1) The use of encryptions in most electronic appliances has curtailed the efforts of the law enforcement to access information. This has affected their ability to carry out sufficient investigations in the fight against cyber crimes. Most people accused of perpetrating crimes by electronic means secure their information in passwords for which they later refuse to produce decryption keys (Jewkes, 2005). It is of utmost importance that in this technological advanced world of today, all matters that limit electronic investigations are addressed, as there are numerous crimes committed in this way. There is an example of a scenario where finding the decryption key to a secret organization helped in solving one of the largest cyber based crime in 1998. This is in reference to the identification of a certain group responsible for a global spread of pedophile material (McQuade, 2009). The operations were so deep-rooted that the operations had run in fifteen countries. One member of this club gave access to the files and helped save many children from further indecent exposures.
In some instances, court has challenged acquisition of decryptions that have not been acquired by court order because they are an invasion of privacy. One of such a case is the famous United States case whereby, evidence was obtained by installing software that had a key logging program onto a computer capturing the password (McQuade, 2006). The affected party challenged the acquisition on the ground that the evidence was obtained through illegal interception. The court however found another way of looking at the case and the evidence was admissible after a long process of evaluation. However, many others avoid prosecution because of the encryptions used in their deals (Yar, 2006). For this reason, I believe that decryption and the freedom to use them will continuously increase electronic crimes unless effort is made to advocate against its use. Likewise, exceptions should be made on matters concerning privacy in such cases.
2) One of the most common cyber related criminals in a campus setting is the identity thieves and hackers on one-hand and cyber terrorists on another. This is so because their intentions in the first place are always to use another person’s identity to fulfill their own selfish agendas. The hackers on the other hand may access another student’s valuable information and interfere with it (Jewkes, 2005). However, it could get worse if they decided to mess with the school system or use new profiles to either threaten, attack, or discourage the efforts of the students or the teachers. If a hacker or an identity thief is interested in interfering with the lives of others, they could send threats to instill fear or otherwise based on the approach used (Yar, 2006). These two groups of people fit as a group of cyber terrorists who in some cases destroy the life of a student trough bullying or interfering with their performances.
If I am the university president and there are such occurrences, I would take the following measures. Firstly, I would encourage the administration and the students to find alternative ways to store their records. This means that once the hackers can only access the information stored electronically, the student or the office administration have alternatives. Secondly, I would advice my fellow schoolmates to keep their accounts password protected and private if possible. This is by sharing the least of their personal details and by storing minimal information in their social accounts.
Education on cyber bullying and terrorism is also a valuable way of telling people to ignore any inappropriate attacks and to report once they happen (Jewkes, 2005) Lastly, having had a few victims of the attacks previously means that it will be important to offer psychological counseling that provides consolation and reduces fear. The administration can beef up security in different parts of campus for the students to feel safe and protected at all times. This means that there will be awareness, and supervision within the school areas at all times.
3) Crimes are measured in numerous ways. Three of the most common ones in United States are spearheaded by the analysis of the criminal statistics in the police official reports (McQuade, 2006). This may be done by focusing on a particular crime and evaluating the trend over time such that, if the crime rate has gone down in the committing of the particular crime, it may mean that the entire crime level is down (Yar, 2006). If it is the opposite, it indicates that the crime level has risen. The people most responsible with carrying out the task of calculating the rate of crime are the police because they are responsible for recording of the occurrences, as well as, the storage of the same.
An example of crimes that are most commonly recorded and most easy to keep track of include theft, shop lifting, robbery especially of the bank, vandalism of property, rape and prostitution. In most cases, the criminal statistics are based on the particular specifics of the area that is being measured. They are mainly socially constructed based on personal decisions, influence, circumstances of the offence, and the luck in knowing and finding ways out. This is the reason why assumptions such as black people are most criminal offences by the black race even in the slightest is reported, and others.
Victim survey is yet another important way of measuring the frequency and the number of crimes. Instead, on relying on official reports and records, the focus is made on the collecting of views and personal experiences on crimes and the occurrence rates. In most cases, individuals take matters in their own hands and fail to rely on the help of the police. This process may not be very reliable because it is only within very few numbers of people and because it is hard to clarify some cases. Lastly, using the self-reporting strategy where a person makes individual analysis by asking the people they have seen or heard commit crimes is more intimate. It is effective because it is all about talking and understanding contexts before being put into a context
4) Social conflict theory is a Marxist based that explains the different levels of power in the society (Jewkes, 2005). In addition, this theory shows that those with more power use it to exploit others and those without often become subject to them. Cyber crimes are mainly based on this kind of notion such that, the hackers and the identity thieves are those who are more conversant with computer operations than the victims are. This is why the crimes exist in the first place because people manipulate their higher technological intellect to cause harm to those of a much lower level.
Jewkes, Y. (2005). Media and crime. London: SAGE.
McQuade, S. C. (2006).Understanding and managing cybercrime. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon
Yar, M. (2006). Cybercrime and society. London: SAGE Publications.
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