Impact of Overpopulation on the Environment

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Impact of Overpopulation on the Environment

The world has continued to increase in population, and this has led to overpopulation in some regions. As of 2015, there were approximately 7.3 billion people around the globe (Singh et al. 1). As the population increases, more resources are needed to sustain the population. Agriculture has to be intensified to ensure that people have enough to eat. The more people there are, the more energy is required, and the more waste is produced. Overpopulation has severe adverse effects on the environment. The developed and the developing world have different rates of population growth. Research indicates that the 46 least developed countries have a growth rate of 2.3% per annum, compared to a growth rate of 1.2% per annum in developed nations (Singh et al. 1). As the world continues to increase its population, it is not expanding, and neither is it adding more resources. There is a need to check the present overpopulation to reduce the negative effects it has on the environment

Overpopulation has contributed to the growth of urban sprawl and a reduction of the wild and natural environment. People need a place to stay and work, and they have turned towards the native habitat. The available buildings can no longer sustain them. Therefore, they have to depend on the areas that were previously considered wild to expand. They need infrastructure and amenities, and they destroy the natural habitat to achieve this. Such actions have in turn not only reduced the natural lands and vegetation, but it has also reduced and damaged biodiversity. Some of the plant, animal, and insect species and subspecies have become extinct, and others are on the brink of extinction. Because of overpopulation, ecologies have collapsed, and there has been a spread of bio-homogeneity. The wild places have continued to shrink and fragment and this has caused the creatures living in these places to migrate (Cafaro and Crist 3).

The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has proved to be influential in the changes in climate. Most of the greenhouse gases are emitted because of human activity. The energy used, agricultural practices, and other activities cause the emission of these gases to the atmosphere. The more people there are, the more greenhouse gases are released. As people continue to increase, so does the number of cars on the roads, which consume energy and release the harmful gases. More waste is discharged as well, and more factories are set up to meet the increased demand in consumption. The high demand may not be necessarily because people want more, but it is caused by the many people in the world, who are available to consume the produced goods. The factories, cars and other machinery release these harmful gases, which have contributed to the warming of the atmosphere, which has in turn contributed towards changing climatic patterns.

Overpopulation has changed land topography. It has contributed to deforestation, soil erosion, and it has had an impact on food security as well. People will clear forested areas to find a place to stay or for agricultural purposes. In addition, they cut down forests for wood, timber, and pulp. The reduction of forests is a significant concern, because of the importance of trees to the environment. The situation is especially prevalent in countries where legislation is not enforced strictly. Deforestation has serious negative effects especially on changing weather patterns and controlling soil erosion. As people increase, the demand for food increases as well. The situation will lead to more need for land. Most of the targeted land for agriculture is in the forested areas, as it is considered suitable for farming.

The levels of pollution tend to increase because of overpopulation. The state of affairs includes air, land, and water pollution. In addition, radioactive contamination has become a real concern (Singh et al. 4). People release and dispose of waste, which includes domestic and factory waste. Some of this waste enters the water bodies, and other waste is released in the land and in the atmosphere. The contaminants affect the quality of the soils, which may prove unsuitable for farming and it affects the underground water reservoirs. The disposal of waste has been a significant concern. It has not only affected the land, by contributing to landfills, but it has altered the marine ecosystem as well. Some of the waste finds its way to oceans and other water bodies. Plastics and other non-biodegradable materials have had an adverse effect on marine life since the animals consume but are not able to digest them. The materials can cause the death of the marine animals. Coral reefs are degraded as well because of marine pollution, overfishing, and other human activities.

Overpopulation has driven the need for energy. The traditional sources of energy, which depend on fossil fuels, have increased their capacity and production. In addition, they have exploited other sources including mountains and underground shale for natural gas and coal. Deep sea floors have been exploited as well (Cafaro and Crist 4). The use of fossil fuels is considered influential in increasing global warming. Exploiting the mountains has changed the topography of the land. Deep-sea mining for oil has had detrimental effect on the marine ecosystem.

Most of the world is already facing a shortage of freshwater. Although water covers much of the world, only a small amount of that water is freshwater, which is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, the available freshwater sources are not able to replenish quickly. The characteristic makes freshwater a significant finite resource. An increase in population means that more people will continue depending on the same sources. The alteration will lead to a shortage, which will, in turn, cause human suffering.

There is a relationship between overpopulation and the increased emergence of diseases. The onset of these diseases has been influenced by environmental degradation, which is a direct consequence of overpopulation (Lindahl and Delia 3). Some of these diseases have caused conditions such as malnutrition in children, and this has exposed the children to more diseases since it makes them more susceptible. Some of the diseases occur because of environmental conditions caused by overpopulation. Some of these conditions include pollution and overcrowding. Living in unsanitary conditions exposes people to infections.

The need to feed the growing population has contributed to intensive farming practices and other activities meant to secure food. Some of these activities include a more significant use of chemical pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, and other products. There is a need to produce more food on the little land available. Such intensive practices include overgrazing on grasslands and overfishing as well. Intensive methods have led to depletion and degradation of the soil. It has caused the land to become more susceptible to flooding, and it has increased to polluted runoffs, which end up in rivers and oceans.

It is clear that overpopulation has had harmful environmental consequences. The growing population needs more land for work and houses. It needs more land for infrastructure and construction of other amenities. It has contributed to urban sprawl, and it has led to a destruction of the ecology by reducing biodiversity. It has led to inefficient land use, intensive agricultural practices, increase in waste and energy, and it has contributed to the emergence of disease. Therefore, there is a need to check the rates of population change for the sake of future generations.

 

Works Cited

Cafaro, Phillip, and Eileen Crist. Life on the Brink: Environmentalists Confront Overpopulation. Georgia: University of Georgia Pres, 2012.

Lindahl, Johanna F., and Delia Grace. “The Consequences of Human Actions on Risks for Infectious Diseases: A Review.” Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 30048, 2015, pp. 1-11

Singh, Pratap R. et al. Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation. Hershey: IGI Globla, 2016.

 

ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

 

ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

Instructional design models are essential considerations for anyone planning to start a school. They guide the instructors on what to do, and they offer guidelines on the objectives to be developed. They help in organizing pedagogical scenarios that are needed to achieve instructional goals. The most effective instructional designs ensure that the learners’ performance is the focal point of instruction and learning (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). They have to have well-established goals that act as guidelines on what needs to be achieved from the entire process. They are aware of the present challenges, and they are meant to ensure that instructors equip the students with the tools they need to solve problems in their world. The models give room for reliable and valid measurements in determining outcomes of the learning process. In addition, effective models are empirical, and they rely on data. Instructional design involves the input of different team members (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). The members are essential in handling various tasks, and they contribute their knowledge and skills to make the design more efficient. When comparing the ADDIE and the Dick and Carey Models, it is notable that while the latter is based on ADDIE, it is more complex and comprehensive and fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design.

The ADDIE model was first established in the 1970s. The course development process has been designed in five phases. The stages are interrelated and cyclical, and they comprise analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. They act as guidelines for developing performance support tools and building effective training (Educational Technology, 2018). The first step, analysis, involves clarifying the instructional problem and establishing the instructional goals and objectives. The learning environment as well as the existing knowledge and skills that the learner already has are also identified in this phase. The design phase is meant to be specific and systematic. It is concerned with learning objectives, the instruments to be used for assessment, the content, lesson planning, selection of the media to use, and the analysis of subject matter.

The development phase involves the actual creation and assembly of the content in the design phase. It includes different activities such as designing the graphics to be used, creating storyboards, and writing the content. In cases where the institution is using technology, the program developers integrate their technologies during this stage. In the implementation chapter, the instructional developers come up with a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners. The training is comprehensive, and it covers the curriculum, testing procedures, the learning outcomes, and the methods to be used for delivery. The evaluation phase is the final stage, and it consists of formative and summative stages. It involves determining the look and measurement of success (Educational Technology, 2018). The formative stage is present throughout all the phases of the development process. The summative phase consists of different tests completed at the end of the training sessions. It is meant to provide information concerning the success or failure of the training done.

The Dick and Carey model, also known as the systems approach model, focuses on content delivery. It consists of ten steps that influence each other directly and indirectly. The developers considered the different stages as interrelated instead of viewing them in isolation. The steps include identifying instructional goals, conducting instructional analysis, identifying entry behaviors and learner characteristics, writing performance objectives, developing criterion-referenced test items, creating an instructional strategy, developing and selecting instructional materials, developing and conducting formative evaluation, and developing and conducting the summative evaluation (Forest, 2018). The model identifies different components such as learners and instructors, delivery system, instructional activities, the learning environment, materials, and learning environment as interrelated elements that are necessary for achieving learning outcomes.

The Dick and Carey model and the ADDIE model share some similarities. They are both widely known, and they are used as foundations for other systems. The clear structure in each phase of the models makes them easy to use and understand. They both recognize the need to determine what the learner already knows. They also distinguish the importance of establishing goals that are to be achieved in the learning process. However, they differ in varying respects. Although the ADDIE model is the basis for Dick and Carey’s model, it is less detailed and specific. The ADDIE approach is linear while Dick and Carey have opted for an iterative and more flexible approach.

The ADDIE model has gained acceptance to become the most commonly used instructional design model. The model offers a series of questions that are meant to ensure a critical examination of the instructional goals, the learning objectives, and the needs of the learners at every stage of the process. Formative evaluation takes place at each step and revisions occur throughout the design. The strategy is meant to ensure that the design is in line with the instructional goals. Although the model follows a linear pattern, the instructors do not have to follow the phases strictly. Problem-solving activities occur in all the components of the model (Koohang & Harman, 2007). The ADDIE model encourages engaging learning, training, and instruction.

Incorporating formative evaluation in every process in the ADDIE model is a significant strength. The assessment involves the input of both students and instructors. The process enables the designer to determine if the set objectives and goals have been realized and if the problems that were identified in the training program have been resolved. However, the summative assessment is carried out after the implementation of the model. The strategy is meant to identify the areas that need improvement. Although the summative and formative assessments are essential processes of the model, they are often overlooked by many designers because they require the use of more time and money.

The weakness of the ADDIE model is that it is more of a linear process. The approach is limiting because learning is not a linear process. Educators often experience the need to be flexible in their instruction approach (Training Industry, 2013). They need to determine whether they are making any changes in the learners’ lives. Typically, this involves deciding whether they need to continue with the approaches they are using, or if they need to re-teach anything. The model may also not be the most appropriate to solve emerging problems (Morrison, 2015). The analyzing phase in the ADDIE model may be lengthy and time-consuming. It also leads to many assumptions. The developing stage differs based on the people responsible for implementing the stage. If there is no support, then it will not be possible to get the materials needed and to cater for the costs of other resources. The problems will end up affecting the final processes (Allen, 2012). More time and money will be spent if there are flaws in the system, which will only be discovered after the implementation.

It is critical to ensure that instructional design is centered on the learner, is goal-oriented, focuses on the real world, and concentrates on measurable outcomes. The Dick and Carey model is based on ADDIE, but it is more complex and comprehensive. It fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design. From the beginning, there is knowledge of what the learner will be expected to acquire from the instruction experience. It ensures that the pupils have learning responsibilities since they have to recall what they have learned and perform particular tasks as instructed. The comprehensive nature of the Dick and Carey process enables the instructor to identify more steps in the design process. In fact, this strategy is important since it ensures the development of a detailed design (Hilgart et al., 2012). For instance, whereas the ADDIE model recognizes that there is a place for assessment, the Dick and Carey model goes ahead to identify different evaluations including pretesting, post-testing, and behavior testing. All the assessments have a purpose. In the development of instructional strategy, there is a place for learner participation, and this enhances the learner-centered approach of the model.

The steps in the Dick and Carey model are connected, and this helps the instructors know what to do next. The instructors can understand what to teach and can identify the methods to use when doing so. Figuring out the performance objectives is crucial as this determines the goals and objectives of each lesson and not only those of the overall learning experience. These objectives are detailed, and they ensure that the instructor has a clear path forward. The instructors only develop the lesson plans after they have set the targets of what the students need to learn and after they have determined what they need to test the students on, based on these objectives. The instructional strategy phase provides a lot of flexibility to the instructors (Spector et al., 2012). They can determine the approach they will use when delivering content, the different teaching methods that are applicable, the activities they will incorporate, the use of technology, and any other teaching approach. The approach gives them room to integrate any new learning approaches as this happens before the actual implementation of teaching. It ensures that instructors can get the support they need from the administrators.

 

References

Allen, M. (2012). Leaving ADDIE for SAM: An agile model for developing the best learning experience. New York, NY: American Society for Training and Development

Educational Technology. (2018). ADDIE model: Instructional design. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/

Forest, E. (2018). Frameworks & theories: Dick and Carey instructional model. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/dick-and-carey-instructional-model/

Hilgart, M. M., Ritterband, M. L., Thorndike, P. F., & Kinzie, B. M. (2012). Using instructional design process to improve design and development of internet interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), e89

Koohang, A., & Harman, K. (2007). Learning objectives and instructional design. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science

Morrison, M. (2015). The ADDIE instructional design model. Retrieved from https://rapidbi.com/the-addie-instructional-design-model-hrblog/

Spector, M. J., Merrill, D, M., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (2014). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. New York, NY: Springer

Training Industry. (2013). Content development: ADDIE model. Retrieved from https://www.trainingindustry.com/wiki/addie-model-cpdc/

Writing Class Assessment and Reflection

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Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Writing Class Assessment and Reflection

  1. Locate the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric which is explained in Course Syllabus Document entitled, “Examples of Discussion forum Comments and How they are Assessed.” Are you satisfied with your performance up to the close of Lesson 3 in the Discussion Forum? Why or Why not?

The performance that I have exhibited up towards the conclusion of Lesson 3 has proven to be somewhat satisfactory from my personal point of view. Despite the fact that I participated towards the end, and I was constrained by the short amount of time I had left, I was able to create two Discussion Forums and consequently perform all quizzes that were assigned by the deadline. In addition to this, I was capable of initiating proper and objective responses to two of the people within my class on the Discussion Forum. Overall, my satisfaction with the performance that I exuded at the end of Lesson 3 was based on the steps that I took as far as the Forum, and the quizzes were concerned.

  1. Review your comments for Lessons 1-3. Using the Grading Rubric out of a possible 0-30 Points (10 points for each lesson), tell me how many points in total you believe you have earned across all 3 Forums and why.

Across all 3 Discussion Forums, I would say that I have managed to earn 30 points for the three assignments. The key reason for this is based on how I performed across the respective assessments. I believe that I applied what I had learned in each lesson efficiently. With the assistance that I received from my instructor and classmates, I was able to ensure that all the assignments in question were done concerning the instructions that were provided. Adding that to the way I did my best in the projects, I believe that I managed to score 30 points deservingly.

  1. There are twelve more lessons in the class. What, if anything, will you change? What is working well for you?

Foremost, I will concentrate significantly on studying and reading the previous material because of the role that it assumes in learning the subsequent lessons. Additionally, I will re-read the information that I have gained to the close of Lesson 3 to understand where I am heading as far as the class is concerned. Based on what I have learned so far, I will continue to implement the constructive criticisms that I have received from my instructor and classmates. Since the purpose of the class involves mastering the English subject in general, the advice that I have received from the beginning will prove essential in managing the new information that I will receive while participating in the remaining twelve lessons.

  1. Discuss your areas of strengths and challenges with regards to this class. Are you aware of resources on campus to help you with writing skills if needed?

As far as my strengths regarding this class are, I am well aware of the proficiency that I possess in English grammar. Aside from the lessons that I have received since the beginning of the class, my background as an avid reader has contributed significantly to my level of expertise in the English language. In addition to this, I am capable of comprehending a wide range of vocabulary. However, regarding weaknesses, I have always found it difficult to start my compositions as far as writing is concerned. Nonetheless, I am well aware of the campus resources that I can apply to enhance and improve my skills in writing.

  1. Since this is an intensive writing class, the amount of writing can be very time-consuming. Balancing school, work, family, and other life events can be quite the task. How are your time management skills working for you?

Indeed, work-life balance is an aspect that I have come to value ever since I joined campus. At first, it was somewhat challenging to balance my family, work, and life as an outcome of the intensity and pressure that comes with this class. However, I have become able to plan my schedule accordingly by managing my time efficiently. Furthermore, since I have completed all my courses, I possess the platform to manage my time between the retail occupation that I am presently working at as well as my attachment course. Based on the way I have improved in this class, I can say that my time management skills have proven significant and compelling.

ANALYSIS OF SPIRITED AWAY

ANALYSIS OF SPIRITED AWAY

 

 

 

 

 

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Spirited Away was directed in 2003 by Hayao Miyazaki. The film is touted as one of the best animation movies ever produced. It was note a surprise when it became the first animation movie to win an academy award. The movie is set in Japan and it is based on the life of a young girl known as Chihiro. In the movie, the girl and her parents are in the process of relocating to a new town. However, the fate of the family takes a dramatic turn when the father of the Chihiro decides to take a detour and the family looses its way only to end up in a strange place filled with spirits. Finding someone who doe not like the film is difficult because audiences relate with it in many ways. The film looks like a children’s film but it has dazzled people across age groups. Various themes are put across in the film and they have been understood by viewers as designed by the filmmakers.

One of the key standouts in the film is the story telling. The writer of the movie adopted the technique of leaving opening the interpretation. As a result, different viewers have adopted their own perceptions about the film according to their point of view. The open interpretation technique is one of the reasons behind why the film resonates with children as well as adults. For children, it is a tale of adventure and discovery. Children are intrigued by the happenings in the forest. On the other hand, adults are kept at the edge of their seats by the straightforward drama that is in the film. Adults are consumed by the drama and they cannot wait to find out what is going to happen next after each scene.

The screen design of the film is still a benchmark of animation films to date. The film is said to have brought animation to life. The frames of the film are alive in most contexts. Quite so, even the backgrounds are immobile but they still seem to sparkle with life. The scene of the bathhouse is one of the best in the film in this context. In the scene, motion is seen in the entire room. It baffles to analyze the amount of creative work done to present such a scene because it looks like hundreds of creative people were congregated to create the perfect shot. The level of attention to detail in the film is high. Most non-animated films are unable to reach the standards set by the film.

In the film, many literary styles have been incorporated to bring out the themes of the film. One of the themes is allusion and it used to bring out a mythological and historic context about the film. One of the allusions is on the sex trade in the past years of Japan. In the Edo era, most brothels were found close to bathhouses. In the film, the term used to describe the women running the tab is the same one used on the prostitutes who were in the tabs. Yubaba in the films alludes to the queen who was in charge of running the brothel. Additionally, it is seen that the workers in the tabs are semi slaves. Historically, the workers in the brothels were slave and all the proceeds went to the proprietors of the entity. In the film, Chihiro has to work to pay off her parents’ debt. In the same way, children had to work to help their families when they were financial problems. As s result, most of the girls found themselves in prostitution because they could not find alternative means of raising the money requires.

In the film, all characters are caught between being good and evil. No-Face and Haku seem like noble characters at first by they morph to evil characters as the film progresses. On the other hand, some characters seem evil at the beginning but halfway into the film they change and become likable characters. Characters that were evil at the beginning include, Kamaji, Lin and Zeniba. The unlikable characters help Chihiro in her escape and that changes the audiences view about them. The main character Chihiro is also despicable at first, but she reveals a better side at later stages of the film. The reflection of good and bad reveals the correct position of reality. People act differently for different people and environment. One might be celebrated by some people and admonished in the same measure by others. Humans are not consistent in their actions.

Symbolism is also used in the film significantly. Water is a symbolism of a combination of death life and freedom. The young girl tries to escape from the park she is surprised to find the dry ground filled with water and she is not able to cross. Whereas water is seen as water stops Chihiro’s movement in that scene, later on she depends on it for livelihood because she has to work in the bathhouse. The representation of life is seen when Sen Works pours liberal water to save the spirit of the water. In the process, Sen almost drowns but she is protected by the spirit that she has managed to rescue. Flight has always been used to symbolize an ominous being and it is not different in Spirited Away. In the film, Yubaba morphs into a bird to watch over her dominion. Her flight is said to resemble that of a military plane to show her greatness. In the same way, Haku has to fly in order to execute special missions.

It is possible to interpret the film in many ways through various themes. It is impossible to understand the film fully because it takes the perspective of many to make an informed position. The film has hidden themes for intellectual analysis but at the same time, it offers entertainment value. The film addresses some ills in the society. Art is supposed to be the mirror of the society. On interpreting the themes, individuals are supposed to introspect on the aspects that they can improve on in order to make the society better.

 

 

Marriage in Canada

Marriage in Canada

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Institution:

Marriage in Canada

The Canadian Parliament possesses special legislative right over marriage and divorce in their country in the constitution. In Canada, it is necessary to obtain a marriage license or a certificate before getting married. These certificates are only relevant within the provincial jurisdictions and this makes it necessary to apply in the correct municipal office. However, marriage in Canada does not guarantee citizenship for any of the parties involve in the matrimony. While the contemporary perception of marriage is corrupted, the historical understanding of marriage in Canada involves the interaction between the Europeans and aborigines. This essay seeks to discuss the role of women in marriage and the greater society, the historical Huron requirements for marriage and an analysis of the social organization among the Ojibwa and Iroquois as far as marriage is concerned.

Role of Women in Early Canadian Marriages

The early Europeans who came to Canada with the intention of trading furs did not include women. Therefore, after a short period of stay, most of them intermarried with the native women. One of the major roles of Canadian women within the society was the creation of opportunities for economic activities. The local women who intermarried with fur traders created a useful connection between the Europeans and Canadians. The European trader secured excellent business for his country and family while learning the basic skills for survival in Canada, the traditional customs and dialect.

The Place of the Child in Huron Marriages

Social Organization among Ojibwa and Iroquois

 

District of Columbia v. Howell

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District of Columbia v. Howell

Issue

The legal issue presented in this case was the suing of the District of Columbia as well as the American University by Dedrick Howell and his parents due to the injuries he sustained in Ben W. Murch School summer program for talented and gifted children. The injuries were from an explosion that occurred during a chemistry class when their summer teacher was demonstrating an experiment while using an explosive element.

Rule

Following a duration of ten days, the jury of the trial ruled that the District of Columbia was negligent

Analysis

Several theories were presented to explain this occurrence. Firstly, there was failure and incompetence from, Greg Butta, the Director of the program. This is because there was no consideration for ordinary care. Owing to the fact that he is affiliated with the District of Columbia as an apparent agent then his mistake was attributed to it. Secondly, Mary Gill, the school’s principal was faulted for also failing to implement ordinary care in ensuring that the children’ safety and wellbeing is assured. Thirdly, the summer teacher, A. Louis Jagoe was held accountable for neglecting safety precautions when conducting the class. His affiliation with the District as an independent contractor meant that the District was attributable for this negligence as well. The rationale that justified the ruling was that the District permitted the presence of explosive materials within school and educative facilities as well as the manufacturing of fireworks by Jagoe and Butta, which was detrimental to the safety environment at the school.

Conclusion

For the suffering and pain endured by Dedrick from the injuries, the court awarded hi, eight million dollars. One million dollars were also awarded to Dedrick parents and for catering for future medical issues that might arise as concerns Dedrick. The parent child consortium was also considered hence each parent was also gives an additional one million dollars.

 

 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

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Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Headed by Murray Sinclair, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has shifted its focus towards the disposition of Aboriginal peoples as well as the state of residential schools in Canada. The issue of aboriginal peoples has inspired considerable comments especially from victims as well as concerned citizens. In one article, reflections have been drawn concerning the events in relation to the impact of the TR & C’s presentation of the summary document on the empathetic victim’s self, family, and people (Maracle 3; Puxley 5). Such reflections set the stage for understanding the causative factors for what media journalists term as ‘cultural genocide’ of the country’s residential schools (Smith 1; Tasker 3). In accordance with the findings of the TR & C’s investigations, residential schools have been placed as the main drivers responsible for the elimination of native culture in Canada’s education and social system. While referring to the Commission’s summary document, Puzic (2) notes that, “Canadian officials separated aboriginal children from their parents and sent them to residential schools not to educate them, but primarily to break their link to their culture and identity”.

Accordingly, the actions undertaken by residential schools in ridding culture, particularly among Aboriginal people, formed the basis of the TR & C in the first place (Kennedy 2). As an outcome, Sinclair has been on the verge of uncovering facts surrounding the occurrence of cultural genocide within the respective institutions. In a show of empathy, Sinclair also disclosed the heart-wrenching experiences that his father underwent at a time when the state’s aboriginal policy was in full effect (Kennedy 5). Interestingly, the discussions on this issue raise future implications for other ethnic-based residential schools based in Canada. Noting such implications seems to have encouraged focus on contemporary aspects that may attempt to influence the deterioration of native culture in the state of Canada (“Manitoba Apologizes to Indigenous Families for ‘Cultural Loss’ 11). In the most recent occurrence, much attention has been drawn to understanding some of the aspects that presently contribute to cultural degradation particularly in respect to the Aboriginal people.

Graham (3) covers the concerns raised by Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin regarding the stereotypical notions encompassing Aborigines as an outcome of influences arising from electronic media such as video games. Aside from such efforts to put an end to stereotypical ideas, the TR & C’s summary document has exerted influence on the need to ensure reconciliation efforts particularly by the Canadian government (Boyden 6). In one article, the journalist asserts that the government needs to employ actions by transitioning from apologetic statements (“Truth and Reconciliation Commission Urges Canada to Confront ‘Cultural Genocide’ of Residential Schools”). On the other hand, the findings of the respective Commission have inspired positive sentiments with most people using social media as an avenue for extending their approval of the TR & C’s efforts to ensure that justice is served. Even though the document seems to rise past situations that are particularly dark for the state and its civilians, it provides a platform that supports reconciliatory efforts (Gruending 7; Petz 4; Woolford 2).

Additionally, the presentation of the findings by Sinclair’s group influence the information of the public especially regarding events that form a dark part of Canada’s history (Tremonti 3; “Truth and Reconciliation: Looking Back on a Landmark Week for Canada.”). Furthermore, the outcome of the TR & C’s investigations give the premise to the hope that the government will embrace and implement efforts aimed at nurturing social change (Curtis 3; “Sinclair Confident TRC Report will be Embraced”). In its own positive way, the findings provided by Sinclair’s Commission encourage modern-day Canadians to arise and assume the “enormous challenge of righting the wrongs committed by residential schools, even if it takes generations to reverse the ongoing effects of cultural genocide” (Fiddler 6; Smith 1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

“Manitoba Apologizes to Indigenous Families for ‘Cultural Loss’”. BBC News. BBC News Services, 19 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-33203840/>

“Sinclair Confident TRC Report will be Embraced.” NewsKamloops. NewsKamloops, 26 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.newskamloops.com/blog/post/sinclair-confident-trc-report-will-be-embraced/>

“Truth and Reconciliation Commission Urges Canada to Confront ‘Cultural Genocide’ of Residential Schools.” CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/truth-and-reconciliation-commission-urges-canada-to-confront-cultural-genocide-of-residential-schools-1.3096229/>

“Truth and Reconciliation: Looking Back on a Landmark Week for Canada.” CBC News. CBC News, 6 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/aboriginal/truth-and-reconciliation-looking-back-on-a-landmark-week-for-canada-1.3102956/>

Boyden, Joseph. “First Came Truth. Now Comes the Hard Part.” Maclean’s. Rogers Media, 25 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/first-came-truth-now-comes-the-hard-part/>

Curtis, Christopher. “Canada’s Aboriginals a Growing Force in Federal Politics.” Turtle Island News. Turtle Island News, 5 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.theturtleislandnews.com/daily/mailer_stories/oct052015/Canadas-aboriginals-a-growing-force-in-federal-politics-20100515.html/>

Fiddler, Meagan. “Independent Magazine Offers Indigenous Youth a New Voice.” CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada, 14 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/independent-magazine-offers-indigenous-youth-a-new-voice-1.3269651/>

Graham, Jennifer. “Chief Justice Suggests Using Electronic Media to End Aboriginal Stereotypes.” The Globe and Mail. Philip Crawley, 16 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/chief-justice-suggests-using-electronic-media-to-end-aboriginal-stereotypes/article26855134/>

Gruending, Dennis. “Truth and Reconciliation on Indian Residential Schools: The Road Ahead.” rabble.ca. rabble.ca, 29 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/dennis-gruending/2015/05/truth-and-reconciliation-on-indian-residential-schools-road-/>

Kennedy, Mark. “Truth Seeker: Murray Sinclair’s Relentless Quest for the Facts about Residential Schools.” Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia Network, 22 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/truth-seeker-murray-sinclairs-relentless-quest-for-the-truth-about-residential-schools/>

Maracle, Lee. “I Couldn’t Forget: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. n. p. 24 July 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/i-couldnt-forget-reflections-on-truth-and-reconciliation/>

Montagne, Renee. “Canadian Commission Releases ‘Damning’ Report on Treatment of Aboriginal Children.” npr. NPR, 4 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.npr.org/2015/06/04/411917428/canadian-commission-releases-damning-report-on-treatment-of-aboriginal-children/>

Petz, Sarah. “Understanding between Aboriginals, Non-Aboriginals Key to Reconciliation, Sinclair Says.” Sault Star.com. Postmedia Network, 30 July 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.saultstar.com/2015/07/30/understanding-between-aboriginals-non-aboriginals-key-to-reconciliation-sinclair-says/>

Puxley, Chinta. “Up to 6000 Children Died at Canada’s Residential Schools, Report Finds.” The Canadian Press. Shaw Media Inc., 31 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://globalnews.ca/news/2027587/deaths-at-canadas-indian-residential-schools-need-more-study-commission/>

Puzic, Sonja. “Residential Schools Amounted to ‘Cultural Genocide,’ TRC Report Says.” CTV News. Bell Media, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/residential-schools-amounted-to-cultural-genocide-trc-report-says-1.2402093/>

Smith, Joanna. “Canada’s Residential Schools Cultural Genocide, Truth, and Reconciliation Commission Says.” thestar.com. thestar.com, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/06/02/canadas-residential-schools-cultural-genocide-truth-and-reconciliation-commission-says.html/>

Tasker, John Paul. “Residential Schools Finding Point to ‘Cultural Genocide,’ Commission Chair Says”. CBC News. CBC News, 29 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/residential-schools-findings-point-to-cultural-genocide-commission-chair-says-1.3093580/>

Tremonti, Anna Maria. “Before Reconciliation Canada Must Understand Its Own History.” CBC Radio. CBC/Radio Canada, 3 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-june-3-2015-1.3098138/before-reconciliation-canada-must-understand-its-own-history-1.3098210/>

Woolford, Andrew. “Truth, Reconciliation Demand for Social Change.” Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg Free Press, 6 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/opinion/analysis/truth-reconciliation–demand-societal-change-306360601.html/>

Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

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Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

The most noticeable aspect of this attack was that the terrorists shifted their tactics. They did not rely on suicide bombers or on the common use of bombs. Instead, they decided to use the commando-style military assault and approach Mumbai through the water.  This created a lot of fear especially for large port cities such as New York (Greenberg 31). The attackers in this case showed a certain level of sophistication and coordination. This is from the judgment carried out from the evaluation on the bullet holes that showed certain levels of precision and the unheard of maritime approach.

In addition to their ability to kill up to 500 victims, the terrorists worked together as a unit is and that is the main thing that led to their success. There was the advancement in communication as well, with most of the participants relying on the use of hand signals to communicate (Greenberg 27). Besides the difficulty and challenges in water transport, and convincing authorities on the reasons for entry to the country, these attackers faced more challenges as they were disciplined and determined. This new tactics affected the public because it increased the fear they had and due to the consistency, the activity made news that lasted for a long time.

The targets were the most crowded places, which were densely populated, multi cultural capitals and centers for media and entertainment. Research carried out to see how dependable America is in protection from the ocean, the NYPD and the coast guards agree on the impossibility of controlling all the activities at the coast (Greenberg 30). This is with regard to the large amounts of uninspected cargo that often manages to cross the border from time to time. Mumbai was a major reminder that there was urgent need for better maritime security in all big cities especially those that are adjacent to ports .It is evident that international terrorism is not going away and everyday there are new tactics and threats (Greenberg 22). The Mumbai incident encourages preparation and preparation of a solid defense, this time in all areas that have been neglected over time especially, involving the ocean.

 

 

 

 

Woks Cited

Greenberg, Michael D. Maritime Terrorism: Risk and Liability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy, 2006. Web accessed 28th October, 2015

Greek

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Greek

One of the visions of the Greek society relates to the philosophical content of Plato and Socrates. To start with, the society comprised of extremes in the social strata. A large percentage of the general population was peasant farmers in the grape farms while individuals of the high social strata were from aristocratic families that comprised of rulers and business people. Accordingly, the philosophy of Plato and Socrates created a particular perspective regarding the issue. For instance, Socrates was of the opinion that ethical values should define one’s existence. Accordingly, it is the responsibility of each individual to focus on self-development as opposed to esteeming material possessions. Plato also suggested that one’s illusions could affect his or her perception of the outer world. Likewise, the Dark Age is somewhat similar to this ancient philosophical aspect (Newman 127).

This period was a crucial stage towards civilization with economic and political havoc defining the Greek society. In both scenarios, individuals had an important role of play in promoting certain values in the society. For instance, according to Socrates, individuals are responsible for maintaining morality in the society. Moreover, based on the Dark Age, striving for individual success is a crucial step in ending conflicts in the society. Nonetheless, the two ideologies differ in that Socrates’ principles undervalue material possessions. Conversely, the philosophy regarding the recovery from the Dark Age aimed at using the ideology of individual excellence to increase the wealth of the Greek community (Newman 93) Furthermore, both philosophies indicate gender as an influential factor in the role of an individual in defining the society. Based on the religious and cultural norms in the Greek community, women and men have definite roles in the society. Females ought to undertake household chores while men focus on increasing their financial capabilities and influence in the society.

 

Work Cited

Newman, Sandra. Ancient Greece. New York: Children’s Press, 2010. Print.

SOCIAL MARKETING CAMPAIGN AND SUSTAINABILITY OF RECYCLING PLASTICS

SOCIAL MARKETING CAMPAIGN AND SUSTAINABILITY OF RECYCLING PLASTICS

 

 

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Social Marketing and Sustainability of Recycling Plastics

Introduction

Social marketing is a procedural approach that utilizes business-marketing strategies with the aim of altering or ensuring good social behavior. It involves activities such as setting realistic and achievable goals, conducting research and development of unique tools that promote sustainability for different audiences. Social marketing is employed in instances where a community seeks to recycle its waste in both large and small scale. Sustainability, conversely, refers to a consolidated approach to social, economic and environmental issues. These issues, when properly addressed, result in a sustainable environment for growth and ensure that the well-being of the community is maintained. Various social behaviors such as environmental pollution need to be changed, and this brings to light the need for social marketing and sustainability. Plastic waste forms a significant percentage of environmental pollutants and is non-biodegradable. Plastic waste is recyclable and can form a vital resource for plastic material. Recycling is undoubtedly a necessary activity in the society today in order to meet the rising global demand for plastic. This paper aims to explain social marketing and sustainability processes that are essential for community recycling programs with major emphasis on the recycling of plastics and provide insight on the same.

Prior Campaigns, Target Audience and Barriers to Behavior Change

Traditional promotional campaigns proved to be ineffective as they were inadequate. They only informed people on the best methods of recycling, where and why they should do so. However, simple awareness of any existing issue in the society is often insufficient in addressing it or changing the community’s behavior. Although a change of attitude is vital for addressing any concern in the society, more is needed to stimulate the required behavioral change. Social marketing addresses this concern in depth and helps discover the motivation behind behavioral change. Social marketing highlights factors such as a community’s perception concerning barriers, modification techniques that increase recycling and ways of evaluating and designing campaigns according to different audiences (Marshall et al. 2006).

The target audience in the recycling of plastics includes every individual who uses products that are packed in plastic containers and bags. This target audience is the majority of the population as most items available for consumption are packed in plastic bags. Plastic bags can be a nuisance and, therefore, the society wishes to address the issue in order to minimize this kind of waste. It is vital that the target audience is intrinsically motivated in order for them to recycle willingly. Inherent motivation will promote consistent recycling from the community. Such a community will find recycling not only rewarding, but also enjoyable and interesting. It is also important to employ the concept of midstream social marketing (Marshall et al. 2006). This will involve influencing family, friends and other community members who are closer to the audience being targeted by the campaign. Upstream social marketing entails influencers such as politicians and media figures who will encourage the rest of the community to participate in the campaign. Social marketing shifts the emphasis from individual behavioral change and assigns it to the upstream factors.

Proposed behavior change in recycling involves the reuse of plastic bags and containers. They can be used for storage or remodeled for use as ornaments. Changes in behavior are an important starting point for communal recycling. A paradigm shift can only occur if there is a concerted effort to promote the reuse of plastic waste. The impact of this behavioral change includes reduced plastic disposal and increased reuse. This reduces the debris in the oceans and various other water bodies that mainly consist of plastic waste carried away by storms. Debris in oceans and water bodies poses a significant risk to aquatic life that needs to be preserved for the well-being of the environment.

Although recycling of plastic waste is made possible through a change in the attitudes of the target audience, skewed outlooks can be a major barrier to behavioral change. Other barriers that exist may be internal or external. Internal barriers vary between individuals and may comprise reduced awareness or a lack of motivation to participate in the campaign. External barriers include the need for structural change necessary for sustainable behavior. Alternatively, inculcating values that promote recycling encourages the members of the community to participate in related campaigns (Reiss 2008). The campaign removes any barriers to behavioral change as it encourages the community to take it upon themselves to reduce the menace of environmental pollution by plastic waste. This begins with individual action that extends to the community and is further evident through recognized national effort. Campaigns utilize public figures, entertainers and politicians to encourage the community to reuse waste. Use of upstream social marketing methods is effective as it encourages individual action in recycling of plastic waste (Kamin 2007).

The plastic waste recycling campaign brings key benefits. Recycling of plastic waste conserves natural resources and energy that would otherwise have been wasted in the extraction and production of materials used to make plastic. Plastic is made from naturally occurring gas. Recycling plastic waste diverts these resources to more useful uses such as electricity and energy production that can be used in other sectors. Recycling plastics also saves land space that goes to waste when it is disposed of inappropriately. Recycling also preserves the environment, as less waste will be burned to produce harmful gases that contribute to global warming.

 

Behavior Change Model

The most appropriate behavior change model to the campaign is the social norms approach. This approach advances a theory that explains human behavior. The social norms approach states that human behavior is greatly influenced by wrong perceptions of how other members of the society think and act. The theory states that an individual is likely to increase a given behavior if they overestimate its permissiveness in their social groups. Conversely, underestimation results in the decrease of a certain behavior in an individual (Berkowitz 2004). Thus, correcting skewed perceptions of the society’s norms will stimulate an increase in the prevalence of healthy and acceptable behavior. Research proposes that peer influences that are explained by this theory are based on what an individual thinks other members of his or her social group do (Berkowitz 2004).

In the campaign, the perception that recycling is beneficial encourages individuals to participate in it even though few people recycle plastic waste. Individuals participate in recycling campaigns albeit unknowingly because they believe that it is a growing trend in the world today. An overestimation of the society’s participation in recycling campaigns results by individuals engaging themselves in the reuse of plastic waste. However, an underestimation of the society’s permissiveness to recycling behavior may discourage it. Individuals tend to conform to what they view as common practice in the society and, therefore are likely to reuse plastic waste less. It is a common feature of human nature to imitate each other and, therefore active recycling is likely to increase in any given society because of influence (Berkowitz 2004). There will be positive intention to recycle if the community encourages it (Cooper 2007). Normative or social pressure also contributes actively to social behavior. Influences in peer groups compel an individual to conform to the habits of his or her social group. Individuals are likely to recycle if it is a common engagement in the community. Environmental constraints are factors that may inhibit or slow down the recycling process such as legal frameworks that require only specific methods of doing so or technological constraints where the campaign may decelerate due to lack of the appropriate equipment necessary. Perceived capability or self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs concerning their own abilities to perform any given task. A strong sense of perceived capability in any community taking part in the campaign is likely to enhance its well being and performance in any recycling projects. A weak sense of perceived capability results in a general dismal performance. A positive emotional response by the community is likely to be a cause for their active involvement in the campaign.

Evaluating the Campaign

Various factors are to be considered during the evaluation of the campaign. These include the segment size, problem incidences and severity, general responsiveness, cost of operations and organizational capabilities (Cole, and Fieselman 2013). The size of the community or individuals wishing to participate in the campaign is of key importance, as it will determine the effectiveness of the campaign. A large active community will result in the success of the project. The campaign is also likely to succeed if the there is a proper organizational structure. Strategic planning is vital to ensure that the campaign is well planned and executed.

The 4P’s of social marketing namely product, price, place and promotion can be used to analyze the success of the campaign (Cooper 2007). The products in this case refer to any commodities or services that are needed to stimulate any behavioral change. The cost of operations and recycling are also an important consideration. The costs may be both financial and social costs. High cost of recycling is likely to be a barrier to the campaign, and it is therefore, essential to run the campaign in the most cost effective manner possible. Place refers to the areas where the campaign is set to take place. Localities with large populations are likely to participate in the campaign due to their large numbers (Cole, and Fieselman 2013). In promotion, the campaign organizers should use market research to identify the appropriate communication channels. This will facilitate the flow of information and will enable the campaign to spread awareness concerning recycling. Other promotional aspects would entail an in-depth understanding of the target audience. In this case, advertisements or the use of promotional items such as posters would be necessary to encourage people to recycle.

Recommendations

The campaign team should develop a zero waste approach that is a cost efficient strategy. The community is required to change the way it disposes off its waste. The main objective of the zero waste technique is to maximize recycling of products thereby avoiding environmental degradation by using it to make other products that are useful to the community. The campaign team and the community should develop a strategic plan that will act as a map for the proper methodology for recycling waste. It should encompass an elaborate characterization study and point out all the existing opportunities available for recycling.

The campaign team should use upstream social marketing and seek technical support from the appropriate authorities. The support may also be in the form of policies and legal frameworks that prohibit unnecessary wastage and dumping. The community with the help of the campaign team should also develop processors that ease the recycling of plastic waste. Although the campaign is mainly concerned with spreading awareness, it should develop programs that educate and enlighten the members of the public on the proper and safe methods of recycling. This is a potential source of employment as some members of the community can take it upon themselves to start up recycling plants. The campaign team should also champion and endorse regulations that encourage the use of reusable bags in the place of plastic bags.

Bins should also be placed at many strategic locations where the transport vehicles can access them and collect the waste for the recycling plants. This will reduce landfills that pose a significant danger to both human and animal life. Burning of plastic waste should be discouraged through appropriate legislations. Recycling and waste reduction programs should be established in local schools and tertiary institutions, as this will encourage behavior change in young populations. The campaign should create partnerships with sponsors to fund school programs and provide resources needed for recycling. The campaign should also encourage the use of web based tools that encourage recycling such as social media platforms. It should also create special tools that allow residents in different locations to access information from diverse sites concerning recycling. The community and the campaign should also collaborate and organize a regular used goods market and garage sale where people can exchange reusable commodities. These measures will result in successful future campaigns addressing the issue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Berkowitz, A, 2004, ‘The Social Norms Approach: Theory, Research and Annotated Bibliography’, 1-47.

Cole, E & Fieselman, L, 2013, ‘A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing’, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 14, 176-195.

Cooper, C, 2007, ‘Successfully Changing Individual Travel Behavior: Applying Community-Based Social Marketing to Travel Choice’, Transportation Research Record, 89-99.

Kamin, T, 2011, ‘Social Marketing of a Different Pace: Between Liberal and Paternalistic Management of Social Change’, Teorija in Praksa.

Marshall, R, Bryant, C, Keller, H & Fridinger, F, 2006, ‘Marketing Social Marketing: Getting Inside Those “Big Dogs’ Heads” and Other Challenges’, Health Promotion Practice, vol. 7, 206-212.

Reiss, A, 2008, ‘Barriers to Behavior Change and the Application of Social Marketing Tools’, 1-43.