical regulations of his profession and the issue would have been a moral one.

 

References

Jackson, Jennifer C. Ethics in Medicine. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2006. Print.

Macdonald, Elisabeth. Difficult Conversations in Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Retail Strip Assessment

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Retail Strip Assessment

Introduction

Retail strips are a collection of independent stores and stores that offers residents of surrounding areas access to a variety goods and services due to their unstructured and unrestricted nature that encourages specific needs investments. These retail centers feature an assortment of retail and convenient stores, utilities and civil facilities and services, and leisure and social amenities such as restaurants and are mostly concentrated along the roads offering their clients an open-air shopping experience. These retail centers mostly offer specialized services unique to their areas of operation, which also makes them popular with people from the greater area who are looking for specialized services. The success of retail strips can be attributed to their loose structure, which attracts a variety of investors, and enhances product and service diversification and attracts a larger client base. Their small number also enhances the ability of the independent businesses to mobilize and enhance their retail space to provide better service delivery and shopping experience to the clients by forming Business Improvement Associations to handle administration, marketing, and development.

Plan of the Retail Strip

 

Results Illustrations

 

Market Focus of the Strip

The retail strip is served by four roads, Queens Street South, which separates the stores on the strip laterally, Tannery Street, which divides the stores on the left side of the strip into two halves, and Water Street and Maiden Lane that provide access and exit from the retail center. These roads facilitate access to the strip and enhance customer retail experience by ensuring easy movement of both cars and pedestrians. The strip features both single story stores for relatively smaller businesses and multiple story stores for much larger businesses and stores. There are four major categories of stores on the strip, the first category deals in apparels, the second deals in pharmaceuticals, the third caters to leisure and recreation activities while the last category caters to hobbies. Medical and food services take up the majority of store space on the strip with the medical services all being located on the top of the strip near Water Street while the food stores are evenly distributed along the left side of the strip.

The strip features a variety of restaurants to cater to the large number of clients they receive and the different food preferences and demands by different groups of clients. Financial services are conveniently located at the strip’s entrance at the pharmacies to facilitate people getting enough money to spend on the facilities available. Demand for clothes is high as indicated by the 26% and 14% store capitalization by apparels and shoes retailers respectively. This is followed by furniture and beauty care services, which share a store capitalization of 8% each on the strip. Novelties and phones shops each take up 5% of the stores on the strip with pharmacy, health care, storage, lottery, civil services, and accessories taking up 1% of the stores available on the strip each. The strip also has occupancy is at 92% tenancy since there is still 8% of the total stores vacant.

The stores and services have been arranged to provide shoppers with the best shopping experience with critical services being evenly distributed along the strip. This organization encourages shoppers to carryout their activities on foot and increases their chances of visiting more stores as they walk around. Food stores are also evenly distributed along the strip with more stores located towards Maiden Lane, which enjoys high customer traffic. The market focus of the strip is selling clothes as is apparent in the large number of stores offering the commodity.

Critical analysis of this retail strip based on your observations and assessment

This is a successful strip though I feel that the stakeholders are not exploiting it to its full potential. The location of the strip ensures that it gets high number of customers due to the ease of access provided by the four roads. The road network also promotes business by enhancing the transportation of stock to the stores. Most businesses have concentrated on selling clothes increasing the competition in the apparel industry, which reduces the profits per store. This greatly affects the certainty of the strips future since they might end up losing a lot of their clients to other retail centres that offer more diversity in goods and services. The strip is lacking in the provision of major civil services denying it increased customer base. The business owners could approach several government agencies with the figures of their client base to encourage them to set up devolved offices, which would also help them grow their client numbers.

The strip has also failed to capitalize on the space along Maiden Lane and Water Street that could see it increase the number of stores and could attract more investors to set up businesses there. The strip has also failed to capitalize on the demographics of the customers to customize make high return investments by targeting the specific needs of their different client categories. Probably the most overlooked and potentially high revenue-generating group are the youth who patronize the strip in large numbers. The lack of significant investment in leisure and sporting amenities denies the strip a lot of revenue from this group that has a high spending capacity since most have just started working and with their little financial obligations have a high spending capacity. This could also be the reason why the strip does not get more visitors from this demographic as they go to look for those amenities in other retail centres and larger malls in the greater metropolitan area. The strip also has few senior patrons though this group are the largest inhabitants of the surrounding suburbs. Making access to the strip more seniors friendly can increase their patronage of the establishments on the strip, go a long way in ensuring the strip’s continuity, and guarantee it future. This is possible by building ramps to enhance wheelchair and scooter access. The Business Improvement Association should also develop policies that ensure the reduction of competition by encouraging new investors to venture into other unexploited niches, which will safeguard the earning of older businesses while increasing the number of visitors the strip gets effectively boosting business for all investors.

Conclusion

Retail strips increase the ease of access to a variety of goods and services in suburban residential areas by concentrating a variety of businesses and utilities in a relatively small area. This has enhanced the development of the suburbs, and encouraged investment and settling by people effectively decongesting the cities. They also help solve the unemployment problem especially among the youth who provide most of the labor force in these shops by serving as shop stewards, attendants, and delivery personnel. Their location close to residential areas encourages people to walk to them promoting environmental awareness and protection from reducing the use of vehicles. The success of a retail strip lies in its offering of access to a comprehensive mix of civil, utility, retail and leisure facilities to its immediate residence and its greater environs. Enhancing the efficiency of civil and utility services can appeal to people from neighboring cities due to the time efficiencies they can provide. Since these areas are also less congested and have good access through good infrastructure, they offer more return on investment for the businesses by attracting clients from a larger region.

Ethics

Ethics

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Ethics

Counseling is a social service and as such, its practitioners have to abide by strict non-discrimination policies that prevent them from discriminating against protected classes. Any bias based on a person’s age, culture, disability, ethnicity, race, religion/spirituality, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, marital status/partnership, language preference, socioeconomic status, or any basis proscribed by law is considered discrimination against a protected class under law. The involvement of ACA in the case was necessitated by two reasons, first, to support the legitimacy of its counselor-training programs on the basis of their provision of quality service to everyone. Second, the case threatened the legitimacy of the administration of their nondiscrimination section of their Code of Ethics, which forms then basis of their training and certification of counselors. Counselors take a sacred oath to put aside their beliefs and convictions while at work and to help any client that comes through their doors.

Since the major goal of counseling is helping a client come up with their own solutions to their problems or situations, Wards refusal to offer counseling services to the assigned client represented her partisan approach which is contrary to the teachings and service delivery of their profession. The role of the counselor is that of a guide to help a client navigate their situation with the view of providing supervision to ensure that they stay on target, much like teaching a child how to walk. Counseling helps a client come up with sustainable solutions to their problems by allowing them to build up the courage and clarity to understand and address the underlying causes behind the problem better, rather than dealing with the superficial symptoms of the problem. That is why the Code of Conduct exists, to ensure that clients are empowered to understand their situations and create their own solutions, which also furthers the protection of both practitioners and their regulating body if the solutions are not effective.

I like to finish tasks efficiently so that I can increase the amount of money I earn. Dealing with senior citizens reduces my efficiency and greatly reduces my earning potential since they take longer periods to explain their problem and an even longer period understanding the prognosis you give them to help them form their own solutions. This group also has a more literal approach to interpreting conversations. This increases their chances of making erroneous and wrong solutions, which increase the uncertainty of their efficiency and well-being. Senior citizens also take longer periods on niceties and take longer periods before they open up and reveal their situation. They also have a high rate of lodging complaints, which affects a person’s performance evaluation, and leads to low scoring which might have adverse effects on ones career development. Some issues might also be small but due to the manner they are reported seem like huge issues and lead to a person losing their employment and source of livelihood.

Once a person enters your establishment, they are automatically a client and deserve to be treated with impeccable customer service and professionalism. To better increase my productivity, I have had to do exercises to increase my levels of tolerance and patience and I have taken steps to enhance my productivity by scheduling their bookings during times that I expect to receive fewer clients like during mid day hours. This ensures that I offer them impeccable customer service and that they get value for their money resulting in better performance reviews and customer satisfaction.

Evidence Based Medicine

Evidence Based Medicine

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Evidence Based Medicine

Introduction

Psychiatric facilities rely a lot on the use of opioids to sedate and subdue their patients and residents. Due to diminished cognitive and emotional capacities, these patients and residents are very prone to outbursts and angry rampages. During such times, they are a danger to themselves, other patients and even the staff and doctors in the facility. Opioid sedatives have been used for a long time in calming patients down and allow for intervention. Opium based sedatives and drugs however have a high addiction rate as they bond directly with nerve endings and synapses. This significantly increases the risks of addiction as the residents and patients’ threshold for the drug increases. This is further complicated by the significant in born resistance and susceptibility of different individuals. The significantly low research in psychiatric medicine and practice has also denied practitioners enough information to base their practice on resulting in significant variations in practice and procedures. This paper will discuss the role of evidence-based guidelines in successfully addressing treatment. It will further describe the significance of the process in ensuring low rates of relapsing in patients being treated for addiction. Finally, it will conclude by addressing the significant role that nurses play in the building and development of the body of knowledge in medicine.

Phenomenon of Interest

The diminished cognitive, physical, and emotional capacity of psychiatric patients results in unique and considerable challenges in ensuring accountability in procedures. Since the patients cannot speak for themselves in a majority of cases, cases become highly subjective . The significant physiological differences in patients also create challenges in the administration of care. Guidelines help in reducing the inherent risks associated with caring for patients especially in cases where they are unable to communicate effectively with their caregivers. They ensure this by providing strict guidelines and procedures that have a good record of accomplishment of efficiency and effectiveness. Following these guidelines ensures the safety and health of both patient and healthcare practitioner and provides a trail for establishing where things went wrong in the event of an accident or death. The healthcare system has faced increasing scrutiny and legal action in recent years. This statistic is predicted to increase in coming years due to the increasing ease of access to information. Anybody with an internet ready device today can quickly look up diagnostics by simply typing in the symptoms. This growing phenomenon has been blamed for the rise in litigations as patients and their loved Google symptoms without necessarily incorporating further details of care and patient history. In a world where information is free, guidelines provide significant defense to healthcare facilities and practitioners. First, procedures ensure nurses safety and health. Guidelines provide protection for nurses and other health facility workers by ensuring the adequacy and quality of tools and equipment.

They also enhance security by providing assistance by classifying patients according to their aggression and agitation rates. Second, procedures provide a safety net for nurses when things go wrong, which they sometimes do. Complexities of procedures differ from one person to another. This means that although some procedures might work perfectly with some patients, they might worsen others. Following guidelines indemnifies the practitioners from any unforeseen results like addictions. Third, procedures build on the body of knowledge and practice making processes and procedures more effective and efficient. By ensuring meticulous monitoring and recording of events and occurrences, procedures allow nurses to be able to adjust strategies to ensure higher efficiency. It also effectively creates a precedent from which to base future procedures and increase their effectiveness. Policies in psychiatric care are a significantly outdated. This is the result of a low number of studies into the field as compared to others. This also affects the efficiency of executing evidence-based practices. There is simply not enough knowledge base to base decisions and practices on. These coupled with the uniqueness of each case and patient presented and admitted to psychiatric care increases the complexities of care and the risks of lawsuits.

How Facilities Are Addressing the Problem

With the rising need for the development of a comprehensive knowledge base in the practice of psychiatric medicine, practitioners are using clinical guidelines to develop practical knowledge and research. They have however had to rely heavily on the numerous works already completed in other fields as a basis for their research and assumptions. These have been instrumental in improving the quality of care by establishing strict codes and standards. These have been instrumental in ensuring the decrease of variations in procedures and increasing the dissemination of the newfound knowledge. There have however been significant setbacks to the adoption of guidelines to practice from both institutions and practitioners. This can largely be blamed on the status quo that has long existed. The uncertainty of their effectiveness is not helping speed adoption either. In this case, the needs for self-preservation is also making the adoption process long and slow as nobody wants to be held liable for blame. To get around these bureaucratic roadblocks, psychiatric facilities have formed special committees to oversee adoption and implementation (Ivanovic, 2012). This increased support from management and administration has significantly increased the rate of adoption by ensuring there is adequate availability of resources for success. It has also increased oversight to ensure protocols are followed and that accountability is high.

This has also helped in increasing healthcare practitioners’ bandwidth for making scenario-based decisions based on the dynamics and circumstances that present themselves. This has greatly improved flexibility and helped ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of procedures. It has also increased patient satisfaction and comfort by ensuring shorter recovery times and lower relapse rates. APN nurses are the backbone of healthcare facilities. They are tasked with the progressive monitoring and documentation of patient progress and instrumental in providing insights into the effectiveness of procedures to care. They also have more practical experience doing procedures and can quickly ascertain what is working and what is likely to fail (Bryant-Lukosius, Spichiger, Martin, Stoll, Kellerhals, Fliedner and Grossmann, 2016). Since APN nurses are in constant close contact with patients, they are also the best people to carry out surveys and collect feedback from patients and other healthcare practitioners. Since they are also in the hospital for longer durations than doctors are, they are exposed to many other practitioners. Consultations and discussions with this wider group of healthcare specialists results in the enhancement of procedures and processes (Johnson, Low and LaCroix, 2013). This also significantly helps to build on the body of knowledge and practice of medicine. The greatest asset they probably provide to the entire system is their acute observation and analysis skills. By dynamically observing patient progress, they are able to map out both the processes and reactions of the patients. This gives a more comprehensive basis for future research and practice. This is instrumental to building and enhancing the body of knowledge and increasing effectiveness and efficiency. This effectively ensures faster adoption and encourages investment into further studies and practice.

Agree Tool

The Agree II tool is effective for medical practices of any size and scope. It has also proven to be effective in providing metrics against which health facilities can be appraised in a practical and systemic manner. This tool focuses on the clinical guidelines, which are the basis for the efficiencies of healthcare services operations. They provide guidelines for the provision of care and the treatment of patients to ensure quick recovery times and less time spent in the facility. The tool plays a significant role in ensuring that policies and guideline developed by healthcare professionals and facilities are effective and efficient. It has also proven useful in the development of policies at a larger scale of regulators. This has significantly increased the quality of service delivery and accountability in healthcare systems across the world. It has also been instrumental in the establishment of a body of knowledge and procedures since its inception 13 years ago. The tool was created to ensure guideline policies by keeping the inherent biases of the process at bay. It establishes this by ensuring that the development process incorporates practicality both internally and with set regulations and standards. It does this effectively by providing a suitable framework for evaluating, developing, and reporting in guidelines and procedures.

 

References

Bryant-Lukosius, D., Spichiger, E., Martin, J., Stoll, H., Kellerhals, S. D., Fliedner, M., Grossmann, F., De, G. S. (2016). Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Advanced Practice Nursing Roles. Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing / Sigma Theta Tau, 48, 2, 201-9.

Ivanovic, E. (2012). Systematic reviews – To support evidence-based medicine. Pflege, 25, 4, 307.

Johnson, B. T., Low, R. E., & LaCroix, J. M. (2013). Systematic Reviews to Support Evidence-based Medicine (2nd edition) by Khalid Khan, Regina Kunz, Jos Kleijnen and Gerd Antes: A Review. Research Synthesis Methods, 4, 1, 102-108.

Surprise factor 7

H#Discussion

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Institution:

 

H#Discussion

Entertainment value 8

Content 10

Supportive Of Course Outcome 8

Surprise factor 7

Introduction

The talk is about the effect of our body language on what people think about us, and what we think of ourselves. The speaker asserts that testosterone is the hormone that induces feelings of being powerful, and cortisol induces feelings of being timid. Body language tends to predict outcomes. For instance, from an individual’s pose, it is easy to tell someone who will emerge a winner in a given situation. Confident people tend to have a powerful aura around them, which reveals their pride. Timid people on the other hand tend to have withdrawn postures that indicate an aura of defeat. However, assuming a certain posture tends to reflect the intended outcome in real life.

Discussion

The talk is important because it provides insightful information about body language and why people behave the way, they do. The following are the new facts I learnt from the talk:

  • Our body language influences what we think about ourselves
  • Our body language governs what other people think about us
  • Testosterone is responsible for confidence and pride in human beings
  • Cortisol produced in our brains is responsible for being timid and withdrawn
  • Assuming certain body poses actually induce the intended feelings due to brain processes

The article is indeed enlightening of body language. However, I disagree with the speaker’s claims that a certain body pose achieves a given feeling. More often than not, how we feel about ourselves stems from our psychological setting, not physiological. Therefore, it is far from the truth to claim that a sitting posture will make one feel confident. If someone is not confident, working on their psychological problems is what will work, not their sitting posture.