China’s Communist Revolution

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China’s Communist Revolution

Question 1

The accord of Nanjing had a major impact on China with respect to modernization. The treaty signed in 1842, affected China’s market, culture, and political affairs (Schoppa 23). To begin with, business transactions were more lucrative since foreign merchants easily imported and exported commodities to the Chinese market. The tax charged on the foreign products was beneficial to the government in several ways. Not only was the budget allocations to different sub sectors increased but it also facilitated regional military advancements. With the purchase of modern warfare equipments, the nation was able to conquer Japanese troops. Other modernization aspects obtained from the treaty included contemporary banking systems.

The foreign merchants enlightened Chinese traders on the modern and secure way of depositing monetary assets. These foreigners also influenced the social element of China. Such amenities as health facilities, educational centers, and public transportation hubs adopted ideas from western countries like the United States and the Great Britain (Schoppa 67). These social developments improved the living standards of China’s peasants as well as developing the country’s financial structure. However, there were certain negative impacts of the Nanjing agreement. The western principles resulted in the establishment of an elite class in the Chinese community. This widened the gap between social classes with capitalism and corruption overriding the original financial system in the nation.

Question 2

The Taiping Rebellion was a social conflict in the southern region of China, which led to the demise of many civilians. The confrontational period, directed by Hong Xiuquan, opposed the administration of the Qing Dynasty (Schoppa 71). At the beginning of the movement, Xiuquan claimed to have received spiritual messages that confirmed he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. With this self-imposed headship, he recruited a large number of people with the aim of ruling the southern provinces of China. Other agendas of the association included economic equality through sharing material possessions in the society as well as introducing their new form of Christianity in the area.

Most analysts view the Taiping Rebellion as a religious fight. To start with, the leaders of this private army opposed the principles of religions established in the region. This included Buddhism, Confucianism, and the native Chinese religion. Hong convinced his followers that the operations of the rebellion were in line with the principles promoted by Jesus Christ (Chin and Joshua 49). Additionally, ethnicity was evident in the operations of the movement. The main ethnic groups that formed the Taiping Heavenly Army included the Hakka, Zhuang, and Cantonese (Chin and Joshua 75). They all formed a negligible portion of the entire southern community. For instance, the main ethnic groups perceived members of the Hakka community as intruders. This discrimination propelled them to join the Taiping Rebellion.

Moreover, most of these ethnic groups of people experienced economic marginalization.

For instance, the Hakka settled in areas with rocky and infertile soils. With this discrimination and economic oppression, the psychological challenge promoted by Xiuquan led to the development of the Taiping Rebellion. However, towards the fall of the kingdom, the leaders of this association differed in relation to their policies. The conflicts between Hong and Yang led to the death of the latter administrator by Hong’s followers (Chin and Joshua 93). This destabilized the organization, an element that made it easy for the government to end the kingdom with the help of British and French troops.

Question 3

Guomindang is one of the Chinese political associations, which ruled in the mid nineteenth century. The ideologies of this political party revolved around the region’s customs, recovery, and modernity with the main aim of reviving the industrial facet of China. However, there were several challenges that made it difficult to maintain their vision. To start with, the party did not garner substantial support from a large percentage of the Chinese. For instance, the large number of peasants in various geographical regions of China preferred Mao’s communism ideologies as opposed to Guomindang principles (Slack 58).

These peasants had experienced oppression for a long period. This included high land rates, commodity taxes, and other policies that did not consider their economic situation. Consequently, the communists manipulated this portion of the public by promising to meet their economic and social needs. For example, one of their campaign agendas was to provide land for the peasants as well as lowering the property taxes (Slack 64). This made it difficult for Guomindang to improve the country.

Question 4

The Chinese revolution era promoted by communists was an important period that shaped modern China. However, there are several misconceptions with reference to this renewal process. To start with, most people confuse the events with the civil war experienced in the country. The civil warfare involved immense efforts aimed at improving the nation. Although the revolution has its foundation on the larger civil conflict, it was not as effective as the earlier movement. Additionally, the KMT was a strong association that directed most economic operations in china (Slack 81). This created pressure for the communists to defeat the Japanese although several strategic efforts facilitated their success.

Question 5

China’s revolution period indicates socialist and capitalist ideologies. To begin with, the Communist Party of China (CCP) improved the national social framework by improving health and educational facilities (Kissinger 103). Housing and employment were also major concerns of the government since they sort to promote a planned economy that improved the living standards of peasants. However, the events of the reform process demonstrate a more powerful continuation of capitalism. This occurred after the death of Mao, a chief advocate of communism (Kissinger 108). After Deng Xiaoping attained power, he embarked on several economic reforms.

At the beginning, the main market reforms conducted by this consumerist involved mechanisms aimed at developing the national economy without interfering with the comprehensive industry governing the centralized economic sub sector. However, the entrepreneurial agendas propelled the government to adopt capitalist restoration as the main guiding principle of the industrial subdivision. However, corruption took charge of the sector, adversely affecting the national economy. The unstable freedom in the country and the wide gap between social classes facilitated the deplorable leadership style in the country with the general population having minimal influence over the government’s operations.

The public servants controlling the chief sectors of the administration sought to increase their wealth at the expense of the general population’s wellbeing. Corruption facilitated the control of the national economy by few financially powerful individuals. Consequently, the general population conducted several sessions to oppose the manner in which the administration conducted public operations. Labor movements emerged in several commercial organizations with the intent of presenting the workers’ demands to the centralized administration. However, the government adopted violent measures to combat the rebellion for the public (Kissinger 121). This severe repression had an adverse effect on China’s financial system. Corruption strengthened its roots with a large portion of the general populace living in abject poverty.

 

Work Cited

Chin, Shunshin, and Joshua A. Fogel. The Taiping Rebellion. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. Print.

Kissinger, Henry. On China. New York: Penguin Press, 2011. Print.

Schoppa, R K. Revolution and Its Past: Identities and Change in Modern Chinese History. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

Slack, Edward R. Opium, State, and Society: China’s Narco-Economy and the Guomindang, 1924-1937. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001. Print.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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