ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models
ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models
Instructional design models are essential considerations for anyone planning to start a school. They guide the instructors on what to do, and they offer guidelines on the objectives to be developed. They help in organizing pedagogical scenarios that are needed to achieve instructional goals. The most effective instructional designs ensure that the learners’ performance is the focal point of instruction and learning (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). They have to have well-established goals that act as guidelines on what needs to be achieved from the entire process. They are aware of the present challenges, and they are meant to ensure that instructors equip the students with the tools they need to solve problems in their world. The models give room for reliable and valid measurements in determining outcomes of the learning process. In addition, effective models are empirical, and they rely on data. Instructional design involves the input of different team members (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). The members are essential in handling various tasks, and they contribute their knowledge and skills to make the design more efficient. When comparing the ADDIE and the Dick and Carey Models, it is notable that while the latter is based on ADDIE, it is more complex and comprehensive and fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design.
The ADDIE model was first established in the 1970s. The course development process has been designed in five phases. The stages are interrelated and cyclical, and they comprise analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. They act as guidelines for developing performance support tools and building effective training (Educational Technology, 2018). The first step, analysis, involves clarifying the instructional problem and establishing the instructional goals and objectives. The learning environment as well as the existing knowledge and skills that the learner already has are also identified in this phase. The design phase is meant to be specific and systematic. It is concerned with learning objectives, the instruments to be used for assessment, the content, lesson planning, selection of the media to use, and the analysis of subject matter.
The development phase involves the actual creation and assembly of the content in the design phase. It includes different activities such as designing the graphics to be used, creating storyboards, and writing the content. In cases where the institution is using technology, the program developers integrate their technologies during this stage. In the implementation chapter, the instructional developers come up with a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners. The training is comprehensive, and it covers the curriculum, testing procedures, the learning outcomes, and the methods to be used for delivery. The evaluation phase is the final stage, and it consists of formative and summative stages. It involves determining the look and measurement of success (Educational Technology, 2018). The formative stage is present throughout all the phases of the development process. The summative phase consists of different tests completed at the end of the training sessions. It is meant to provide information concerning the success or failure of the training done.
The Dick and Carey model, also known as the systems approach model, focuses on content delivery. It consists of ten steps that influence each other directly and indirectly. The developers considered the different stages as interrelated instead of viewing them in isolation. The steps include identifying instructional goals, conducting instructional analysis, identifying entry behaviors and learner characteristics, writing performance objectives, developing criterion-referenced test items, creating an instructional strategy, developing and selecting instructional materials, developing and conducting formative evaluation, and developing and conducting the summative evaluation (Forest, 2018). The model identifies different components such as learners and instructors, delivery system, instructional activities, the learning environment, materials, and learning environment as interrelated elements that are necessary for achieving learning outcomes.
The Dick and Carey model and the ADDIE model share some similarities. They are both widely known, and they are used as foundations for other systems. The clear structure in each phase of the models makes them easy to use and understand. They both recognize the need to determine what the learner already knows. They also distinguish the importance of establishing goals that are to be achieved in the learning process. However, they differ in varying respects. Although the ADDIE model is the basis for Dick and Carey’s model, it is less detailed and specific. The ADDIE approach is linear while Dick and Carey have opted for an iterative and more flexible approach.
The ADDIE model has gained acceptance to become the most commonly used instructional design model. The model offers a series of questions that are meant to ensure a critical examination of the instructional goals, the learning objectives, and the needs of the learners at every stage of the process. Formative evaluation takes place at each step and revisions occur throughout the design. The strategy is meant to ensure that the design is in line with the instructional goals. Although the model follows a linear pattern, the instructors do not have to follow the phases strictly. Problem-solving activities occur in all the components of the model (Koohang & Harman, 2007). The ADDIE model encourages engaging learning, training, and instruction.
Incorporating formative evaluation in every process in the ADDIE model is a significant strength. The assessment involves the input of both students and instructors. The process enables the designer to determine if the set objectives and goals have been realized and if the problems that were identified in the training program have been resolved. However, the summative assessment is carried out after the implementation of the model. The strategy is meant to identify the areas that need improvement. Although the summative and formative assessments are essential processes of the model, they are often overlooked by many designers because they require the use of more time and money.
The weakness of the ADDIE model is that it is more of a linear process. The approach is limiting because learning is not a linear process. Educators often experience the need to be flexible in their instruction approach (Training Industry, 2013). They need to determine whether they are making any changes in the learners’ lives. Typically, this involves deciding whether they need to continue with the approaches they are using, or if they need to re-teach anything. The model may also not be the most appropriate to solve emerging problems (Morrison, 2015). The analyzing phase in the ADDIE model may be lengthy and time-consuming. It also leads to many assumptions. The developing stage differs based on the people responsible for implementing the stage. If there is no support, then it will not be possible to get the materials needed and to cater for the costs of other resources. The problems will end up affecting the final processes (Allen, 2012). More time and money will be spent if there are flaws in the system, which will only be discovered after the implementation.
It is critical to ensure that instructional design is centered on the learner, is goal-oriented, focuses on the real world, and concentrates on measurable outcomes. The Dick and Carey model is based on ADDIE, but it is more complex and comprehensive. It fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design. From the beginning, there is knowledge of what the learner will be expected to acquire from the instruction experience. It ensures that the pupils have learning responsibilities since they have to recall what they have learned and perform particular tasks as instructed. The comprehensive nature of the Dick and Carey process enables the instructor to identify more steps in the design process. In fact, this strategy is important since it ensures the development of a detailed design (Hilgart et al., 2012). For instance, whereas the ADDIE model recognizes that there is a place for assessment, the Dick and Carey model goes ahead to identify different evaluations including pretesting, post-testing, and behavior testing. All the assessments have a purpose. In the development of instructional strategy, there is a place for learner participation, and this enhances the learner-centered approach of the model.
The steps in the Dick and Carey model are connected, and this helps the instructors know what to do next. The instructors can understand what to teach and can identify the methods to use when doing so. Figuring out the performance objectives is crucial as this determines the goals and objectives of each lesson and not only those of the overall learning experience. These objectives are detailed, and they ensure that the instructor has a clear path forward. The instructors only develop the lesson plans after they have set the targets of what the students need to learn and after they have determined what they need to test the students on, based on these objectives. The instructional strategy phase provides a lot of flexibility to the instructors (Spector et al., 2012). They can determine the approach they will use when delivering content, the different teaching methods that are applicable, the activities they will incorporate, the use of technology, and any other teaching approach. The approach gives them room to integrate any new learning approaches as this happens before the actual implementation of teaching. It ensures that instructors can get the support they need from the administrators.
Allen, M. (2012). Leaving ADDIE for SAM: An agile model for developing the best learning experience. New York, NY: American Society for Training and Development
Educational Technology. (2018). ADDIE model: Instructional design. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/
Forest, E. (2018). Frameworks & theories: Dick and Carey instructional model. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/dick-and-carey-instructional-model/
Hilgart, M. M., Ritterband, M. L., Thorndike, P. F., & Kinzie, B. M. (2012). Using instructional design process to improve design and development of internet interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), e89
Koohang, A., & Harman, K. (2007). Learning objectives and instructional design. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science
Morrison, M. (2015). The ADDIE instructional design model. Retrieved from https://rapidbi.com/the-addie-instructional-design-model-hrblog/
Spector, M. J., Merrill, D, M., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (2014). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. New York, NY: Springer
Training Industry. (2013). Content development: ADDIE model. Retrieved from https://www.trainingindustry.com/wiki/addie-model-cpdc/