Organizational Behavior and Leadership



Organizational Behavior and Leadership




Organizational Behavior and Leadership

Question 1

Power is the ability of an individual or organization to control the performance of equal or subordinate parties. Influential people in an institute derive their power from various sources. These bases of power may be formal or individual depending on the influential dynamics. One of the official sources of power evident in this scenario is coercive authority. This basis of command arises from apprehension of attaining unconstructive outcomes upon failing to act in accordance with an individual or company’s wishes (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). In this scenario, employee 2 has coercive power. This is because he is the only person capable of preparing the company’s financial statements. Subsequently, corporation A fears that failure to comply with the worker’s demands may hinder smooth operations in the firm’s accounting department. It is for this reason that the company has allowed employee 2 to work for lesser hours compared to the rest of the workers.

This case study also exhibits reward power. This source of authority is different from coercive power in that compliance of one’s wishes occurs after positive outcomes. For one to attain this form of power, he or she should be in a position to distribute important rewards to other people (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). In corporation A, employee 3 enjoys this type of power. His passion and brilliant ideas in the sales department has resulted in admiration from his colleagues. This pleasant personality has earned him authority in the sales team. The company has appointed him to lead the department because of his enthusiasm. Legitimate power is also a source of influence portrayed in corporation A. This source of control bases its operations on the institution’s system of governance. The other members of staff have to obey the directives of the person in an influential position. In this case, the marketing manager benefits from this form of authority. This is apparent through the policies he uses to supervise the workers.

In the marketing sub-sector, the workforce has to excel in their performance in order to earn a bonus at the end of the year. The organization’s system places the marketing director in a position that controls the operations of all workers in the department. This exhibits legitimate supremacy since the firm’s policies require the labor force to comply with the manager’s instructions. Conversely, expert power is a personal base of influence instigated by one’s proficiency, work experience, or knowledge (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). For instance, employee 2 benefits from this superiority source. He is the only Certified Public Accountant in this commercial organization. For this reason, the firm relies on him to prepare all financial documents. His expertise in the field of accounting has earned him influence in the department. He is able to negotiate with the executive on the terms and conditions of his work. This is evident when he persuades the supervisor to reduce his daily working hours.

In addition, referent power is a personal source of authority portrayed in corporation A. This mode of command bases its principles on personal traits that attract colleagues in an institution (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). Through this type of influence, one is able to manipulate the decisions or performance of his or her colleagues through pleasant attributes such as enthusiasm, charisma, and humility. This is because everyone desires to identify with such an individual. In the case of corporation A, employee 3 benefits from referent power. He is full of vitality, charisma, and confidence. Despite being in the organization for a year, his personality attracts his contemporaries. It is for this reason that his equals approved his proposal meant to modify the policies and principles of the sales department. The workforce is willing to adopt his initiative regardless of its adherence to the sector’s culture. He is able to influence the decisions in the sub-sector through his enthusiasm and charm.

Question 2

There is a close relationship between dependence and power. According to the general dependence postulation, if a person possesses a scarce and significant attribute, other people in the organization will be reliant on the particular individual (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). Consequently, he or she gains superiority over them. On the contrary, a plenteous aspect in a company gains no additional authority, whether formal or personal. For instance, if a company relies on one supplier, he or she will have undivided power over the firm. Likewise, if the company only has one employee with the capability of performing a certain task, the worker will have supremacy over his or her colleagues and the entire department. For example, in corporation A, employee 2 has influence over the operations of the accounting department since he is the only Certified Public Accountant in the institution. Consequently, he dictates his working terms and conditions because the accounting manager fears negative results upon ignoring the worker’s wishes.

There are various causes of dependence. One such aspect is the importance of the commodity. The significance of a certain department or service in a corporation increases reliance, which in turn results in supremacy (Haugaard and Clegg, 2012). In corporation A, the need to keep employee 2 in the firm is because the company values accurate financial statements. This makes the member of staff highly regarded, an aspect that increases his influence in the subdivision. Minimal viable substitutes in terms of a person’s personality or expertise are also responsible for dependence in a business institution. For example, in corporation A, employee 3 has attributes that are unique and rare. He seems to attract the entire workforce in the sales department despite being there for only a year. This character has made him powerful in the subdivision. The manager chose him as the team leader because of his brilliant proposal and vitality. Scarcity of this appeal in the sector’s human resources has earned him superiority over his colleagues.



Haugaard, M., & Clegg, S. (2012). Power and politics. London: SAGE.


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