The Book- Fight Club

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The Book- Fight Club

Fight Club is a novel by Chuck Palahniuk, released in the year 1996. It focuses on a Narrator plagued by Insomnia. He consequently sees a doctor who recommends him to group therapy sessions for victims of testicular cancer. All this is done in the effort of seeking true pain. This assists him in getting his sleep back. However, he meets Marla and loses the feeling. This prompts him to leave the sessions, and meet Tyler in the process. Consequently, Tyler and the Narrator begin a fight club. Later, Durden begins an organization that targets corporate culture. This leads to differences with the Narrator, and the eventual elimination of Tyler. Palahniuk achieves success in plot development through the introduction of a split personality. Through Tyler, a reader can gain previously invisible insights on the narrator’s life.

Firstly, the split personality allows the narrator to explore his abilities that were previously unknown. In Tyler, we see an independent individual that is able to gain following. This is seen through his ability to organize the Fight Club. Similarly, he expands the organization to a national following. In the process, we see how great the narrator’s influence can be. Tyler has an anti-consumerist philosophy. Consequently, he forms ‘Project Mayhem’, an organization that targets proponents and components of the corporate and consumerist culture. The organization highlights the cult-like following that the narrator could achieve, through his split personality. The fanaticism of his followers is seen through the organization’s rules.

Self-actualization may be described as the fulfillment of potential and achieving all that is possible. The narrator has a single-parent background. He is raised by his mother who maintains a considerable degree of feminine influence in his life. However, Tyler maintains the opposite. He thinks that people can achieve self-actualization through becoming what they need to defy. Through Tyler, we see the narrator’s ideals of emasculation. However, the narrator is at conflict on this issue. This is heightened by the conflict that arises between the two personalities. The narrator realizes that he can achieve his self-actualization by eliminating Tyler. He consequently kills him, or at least he thinks.

Secondly, the Narrator’s split personality assists in developing a solution for his insomnia. Earlier in the story, the Narrator believes that his insomnia is a source of pain. He, therefore, goes out to seek real pain, at his doctor’s recommendation. By meeting Tyler, and setting up the Fight Club, the Narrator can finally meet his need. By participating in fights with his alter ego and other personalities, he can finally cure his insomnia. He achieves ‘sleep’ through interacting with Tyler and participating in the fights. Through the Fight Club, it may also be said that the narrator is a masochist. Infliction of pain satisfies him.

Thirdly, the narrator’s alter ego highlights his inability to fit into the contemporary society. This inability may be viewed as a psychological and philosophical problem. It may also be prescribed as the source of the narrator’s insomnia. Through Tyler and his sabotage of the Consumerist culture, the narrator’s inabilities can be seen. Similarly, the narrator maintains an existential philosophy throughout the book. The philosophy explains that individuals need to make meaning from a chaotic and empty universe. Individuals are often the objects of suffering, in this philosophy. Tyler’s description of the philosophy further highlights the narrator’s inability to fit into the society. For instance, the split personality claims that humans gain freedom to exercise their ideals, through losing everything. Tyler achieves this through destruction of corporate assets, through his organization. This instance also highlights the nihilist element in the narrator.

Fourthly, the Narrator’s maternal upbringing comes up as a possible cause or contributor to the problems in life. In the book, most of the characters relate to the narrator through not having a mother figure. Conversely, Tyler’s ideals entice him. He sees how other people look up to his alter ego, and its masculinity, as a source of inspiration. Tyler’s relationship with Marla surprises the narrator. This far, he has been unable to achieve anything positive with her. This may be attributable to his relatively feminine nature. Through these instances, it is seen that Tyler serves as the inspiration for the Narrator’s life. Similarly, the split personality highlights the narrator’s inherent desires. However, it also portrays the conflict in his life. There is a sense of lost gender identity in the character. Initially he collects furniture for a hobby, which is unlike masculine nature. The confused gender identity drives the narrator to perform actions that were truly unlike him. For instance, he participates in fights and defies his boss.

Earlier in the story, he discovers pain and longs for it. Consequently, he embarks on a journey that allows him to feel pain. Through his split-personality, and the fight club in general, he achieves the pain that he desires. By introducing an alter ego, Palahniuk highlights the lengths that the narrator will go, to achieve his needs. His split personality is portrayed as a violent individual. Through him, the narrator’s destructive self can be developed. Tyler engages himself in various destructive activities, such as a plan to bomb a public building. The narrator also participates in the organization and its destructive activities.

The narrator’s destructive self is best seen in the destruction of his house, which may be attributable to him. However, his conflict with Tyler results in the narrator’s change. He starts his mission to stop Tyler from harming the building. In the book, Palahniuk has used Tyler, the alter ego, to good effect. He achieves character development by introducing the split personality. Readers are able to gain greater insights, into the life, conflicts and personality of the narrator.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Wk 2 d2 6080

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Wk 2 d2 6080

Regional trade agreements are necessary to simplify trade in a global marketplace. My fashion company, located in Asia is subject to the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), which includes China, India and Bangladesh among others (Hansen, 2013). There are rounds of talks principally organized to discuss tariff concessions among member countries. Consequently, there are three key organs that facilitate the operations of this trading block; the secretariat, the standing committee and the highest decision making organ known as the council of ministers. Similarly, there are other economic treaties in this region namely, South Asian Free Trade Area and South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement among others as well.

Consequently, a reduction in the tariffs imposed would trigger a decrease in the exportation fee thereby making my products profitable across the region (Rugman & Verbeke, 2008). In addition, the integration among different countries has created job opportunities for citizens from various countries hence lowering the cost of labor. Such actions have tremendously cut the cost of production and led to a reduction of the retail price into one that is affordable to large sections of the population. The ease of cross border trade occasioned by these agreements has created a suitable environment for expansion because of the high demand potential present in all the member countries 9tran & Harvie, 2008). The company can thus leverage on its affiliation with APTA to lay an elaborate distribution network to capture the diverse market segments. For example, it could offer a low-cost franchising contract to attract strategic partners within the region who would then establish local branches. These would form a competitive edge and increase the brand visibility while maintaining customer loyalty. Moreover, raw materials can be sourced from other member countries, as they would be cheaper (Andersson & Andersson, 2000).

References

Andersson, A. E., & Andersson, D. E. (2000). Gateways to the Global Economy. Cheltenham England: E. Elgar.

Hansen, H. (2013). Food Economics. New York: Routledge.

Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (2008). A Regional Solution to the Strategy and Structure of Multinationals. European Management Journal, 26(5), 305–313.

Tran, V. H., & Harvie, C. (2008). Regional trade agreements in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impact of Overpopulation on the Environment

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Impact of Overpopulation on the Environment

The world has continued to increase in population, and this has led to overpopulation in some regions. As of 2015, there were approximately 7.3 billion people around the globe (Singh et al. 1). As the population increases, more resources are needed to sustain the population. Agriculture has to be intensified to ensure that people have enough to eat. The more people there are, the more energy is required, and the more waste is produced. Overpopulation has severe adverse effects on the environment. The developed and the developing world have different rates of population growth. Research indicates that the 46 least developed countries have a growth rate of 2.3% per annum, compared to a growth rate of 1.2% per annum in developed nations (Singh et al. 1). As the world continues to increase its population, it is not expanding, and neither is it adding more resources. There is a need to check the present overpopulation to reduce the negative effects it has on the environment

Overpopulation has contributed to the growth of urban sprawl and a reduction of the wild and natural environment. People need a place to stay and work, and they have turned towards the native habitat. The available buildings can no longer sustain them. Therefore, they have to depend on the areas that were previously considered wild to expand. They need infrastructure and amenities, and they destroy the natural habitat to achieve this. Such actions have in turn not only reduced the natural lands and vegetation, but it has also reduced and damaged biodiversity. Some of the plant, animal, and insect species and subspecies have become extinct, and others are on the brink of extinction. Because of overpopulation, ecologies have collapsed, and there has been a spread of bio-homogeneity. The wild places have continued to shrink and fragment and this has caused the creatures living in these places to migrate (Cafaro and Crist 3).

The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has proved to be influential in the changes in climate. Most of the greenhouse gases are emitted because of human activity. The energy used, agricultural practices, and other activities cause the emission of these gases to the atmosphere. The more people there are, the more greenhouse gases are released. As people continue to increase, so does the number of cars on the roads, which consume energy and release the harmful gases. More waste is discharged as well, and more factories are set up to meet the increased demand in consumption. The high demand may not be necessarily because people want more, but it is caused by the many people in the world, who are available to consume the produced goods. The factories, cars and other machinery release these harmful gases, which have contributed to the warming of the atmosphere, which has in turn contributed towards changing climatic patterns.

Overpopulation has changed land topography. It has contributed to deforestation, soil erosion, and it has had an impact on food security as well. People will clear forested areas to find a place to stay or for agricultural purposes. In addition, they cut down forests for wood, timber, and pulp. The reduction of forests is a significant concern, because of the importance of trees to the environment. The situation is especially prevalent in countries where legislation is not enforced strictly. Deforestation has serious negative effects especially on changing weather patterns and controlling soil erosion. As people increase, the demand for food increases as well. The situation will lead to more need for land. Most of the targeted land for agriculture is in the forested areas, as it is considered suitable for farming.

The levels of pollution tend to increase because of overpopulation. The state of affairs includes air, land, and water pollution. In addition, radioactive contamination has become a real concern (Singh et al. 4). People release and dispose of waste, which includes domestic and factory waste. Some of this waste enters the water bodies, and other waste is released in the land and in the atmosphere. The contaminants affect the quality of the soils, which may prove unsuitable for farming and it affects the underground water reservoirs. The disposal of waste has been a significant concern. It has not only affected the land, by contributing to landfills, but it has altered the marine ecosystem as well. Some of the waste finds its way to oceans and other water bodies. Plastics and other non-biodegradable materials have had an adverse effect on marine life since the animals consume but are not able to digest them. The materials can cause the death of the marine animals. Coral reefs are degraded as well because of marine pollution, overfishing, and other human activities.

Overpopulation has driven the need for energy. The traditional sources of energy, which depend on fossil fuels, have increased their capacity and production. In addition, they have exploited other sources including mountains and underground shale for natural gas and coal. Deep sea floors have been exploited as well (Cafaro and Crist 4). The use of fossil fuels is considered influential in increasing global warming. Exploiting the mountains has changed the topography of the land. Deep-sea mining for oil has had detrimental effect on the marine ecosystem.

Most of the world is already facing a shortage of freshwater. Although water covers much of the world, only a small amount of that water is freshwater, which is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, the available freshwater sources are not able to replenish quickly. The characteristic makes freshwater a significant finite resource. An increase in population means that more people will continue depending on the same sources. The alteration will lead to a shortage, which will, in turn, cause human suffering.

There is a relationship between overpopulation and the increased emergence of diseases. The onset of these diseases has been influenced by environmental degradation, which is a direct consequence of overpopulation (Lindahl and Delia 3). Some of these diseases have caused conditions such as malnutrition in children, and this has exposed the children to more diseases since it makes them more susceptible. Some of the diseases occur because of environmental conditions caused by overpopulation. Some of these conditions include pollution and overcrowding. Living in unsanitary conditions exposes people to infections.

The need to feed the growing population has contributed to intensive farming practices and other activities meant to secure food. Some of these activities include a more significant use of chemical pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides, and other products. There is a need to produce more food on the little land available. Such intensive practices include overgrazing on grasslands and overfishing as well. Intensive methods have led to depletion and degradation of the soil. It has caused the land to become more susceptible to flooding, and it has increased to polluted runoffs, which end up in rivers and oceans.

It is clear that overpopulation has had harmful environmental consequences. The growing population needs more land for work and houses. It needs more land for infrastructure and construction of other amenities. It has contributed to urban sprawl, and it has led to a destruction of the ecology by reducing biodiversity. It has led to inefficient land use, intensive agricultural practices, increase in waste and energy, and it has contributed to the emergence of disease. Therefore, there is a need to check the rates of population change for the sake of future generations.

 

Works Cited

Cafaro, Phillip, and Eileen Crist. Life on the Brink: Environmentalists Confront Overpopulation. Georgia: University of Georgia Pres, 2012.

Lindahl, Johanna F., and Delia Grace. “The Consequences of Human Actions on Risks for Infectious Diseases: A Review.” Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 30048, 2015, pp. 1-11

Singh, Pratap R. et al. Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation. Hershey: IGI Globla, 2016.

 

ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

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ADDIE and Dick & Carey Instruction Design Models

Instructional design models are essential considerations for anyone planning to start a school. They guide the instructors on what to do, and they offer guidelines on the objectives to be developed. They help in organizing pedagogical scenarios that are needed to achieve instructional goals. The most effective instructional designs ensure that the learners’ performance is the focal point of instruction and learning (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). They have to have well-established goals that act as guidelines on what needs to be achieved from the entire process. They are aware of the present challenges, and they are meant to ensure that instructors equip the students with the tools they need to solve problems in their world. The models give room for reliable and valid measurements in determining outcomes of the learning process. In addition, effective models are empirical, and they rely on data. Instructional design involves the input of different team members (Branch & Kopcha, 2014). The members are essential in handling various tasks, and they contribute their knowledge and skills to make the design more efficient. When comparing the ADDIE and the Dick and Carey Models, it is notable that while the latter is based on ADDIE, it is more complex and comprehensive and fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design.

The ADDIE model was first established in the 1970s. The course development process has been designed in five phases. The stages are interrelated and cyclical, and they comprise analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. They act as guidelines for developing performance support tools and building effective training (Educational Technology, 2018). The first step, analysis, involves clarifying the instructional problem and establishing the instructional goals and objectives. The learning environment as well as the existing knowledge and skills that the learner already has are also identified in this phase. The design phase is meant to be specific and systematic. It is concerned with learning objectives, the instruments to be used for assessment, the content, lesson planning, selection of the media to use, and the analysis of subject matter.

The development phase involves the actual creation and assembly of the content in the design phase. It includes different activities such as designing the graphics to be used, creating storyboards, and writing the content. In cases where the institution is using technology, the program developers integrate their technologies during this stage. In the implementation chapter, the instructional developers come up with a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners. The training is comprehensive, and it covers the curriculum, testing procedures, the learning outcomes, and the methods to be used for delivery. The evaluation phase is the final stage, and it consists of formative and summative stages. It involves determining the look and measurement of success (Educational Technology, 2018). The formative stage is present throughout all the phases of the development process. The summative phase consists of different tests completed at the end of the training sessions. It is meant to provide information concerning the success or failure of the training done.

The Dick and Carey model, also known as the systems approach model, focuses on content delivery. It consists of ten steps that influence each other directly and indirectly. The developers considered the different stages as interrelated instead of viewing them in isolation. The steps include identifying instructional goals, conducting instructional analysis, identifying entry behaviors and learner characteristics, writing performance objectives, developing criterion-referenced test items, creating an instructional strategy, developing and selecting instructional materials, developing and conducting formative evaluation, and developing and conducting the summative evaluation (Forest, 2018). The model identifies different components such as learners and instructors, delivery system, instructional activities, the learning environment, materials, and learning environment as interrelated elements that are necessary for achieving learning outcomes.

The Dick and Carey model and the ADDIE model share some similarities. They are both widely known, and they are used as foundations for other systems. The clear structure in each phase of the models makes them easy to use and understand. They both recognize the need to determine what the learner already knows. They also distinguish the importance of establishing goals that are to be achieved in the learning process. However, they differ in varying respects. Although the ADDIE model is the basis for Dick and Carey’s model, it is less detailed and specific. The ADDIE approach is linear while Dick and Carey have opted for an iterative and more flexible approach.

The ADDIE model has gained acceptance to become the most commonly used instructional design model. The model offers a series of questions that are meant to ensure a critical examination of the instructional goals, the learning objectives, and the needs of the learners at every stage of the process. Formative evaluation takes place at each step and revisions occur throughout the design. The strategy is meant to ensure that the design is in line with the instructional goals. Although the model follows a linear pattern, the instructors do not have to follow the phases strictly. Problem-solving activities occur in all the components of the model (Koohang & Harman, 2007). The ADDIE model encourages engaging learning, training, and instruction.

Incorporating formative evaluation in every process in the ADDIE model is a significant strength. The assessment involves the input of both students and instructors. The process enables the designer to determine if the set objectives and goals have been realized and if the problems that were identified in the training program have been resolved. However, the summative assessment is carried out after the implementation of the model. The strategy is meant to identify the areas that need improvement. Although the summative and formative assessments are essential processes of the model, they are often overlooked by many designers because they require the use of more time and money.

The weakness of the ADDIE model is that it is more of a linear process. The approach is limiting because learning is not a linear process. Educators often experience the need to be flexible in their instruction approach (Training Industry, 2013). They need to determine whether they are making any changes in the learners’ lives. Typically, this involves deciding whether they need to continue with the approaches they are using, or if they need to re-teach anything. The model may also not be the most appropriate to solve emerging problems (Morrison, 2015). The analyzing phase in the ADDIE model may be lengthy and time-consuming. It also leads to many assumptions. The developing stage differs based on the people responsible for implementing the stage. If there is no support, then it will not be possible to get the materials needed and to cater for the costs of other resources. The problems will end up affecting the final processes (Allen, 2012). More time and money will be spent if there are flaws in the system, which will only be discovered after the implementation.

It is critical to ensure that instructional design is centered on the learner, is goal-oriented, focuses on the real world, and concentrates on measurable outcomes. The Dick and Carey model is based on ADDIE, but it is more complex and comprehensive. It fulfills many of the elements required for instructional design. From the beginning, there is knowledge of what the learner will be expected to acquire from the instruction experience. It ensures that the pupils have learning responsibilities since they have to recall what they have learned and perform particular tasks as instructed. The comprehensive nature of the Dick and Carey process enables the instructor to identify more steps in the design process. In fact, this strategy is important since it ensures the development of a detailed design (Hilgart et al., 2012). For instance, whereas the ADDIE model recognizes that there is a place for assessment, the Dick and Carey model goes ahead to identify different evaluations including pretesting, post-testing, and behavior testing. All the assessments have a purpose. In the development of instructional strategy, there is a place for learner participation, and this enhances the learner-centered approach of the model.

The steps in the Dick and Carey model are connected, and this helps the instructors know what to do next. The instructors can understand what to teach and can identify the methods to use when doing so. Figuring out the performance objectives is crucial as this determines the goals and objectives of each lesson and not only those of the overall learning experience. These objectives are detailed, and they ensure that the instructor has a clear path forward. The instructors only develop the lesson plans after they have set the targets of what the students need to learn and after they have determined what they need to test the students on, based on these objectives. The instructional strategy phase provides a lot of flexibility to the instructors (Spector et al., 2012). They can determine the approach they will use when delivering content, the different teaching methods that are applicable, the activities they will incorporate, the use of technology, and any other teaching approach. The approach gives them room to integrate any new learning approaches as this happens before the actual implementation of teaching. It ensures that instructors can get the support they need from the administrators.

 

References

Allen, M. (2012). Leaving ADDIE for SAM: An agile model for developing the best learning experience. New York, NY: American Society for Training and Development

Educational Technology. (2018). ADDIE model: Instructional design. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/

Forest, E. (2018). Frameworks & theories: Dick and Carey instructional model. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/dick-and-carey-instructional-model/

Hilgart, M. M., Ritterband, M. L., Thorndike, P. F., & Kinzie, B. M. (2012). Using instructional design process to improve design and development of internet interventions. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14(3), e89

Koohang, A., & Harman, K. (2007). Learning objectives and instructional design. Santa Rosa, CA: Informing Science

Morrison, M. (2015). The ADDIE instructional design model. Retrieved from https://rapidbi.com/the-addie-instructional-design-model-hrblog/

Spector, M. J., Merrill, D, M., Elen, J., & Bishop, M. J. (2014). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. New York, NY: Springer

Training Industry. (2013). Content development: ADDIE model. Retrieved from https://www.trainingindustry.com/wiki/addie-model-cpdc/

Writing Class Assessment and Reflection

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Writing Class Assessment and Reflection

  1. Locate the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric which is explained in Course Syllabus Document entitled, “Examples of Discussion forum Comments and How they are Assessed.” Are you satisfied with your performance up to the close of Lesson 3 in the Discussion Forum? Why or Why not?

The performance that I have exhibited up towards the conclusion of Lesson 3 has proven to be somewhat satisfactory from my personal point of view. Despite the fact that I participated towards the end, and I was constrained by the short amount of time I had left, I was able to create two Discussion Forums and consequently perform all quizzes that were assigned by the deadline. In addition to this, I was capable of initiating proper and objective responses to two of the people within my class on the Discussion Forum. Overall, my satisfaction with the performance that I exuded at the end of Lesson 3 was based on the steps that I took as far as the Forum, and the quizzes were concerned.

  1. Review your comments for Lessons 1-3. Using the Grading Rubric out of a possible 0-30 Points (10 points for each lesson), tell me how many points in total you believe you have earned across all 3 Forums and why.

Across all 3 Discussion Forums, I would say that I have managed to earn 30 points for the three assignments. The key reason for this is based on how I performed across the respective assessments. I believe that I applied what I had learned in each lesson efficiently. With the assistance that I received from my instructor and classmates, I was able to ensure that all the assignments in question were done concerning the instructions that were provided. Adding that to the way I did my best in the projects, I believe that I managed to score 30 points deservingly.

  1. There are twelve more lessons in the class. What, if anything, will you change? What is working well for you?

Foremost, I will concentrate significantly on studying and reading the previous material because of the role that it assumes in learning the subsequent lessons. Additionally, I will re-read the information that I have gained to the close of Lesson 3 to understand where I am heading as far as the class is concerned. Based on what I have learned so far, I will continue to implement the constructive criticisms that I have received from my instructor and classmates. Since the purpose of the class involves mastering the English subject in general, the advice that I have received from the beginning will prove essential in managing the new information that I will receive while participating in the remaining twelve lessons.

  1. Discuss your areas of strengths and challenges with regards to this class. Are you aware of resources on campus to help you with writing skills if needed?

As far as my strengths regarding this class are, I am well aware of the proficiency that I possess in English grammar. Aside from the lessons that I have received since the beginning of the class, my background as an avid reader has contributed significantly to my level of expertise in the English language. In addition to this, I am capable of comprehending a wide range of vocabulary. However, regarding weaknesses, I have always found it difficult to start my compositions as far as writing is concerned. Nonetheless, I am well aware of the campus resources that I can apply to enhance and improve my skills in writing.

  1. Since this is an intensive writing class, the amount of writing can be very time-consuming. Balancing school, work, family, and other life events can be quite the task. How are your time management skills working for you?

Indeed, work-life balance is an aspect that I have come to value ever since I joined campus. At first, it was somewhat challenging to balance my family, work, and life as an outcome of the intensity and pressure that comes with this class. However, I have become able to plan my schedule accordingly by managing my time efficiently. Furthermore, since I have completed all my courses, I possess the platform to manage my time between the retail occupation that I am presently working at as well as my attachment course. Based on the way I have improved in this class, I can say that my time management skills have proven significant and compelling.

ANALYSIS OF SPIRITED AWAY

ANALYSIS OF SPIRITED AWAY

 

 

 

 

 

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Spirited Away was directed in 2003 by Hayao Miyazaki. The film is touted as one of the best animation movies ever produced. It was note a surprise when it became the first animation movie to win an academy award. The movie is set in Japan and it is based on the life of a young girl known as Chihiro. In the movie, the girl and her parents are in the process of relocating to a new town. However, the fate of the family takes a dramatic turn when the father of the Chihiro decides to take a detour and the family looses its way only to end up in a strange place filled with spirits. Finding someone who doe not like the film is difficult because audiences relate with it in many ways. The film looks like a children’s film but it has dazzled people across age groups. Various themes are put across in the film and they have been understood by viewers as designed by the filmmakers.

One of the key standouts in the film is the story telling. The writer of the movie adopted the technique of leaving opening the interpretation. As a result, different viewers have adopted their own perceptions about the film according to their point of view. The open interpretation technique is one of the reasons behind why the film resonates with children as well as adults. For children, it is a tale of adventure and discovery. Children are intrigued by the happenings in the forest. On the other hand, adults are kept at the edge of their seats by the straightforward drama that is in the film. Adults are consumed by the drama and they cannot wait to find out what is going to happen next after each scene.

The screen design of the film is still a benchmark of animation films to date. The film is said to have brought animation to life. The frames of the film are alive in most contexts. Quite so, even the backgrounds are immobile but they still seem to sparkle with life. The scene of the bathhouse is one of the best in the film in this context. In the scene, motion is seen in the entire room. It baffles to analyze the amount of creative work done to present such a scene because it looks like hundreds of creative people were congregated to create the perfect shot. The level of attention to detail in the film is high. Most non-animated films are unable to reach the standards set by the film.

In the film, many literary styles have been incorporated to bring out the themes of the film. One of the themes is allusion and it used to bring out a mythological and historic context about the film. One of the allusions is on the sex trade in the past years of Japan. In the Edo era, most brothels were found close to bathhouses. In the film, the term used to describe the women running the tab is the same one used on the prostitutes who were in the tabs. Yubaba in the films alludes to the queen who was in charge of running the brothel. Additionally, it is seen that the workers in the tabs are semi slaves. Historically, the workers in the brothels were slave and all the proceeds went to the proprietors of the entity. In the film, Chihiro has to work to pay off her parents’ debt. In the same way, children had to work to help their families when they were financial problems. As s result, most of the girls found themselves in prostitution because they could not find alternative means of raising the money requires.

In the film, all characters are caught between being good and evil. No-Face and Haku seem like noble characters at first by they morph to evil characters as the film progresses. On the other hand, some characters seem evil at the beginning but halfway into the film they change and become likable characters. Characters that were evil at the beginning include, Kamaji, Lin and Zeniba. The unlikable characters help Chihiro in her escape and that changes the audiences view about them. The main character Chihiro is also despicable at first, but she reveals a better side at later stages of the film. The reflection of good and bad reveals the correct position of reality. People act differently for different people and environment. One might be celebrated by some people and admonished in the same measure by others. Humans are not consistent in their actions.

Symbolism is also used in the film significantly. Water is a symbolism of a combination of death life and freedom. The young girl tries to escape from the park she is surprised to find the dry ground filled with water and she is not able to cross. Whereas water is seen as water stops Chihiro’s movement in that scene, later on she depends on it for livelihood because she has to work in the bathhouse. The representation of life is seen when Sen Works pours liberal water to save the spirit of the water. In the process, Sen almost drowns but she is protected by the spirit that she has managed to rescue. Flight has always been used to symbolize an ominous being and it is not different in Spirited Away. In the film, Yubaba morphs into a bird to watch over her dominion. Her flight is said to resemble that of a military plane to show her greatness. In the same way, Haku has to fly in order to execute special missions.

It is possible to interpret the film in many ways through various themes. It is impossible to understand the film fully because it takes the perspective of many to make an informed position. The film has hidden themes for intellectual analysis but at the same time, it offers entertainment value. The film addresses some ills in the society. Art is supposed to be the mirror of the society. On interpreting the themes, individuals are supposed to introspect on the aspects that they can improve on in order to make the society better.

 

 

Marriage in Canada

Marriage in Canada

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Institution:

Marriage in Canada

The Canadian Parliament possesses special legislative right over marriage and divorce in their country in the constitution. In Canada, it is necessary to obtain a marriage license or a certificate before getting married. These certificates are only relevant within the provincial jurisdictions and this makes it necessary to apply in the correct municipal office. However, marriage in Canada does not guarantee citizenship for any of the parties involve in the matrimony. While the contemporary perception of marriage is corrupted, the historical understanding of marriage in Canada involves the interaction between the Europeans and aborigines. This essay seeks to discuss the role of women in marriage and the greater society, the historical Huron requirements for marriage and an analysis of the social organization among the Ojibwa and Iroquois as far as marriage is concerned.

Role of Women in Early Canadian Marriages

The early Europeans who came to Canada with the intention of trading furs did not include women. Therefore, after a short period of stay, most of them intermarried with the native women. One of the major roles of Canadian women within the society was the creation of opportunities for economic activities. The local women who intermarried with fur traders created a useful connection between the Europeans and Canadians. The European trader secured excellent business for his country and family while learning the basic skills for survival in Canada, the traditional customs and dialect.

The Place of the Child in Huron Marriages

Social Organization among Ojibwa and Iroquois

 

District of Columbia v. Howell

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District of Columbia v. Howell

Issue

The legal issue presented in this case was the suing of the District of Columbia as well as the American University by Dedrick Howell and his parents due to the injuries he sustained in Ben W. Murch School summer program for talented and gifted children. The injuries were from an explosion that occurred during a chemistry class when their summer teacher was demonstrating an experiment while using an explosive element.

Rule

Following a duration of ten days, the jury of the trial ruled that the District of Columbia was negligent

Analysis

Several theories were presented to explain this occurrence. Firstly, there was failure and incompetence from, Greg Butta, the Director of the program. This is because there was no consideration for ordinary care. Owing to the fact that he is affiliated with the District of Columbia as an apparent agent then his mistake was attributed to it. Secondly, Mary Gill, the school’s principal was faulted for also failing to implement ordinary care in ensuring that the children’ safety and wellbeing is assured. Thirdly, the summer teacher, A. Louis Jagoe was held accountable for neglecting safety precautions when conducting the class. His affiliation with the District as an independent contractor meant that the District was attributable for this negligence as well. The rationale that justified the ruling was that the District permitted the presence of explosive materials within school and educative facilities as well as the manufacturing of fireworks by Jagoe and Butta, which was detrimental to the safety environment at the school.

Conclusion

For the suffering and pain endured by Dedrick from the injuries, the court awarded hi, eight million dollars. One million dollars were also awarded to Dedrick parents and for catering for future medical issues that might arise as concerns Dedrick. The parent child consortium was also considered hence each parent was also gives an additional one million dollars.

 

 

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

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Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Headed by Murray Sinclair, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission has shifted its focus towards the disposition of Aboriginal peoples as well as the state of residential schools in Canada. The issue of aboriginal peoples has inspired considerable comments especially from victims as well as concerned citizens. In one article, reflections have been drawn concerning the events in relation to the impact of the TR & C’s presentation of the summary document on the empathetic victim’s self, family, and people (Maracle 3; Puxley 5). Such reflections set the stage for understanding the causative factors for what media journalists term as ‘cultural genocide’ of the country’s residential schools (Smith 1; Tasker 3). In accordance with the findings of the TR & C’s investigations, residential schools have been placed as the main drivers responsible for the elimination of native culture in Canada’s education and social system. While referring to the Commission’s summary document, Puzic (2) notes that, “Canadian officials separated aboriginal children from their parents and sent them to residential schools not to educate them, but primarily to break their link to their culture and identity”.

Accordingly, the actions undertaken by residential schools in ridding culture, particularly among Aboriginal people, formed the basis of the TR & C in the first place (Kennedy 2). As an outcome, Sinclair has been on the verge of uncovering facts surrounding the occurrence of cultural genocide within the respective institutions. In a show of empathy, Sinclair also disclosed the heart-wrenching experiences that his father underwent at a time when the state’s aboriginal policy was in full effect (Kennedy 5). Interestingly, the discussions on this issue raise future implications for other ethnic-based residential schools based in Canada. Noting such implications seems to have encouraged focus on contemporary aspects that may attempt to influence the deterioration of native culture in the state of Canada (“Manitoba Apologizes to Indigenous Families for ‘Cultural Loss’ 11). In the most recent occurrence, much attention has been drawn to understanding some of the aspects that presently contribute to cultural degradation particularly in respect to the Aboriginal people.

Graham (3) covers the concerns raised by Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin regarding the stereotypical notions encompassing Aborigines as an outcome of influences arising from electronic media such as video games. Aside from such efforts to put an end to stereotypical ideas, the TR & C’s summary document has exerted influence on the need to ensure reconciliation efforts particularly by the Canadian government (Boyden 6). In one article, the journalist asserts that the government needs to employ actions by transitioning from apologetic statements (“Truth and Reconciliation Commission Urges Canada to Confront ‘Cultural Genocide’ of Residential Schools”). On the other hand, the findings of the respective Commission have inspired positive sentiments with most people using social media as an avenue for extending their approval of the TR & C’s efforts to ensure that justice is served. Even though the document seems to rise past situations that are particularly dark for the state and its civilians, it provides a platform that supports reconciliatory efforts (Gruending 7; Petz 4; Woolford 2).

Additionally, the presentation of the findings by Sinclair’s group influence the information of the public especially regarding events that form a dark part of Canada’s history (Tremonti 3; “Truth and Reconciliation: Looking Back on a Landmark Week for Canada.”). Furthermore, the outcome of the TR & C’s investigations give the premise to the hope that the government will embrace and implement efforts aimed at nurturing social change (Curtis 3; “Sinclair Confident TRC Report will be Embraced”). In its own positive way, the findings provided by Sinclair’s Commission encourage modern-day Canadians to arise and assume the “enormous challenge of righting the wrongs committed by residential schools, even if it takes generations to reverse the ongoing effects of cultural genocide” (Fiddler 6; Smith 1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

“Manitoba Apologizes to Indigenous Families for ‘Cultural Loss’”. BBC News. BBC News Services, 19 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-33203840/>

“Sinclair Confident TRC Report will be Embraced.” NewsKamloops. NewsKamloops, 26 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.newskamloops.com/blog/post/sinclair-confident-trc-report-will-be-embraced/>

“Truth and Reconciliation Commission Urges Canada to Confront ‘Cultural Genocide’ of Residential Schools.” CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/truth-and-reconciliation-commission-urges-canada-to-confront-cultural-genocide-of-residential-schools-1.3096229/>

“Truth and Reconciliation: Looking Back on a Landmark Week for Canada.” CBC News. CBC News, 6 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/aboriginal/truth-and-reconciliation-looking-back-on-a-landmark-week-for-canada-1.3102956/>

Boyden, Joseph. “First Came Truth. Now Comes the Hard Part.” Maclean’s. Rogers Media, 25 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/first-came-truth-now-comes-the-hard-part/>

Curtis, Christopher. “Canada’s Aboriginals a Growing Force in Federal Politics.” Turtle Island News. Turtle Island News, 5 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.theturtleislandnews.com/daily/mailer_stories/oct052015/Canadas-aboriginals-a-growing-force-in-federal-politics-20100515.html/>

Fiddler, Meagan. “Independent Magazine Offers Indigenous Youth a New Voice.” CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada, 14 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/independent-magazine-offers-indigenous-youth-a-new-voice-1.3269651/>

Graham, Jennifer. “Chief Justice Suggests Using Electronic Media to End Aboriginal Stereotypes.” The Globe and Mail. Philip Crawley, 16 October 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/chief-justice-suggests-using-electronic-media-to-end-aboriginal-stereotypes/article26855134/>

Gruending, Dennis. “Truth and Reconciliation on Indian Residential Schools: The Road Ahead.” rabble.ca. rabble.ca, 29 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/dennis-gruending/2015/05/truth-and-reconciliation-on-indian-residential-schools-road-/>

Kennedy, Mark. “Truth Seeker: Murray Sinclair’s Relentless Quest for the Facts about Residential Schools.” Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia Network, 22 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://ottawacitizen.com/news/politics/truth-seeker-murray-sinclairs-relentless-quest-for-the-truth-about-residential-schools/>

Maracle, Lee. “I Couldn’t Forget: Reflections on Truth and Reconciliation.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. n. p. 24 July 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/i-couldnt-forget-reflections-on-truth-and-reconciliation/>

Montagne, Renee. “Canadian Commission Releases ‘Damning’ Report on Treatment of Aboriginal Children.” npr. NPR, 4 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.npr.org/2015/06/04/411917428/canadian-commission-releases-damning-report-on-treatment-of-aboriginal-children/>

Petz, Sarah. “Understanding between Aboriginals, Non-Aboriginals Key to Reconciliation, Sinclair Says.” Sault Star.com. Postmedia Network, 30 July 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.saultstar.com/2015/07/30/understanding-between-aboriginals-non-aboriginals-key-to-reconciliation-sinclair-says/>

Puxley, Chinta. “Up to 6000 Children Died at Canada’s Residential Schools, Report Finds.” The Canadian Press. Shaw Media Inc., 31 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://globalnews.ca/news/2027587/deaths-at-canadas-indian-residential-schools-need-more-study-commission/>

Puzic, Sonja. “Residential Schools Amounted to ‘Cultural Genocide,’ TRC Report Says.” CTV News. Bell Media, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/residential-schools-amounted-to-cultural-genocide-trc-report-says-1.2402093/>

Smith, Joanna. “Canada’s Residential Schools Cultural Genocide, Truth, and Reconciliation Commission Says.” thestar.com. thestar.com, 2 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2015/06/02/canadas-residential-schools-cultural-genocide-truth-and-reconciliation-commission-says.html/>

Tasker, John Paul. “Residential Schools Finding Point to ‘Cultural Genocide,’ Commission Chair Says”. CBC News. CBC News, 29 May 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/residential-schools-findings-point-to-cultural-genocide-commission-chair-says-1.3093580/>

Tremonti, Anna Maria. “Before Reconciliation Canada Must Understand Its Own History.” CBC Radio. CBC/Radio Canada, 3 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-june-3-2015-1.3098138/before-reconciliation-canada-must-understand-its-own-history-1.3098210/>

Woolford, Andrew. “Truth, Reconciliation Demand for Social Change.” Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg Free Press, 6 June 2015. Web. 3 November 2015. <http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/opinion/analysis/truth-reconciliation–demand-societal-change-306360601.html/>

Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

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Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

The most noticeable aspect of this attack was that the terrorists shifted their tactics. They did not rely on suicide bombers or on the common use of bombs. Instead, they decided to use the commando-style military assault and approach Mumbai through the water.  This created a lot of fear especially for large port cities such as New York (Greenberg 31). The attackers in this case showed a certain level of sophistication and coordination. This is from the judgment carried out from the evaluation on the bullet holes that showed certain levels of precision and the unheard of maritime approach.

In addition to their ability to kill up to 500 victims, the terrorists worked together as a unit is and that is the main thing that led to their success. There was the advancement in communication as well, with most of the participants relying on the use of hand signals to communicate (Greenberg 27). Besides the difficulty and challenges in water transport, and convincing authorities on the reasons for entry to the country, these attackers faced more challenges as they were disciplined and determined. This new tactics affected the public because it increased the fear they had and due to the consistency, the activity made news that lasted for a long time.

The targets were the most crowded places, which were densely populated, multi cultural capitals and centers for media and entertainment. Research carried out to see how dependable America is in protection from the ocean, the NYPD and the coast guards agree on the impossibility of controlling all the activities at the coast (Greenberg 30). This is with regard to the large amounts of uninspected cargo that often manages to cross the border from time to time. Mumbai was a major reminder that there was urgent need for better maritime security in all big cities especially those that are adjacent to ports .It is evident that international terrorism is not going away and everyday there are new tactics and threats (Greenberg 22). The Mumbai incident encourages preparation and preparation of a solid defense, this time in all areas that have been neglected over time especially, involving the ocean.

 

 

 

 

Woks Cited

Greenberg, Michael D. Maritime Terrorism: Risk and Liability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy, 2006. Web accessed 28th October, 2015