Health, Medicine, Population Urban, & Environment





Health, Medicine, Population Urban, & Environment


The Federal policies towards environmental protection are institution as a means of deterring the degradation of the environment through pollution and depletion of resources. Federal policies with respect to the environment and resources are instituted as a means of regulation of the various group or individual activities that have environmental impacts. Federal policies should not punish individuals or groups that engage in activities that deplete resources and degrade the environment, but should rather impose restrictions engagement of activities that have adverse effects on existing resources and environment.

The Federal policies, which are enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), largely focus on distribution of environmental costs associated with degradation and depletion of resources to entities that share the greatest responsibilities for such occurrences. The EPA enforces two primary policy tools namely rules and inducements. Rules are enforced through regulations that include performance standards and design standards for business and groups. Performance and design standards govern the levels of emissions and pollution that are deemed as acceptable without jeopardizing the environment and existing resources in the country.


Such penalties enforce fair competition in the business world given that they impede the degradation of the environment and the depletion of resources in the country. Small businesses are not endangered by such penalties, regulations and inducements given that they target inappropriate business activities and degradation of the environment. The penalties should be considered as means of control business conduct and activities that do not endanger the environment and existing resources for use by future generations.


Punitive measures are largely enacted as deterrent measures and enhancing the consciousness of the public with respect to usage of resources and degradation of the environment. The scarcity of resources as currently experienced can be avoided with effective enactment of such measures to prevent the rapid depletion of resources and extensive degradation of the environment without impeding on basic human rights. The punitive measures can be termed as utilitarian in nature given that the focus is on the greater good through restriction of overuse of resources and activities that can be termed as threats to the environment.




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