Starting with an example of HIV in the chapter raises significant interest regarding the possible connection between the disease’s longevity and the process of evolution. Accordingly, the focus on the virus asserts that evolution assumes a key role in its progression. One significant aspect regarding the emergence of HIV is based on the process’ inclination towards evolutionary processes. HIV emerged and changed over time in terms of the composition or constitution of viral populaces hence bringing to mind evolutionary process by natural selection. Globally, nearly 23 million people were reported to have been affected by HIV as per the statistics provided by the World Health Organization in 1996. By 2010, it was evidenced that the virus had affected more than 65 million individuals across the world. Understanding viral evolution for the treatment of HIV is important since it will enable focus on attributes such as selection and mutation, which are obviously responsible for the perpetuation of the virus since its discovery in 1984. The focus on HAART treatment is based particularly on resistance to antiretroviral drugs aimed at managing HIV. In fact, its essence involves the application of ARVs to control the replication of the HIV virus while simultaneously improving the immune system’s functions. Apart from HIV, the information derived from the chapter also applies significantly towards other viral diseases. These comprise tuberculosis, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), smallpox, and polio. Indeed, considering and understanding evolution can comprise a suitable approach towards the treatment of disease. Similar to every biological structure, disease-imposing organisms, and the affected victims evolve over time. As such, using evolution to learn about subjects such as the origins of such illnesses and drug resistance may offer an understanding of ways that can be applied for treatment.
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