Geography has been essential to human existence given that it has shaped human civilizations and cultures overtime. Geography is defined as a study of the world its diverse landforms inhabitants and features. Geography has lost its importance because of the growing levels of globalization. Geography is particularly important to the history of human existence in that it consists of studies on climate, weather, natural events and landforms on the planet. Such elements in geography have defined the existence of humans and their respective cultures as a means of adaptation to different natural elements.
In addition, geography has been influential towards the course of history in that it includes the evaluation of the various human and natural phenomena. This is also relative to the evaluation of the various sciences of the earth and their respective relationships with human and natural life. Furthermore, geography is also relative to studies on economic, social and environmental activities that affect nature. Thus, geography has been able to document the lives of human inhabitation over different landscapes over time. In essence, geography of an area has a significant role in the development of culture of the inhabitants of that area.
Over time cultural values, norms and behavior have been subjected to change because of changing climate, weather, landscapes and populations of an area. In addition, ancient civilizations were prompted to undergo change or evolution as a means of dealing with the changing geographical landscapes and the effects of global warming. Geographical factors of an area influence diversity in art forms, food habits, literature, social values, norms, cultural practices and attitudes of the inhabitants.
This explains the diversity in terms of cultures across different geographical regions. Geographical factors such as landforms, climate, and weather influence the overall culture of inhabitants in given region. Activities such as fishing, hunting and gathering have been associated with people from different geographical regions around the world. They are driven by their respective geographical locations to develop certain cultures and attitudes as a means of survival. Furthermore, geography has a significant influence on the distribution or allocation of both manmade and natural resources across the world. This explains the diversity around the world in terms of natural wealth that has influenced the formation of different cultures.
Over the history of human civilization, humans have been able to specialize in a variety of activities such as trade, plant and animal farming and industrial activities. This has been borne out of the need to ensure survival and constant improvements as a means of gaining world superiority. For instance, countries in Europe and Asia over the years have been able to conquer international markets with their respective product surpluses. The growth Asia by countries such as Japan and china saw them increase their exports to other countries given that they were able to produce surplus products to satisfy their domestic needs and international market demand. In addition, countries in the middle such as Saudi Arabia and the UAE have experienced immense economic growth in the past two decades because of the surplus production of oil that is exported to consumers around the world.
Trade between ancient empires set out the development of class structures given that the monarchies, nobilities and established merchants had the resources and knowledge to conduct large-scale trade. Apprenticeship in families of merchants and nobilities formed the avenue towards class structures given that children were initiated into trade and other noble activities by their guardians as a means of developing their skills for survival. Specialization in various activities such as farming and trade came about as a necessity. This was due to the need to exchange commodities for other goods to ensure survival and to gain wealth. Trade between Asia and Europe was perfected because of the need to exchange commodities that parties involved in the trade lacked in their respective countries or regions.
The growth in economic activities because of surplus resulted in the creation of class structures within countries. This was influenced due to the differences in ability to access commodities for engaging in economic activity. The growth in wealth among the rich widened their differences with the poor who were entirely dependent on the rich for survival through the production surpluses. High demand that is relative to economic growth demands the need for production surpluses for commodities. This in turn leads to higher prices for commodities that are widely controlled by the rich. This has been termed as a means towards maintaining the status quo between the rich and the poor.
The population of the world stood at 545 million in the year 1650. The population gradually increased to an estimated 1.5billion as at 1900, 2.5billion as at 1950 and 3.5 billion by the year 1970. It is estimated that the world population increases on an estimated 78million individuals annually. In addition, the world population in the year 2000 stood at 6,057 million or 6.5 billion. The world population stood at an estimated 7billion as at the end of the year 2010.between the year 2000 and the year 2010 there was an increase of 500 million people in the total population of the world. The world population has grown by more than 12 times since 1650 based on the estimated figures of world population.
The Fossil Bubble or the carbon bubble has been termed as an anticipated financial crisis given the significant over-reliance on fossil fuels by economies around the world. The Fossil Bubble has been likened to other economic excesses experienced around the world such as the tulip Bubble in the 18th century, 1992 market Bubble, and the recent 2007 housing market bubble. Similar to other economic excesses, the fossil bubble resulted in the loss of property and the collapse of an entire economy. Economists and scientists predict that the world is rapidly moving towards a foreseeable economic crisis because of inflated investment bubble in the various fossil fuels used in the developed world.
The industrial revolution provided the starting point for man’s reliance on fossil fuels such as coal to advance modernization. A growing world population and increase in consumerism drove demand for different products and services such as farm and manufacturing products. Continued expansions of human activities because of growing human populations are responsible for the growing reliance on fossil fuels. Investments in fossil fuels have been driven by high demand to meet production needs of manufacturers and nations around the world.
Global reliance on fossil fuels namely, coal, natural gas and oil have attracted significant investments in these sectors. Increasing risks and accumulation of risks in the energy market due to declining reserves and inflated prices are primary catalysts of the anticipated financial crisis. Economics claim that the carbon bubble or fossil bubble is because of the over-valuation of gas, coal and oil reserves in the hands of fossil fuels. Reports indicate that if the world were to meet the internationally accepted targets towards avoidance of possibilities of dangerous changes in the climate, the consumption would have to be reduced by two thirds of the current world consumption. Such would lead to massive losses given the expectations of investors towards higher production and profitability in the energy sector.
In addition reports indicate that 200 top companies involved in the fossil fuels market spent an estimated $674bn (£441bn) in the year 2012. Such investments were driven by the new to discover new reserves and resources for fossil fuels. They are indicative of the massive investments made by players in the market. World economies such as the United Kingdom point out that the collapse in the prices of fossil fuels is part of a systemic risk that could lead to the collapse of its economy. The United Kingdom is particularly at a high risk given its significant listings of coal. The investments made by such entities would result in losses in the anticipated decline of fossil fuel prices.
Experts indicate the anticipated reforms by global powers towards renewable energy and reduction of climate change could be achieved through reduction of over-reliance by nations on fossil fuels. However, such would result in the loss of value of investments made over the years by multinational entities towards exploration and production of the various fossil fuels namely coal, oil and natural gas. In addition, the world is gradually seeking alternatives to the reliance on fossil fuels placed by nations around the world. The fossil bubble and growing reliance on fossil fuels due to increase in human activity are largely to blame for the high levels of pollution around the world. This contributes to climate change because of excessive carbon emissions in the atmosphere to result alteration of the climate.
Alternatives to use fossil fuels include the use of biogas, nuclear power, wind power hydropower and solar energy. They provide the main solutions towards the growing reliance placed by nations on fossil fuels as the sole means of energy. The lack of a clear consensus due to the vast economic interests held by nations and multinational entities is largely responsible for the slow progress towards clean energy. In addition, entities are driven by the need to guard their economic interest given the vast financial investments made into production and search for fossil fuel reserves around the world.
The western world and other developed nations are moving towards reducing their reliance on fossils in the long-term. This is possible with the provision of adequate alternatives that would provide effective solutions to the energy needs of the developed and developing nations. Nuclear energy and other renewable forms of energy provide the immediate alternatives as a means towards reduction of pollution resulting from greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, this would also be highly effective in providing rapid solutions towards the growing devastating effects of climate change such as floods, drought and famine.
The world has experienced a rapid evolution towards the end of the 20th century in terms of growing reliance on fossil fuels. This has been driven largely by the growth in population numbers around the world. In addition, the growth in population numbers is also attributable to higher levels of stability in terms of food prices and basic commodities that were traditionally absent to a majority of the world population expect for the rich. In addition, growing industrial activities and capitalism are to blame for the over-reliance on fossil fuels given that investments are made with the sole aim of profit making rather than to ensure mutual benefits for all. In addition, the financial crisis is a possibility given that capitalism has deep roots in western nations. It is largely driven by the need to protect and achieve its economic interests and investments in the energy sector. We are likely to see growing reliance on fossil fuels at the expense of pollution of the environment and climate change all in the name of globalization and modernism.
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