Nursing Philosophy

Nursing Philosophy

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Nursing Philosophy

I selected nursing as my line of work since I honestly believe that the need to assist people through nursing is a vocation, and I feel obligated towards assisting those in need. Nursing is an admirable profession. It should be treated as more than just a source of income. My task is to provide objective care for those who need assistance in spite of race, religious beliefs, disability, economic status, or lifestyle choices. My viewpoint is that nurses have a duty to the public to offer secure, wholesome, patient-centered care. I constantly keep in mind that all my patients are not merely hospital customers, but human beings that need and warrant personalized attention and assistance. Nurses should apply clinical understanding to help in addressing the patient’s needs. As endorsed, nurses should give power to patients by supporting them to assume an active role in their own health and participate in joint goal setting between the medical staff and the patient. Nurses should preserve patient confidentiality except in cases where this confidentiality infringes on the law. It is our job to sensitize patients and their families on ailments, therapies, and healthy lifestyles in order to enhance their outcomes. Nurses should also endeavor to adopt constructive behaviors in our own lifestyles in the belief that we will extend better care to patients if we can illustrate the same amount of care.

Nurses are fully committed to acquiring the latest knowledge and skills and pursue self-improvement through continuous learning. In this way, I do not remain inactive in our profession, but develop professionally via evidence-based practice and scientific advances. My personal visualization as a nurse is that I will constantly continue learning, not only through academic channels but also from collaborations with other members of the medical team and by being engaged in the incidences of the patients. I have a desire to acquire knowledge on a daily basis, and implement what I have learned to enhance my knowledge as a nurse.

My individual internal values and beliefs as a nurse include compassion, honesty, perseverance, lifelong learning, independence, family, and success in realizing my goals. I apply these beliefs and values to make personal choices and make progress in my professional career. I believe that the heart of nursing is extending caring, information, and reliability. The center of nursing is on meeting patient needs, treating the patients, patient wellbeing, and patient awareness. I feel that my private and career philosophies are harmonized because my personal principles extend beyond the motivating factors behind the core of nursing. The features that make an excellent nurse cannot be suppressed after the profession is done (McKenna, Pankhihar, & Murphy, 2014). However, they are part of my character as a person, and I exhibit them in all areas of life. To implement my philosophies on a daily basis, I must accept that while I always perform to my level best, I am human, and have my own flaws. If a procedure does not go as planned, I will study the problem, and attempt to learn from it. I will carry on working with the confidence that I have learnt something new. Constantly, I become a better nurse everyday compared to the previous day. I will also allocate time to observe and reflect on my own choices to ensure I am still on track with what I understand are best nursing practices.

Nurses should sustain the personal and professional moral standards always. When I discover conflict between my individual principles and those of the patient, I should strive to find an adviser to direct me through our divergence and discover a solution that delivers the demands of the patient without going against my own personal values. As a nurse, I must promise to be accountable for my own behavior. I must always keep in mind that my colleagues can be excellent resources. They merit respect and acknowledgment for their constant dedication, dependability, and knowledge. Nurses ought to assist and support fellow nurses, nurse interns, and other healthcare staff to offer a constructive team setting (McKenna et al., 2014). In unison, we can work together to make the most of the patient’s health. As a nurse, I can contribute my part to enhance the reputation of the nursing line of work using daily work principles as well as participation in the society, political, and certified nursing organizations. Through these platforms, nurses can cooperatively enhance healthcare standards both domestically and internationally.

The main reason that I am still in the nursing profession today is that the job offers daily opportunities and experiences medically and otherwise. The nursing sector lacks any space for monotony. If one area in nursing would transform in a way that it could no longer meet my personal needs or career objectives, I have many other alternative areas of expertise that require nurses. I believe that in order to keep up with my nursing profession, education is an important part of the process. Advanced education about medical problems related to care administration is very significant. A wide-ranging study can be used to discover a wealth of information. This knowledge can be transposed to the initial experience I already possess and can significantly improve my skills. In the process, this will permit me to offer the finest quality care. I have faith that the sexual orientation, ethnic settings and cultural viewpoints of the patients and families should be considered. I am also sure of my capability to progress in my profession without illustrating any form of prejudice. I have gone through the demands of ethical codes as prescribed by the American Nurses Association and Joint Commission Standards. I am already practicing most of them. They include offering safe care, privacy and discretion and respecting the patient’s human rights. I try hard to be an instructor, and an advocate of disease consciousness, safe health practices, and a supporter of positive lifestyles.

Since I was three years old, I remember having a strong urge to help the people around me using the knowledge I had seen in my environment. Throughout elementary school and college, I gradually made oblivious decisions that led me to the nursing career. I feel most content when I am taking care of others (Ondrejka, 2014). My personal nursing predisposition is one that is focused on empathy and service. Before entering the nursing profession, it was necessary to examine my individual principles and values and see if they would fit in the specific practice. My nursing philosophy integrates the understanding of medicine while complementing it with empathetic caring that observes the self-esteem of each patient. My attitude is one that concentrates on empowering each patient while giving them appropriate care. My most important input to nursing in the current context is my constructive viewpoint of life, passion, and the capacity to extend encouragement to patients.

 

References

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McKenna, H. P., Pankhihar, M., & Murphy, F. (2014). Fundamentals of nursing models, theories and practice. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell.

Ondrejka, D. (2014). Affective teaching in nursing: Connecting to feelings, values, and inner awareness. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

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New York Experience by Gopnik

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New York Experience by Gopnik

In his publication, Gopnik uses Mr. Ravioli as the embodiment of the 21st century modern man characterized by a tendency to engage himself in constant business and “busyness”. In the Information Age, being occupied in one way or another is a compulsory feature. Adam Gopnik attempts to use the Ravioli account to bring out this transformed perception of social life in the developed world. Mr. Ravioli is Olivia’s imaginary friend who embodies the rampant preoccupation to an extent that he cannot even play with his creator. This was a unique twist in the conventional scripts. Most imaginary friends are expected to serve the unmet needs and standards of children. However, Gopnik uses the story of Mr. Ravioli Gopnik to illustrate the social corruption and degradation within the current society. Growth of the multinational corporations, rapid pace of industrialization and information technology have all revolutionized the society. Unquestionably, these rapid changes require people that can allocate time for other activities apart form work duties on a daily basis to satisfy the societal demands. Gopnik noted that people engaged in their professions have a tendency of deliberately reducing their social obligations to get more time for work. The author contrasts the type of lifestyles in the 19th century to that of the 21st century. After this comparison, he concluded that humans have always protested of either tediousness or busyness. Communication was very complicated in the previous century compared to the current conditions overwhelmed with affordable and accessible devices. Nonetheless, Gopnik argued that technology platform was high interdependent and this acted as an obstacle to effective communication. Regardless of the fact that the principle of technology was to facilitate an easier life by saving time and overcoming obstacles, the results have been completely different. Rather than liberating time for other social obligations, human beings have become more engaged in their professions.

The increased sources of retrieving information in the society have drastically increased the amount of mental workload for the ordinary person. It is evident that the ease through which people can access information creates a self-inflicted crisis. In other words, more information is directly related to an increased workload. In the story, Ravioli too is occupied; he was alternating between his job obligations and business conferences and allocating no time for recreation with Olivia. The medical fraternity has attempted to explain this emerging phenomenon among children and even older people. While on the surface it may seem to be a psychological condition, the creation of an “inaccessible” imaginary child as exhibited by Gopnik’s daughter is a result of the societal condition. Gopnik accurately identifies the primary origin of the issue, but it is inadequate to blame communication technology. Technology is an inevitable result of innovation and change. However, modern forms of communication allow human being to exist in a state of permanent limbo, of agitated “busyness”, characterized by an absence of closure and decisiveness.

Most people seldom ever see their colleagues on the bus to work or in the office. It is even difficult to see strangers talking in public. Every person is preoccupied with their cell phones or computers talking with other about their social or business lives. The current society demands a hectic and aggressive with the objective of realizing success. Humans are always attempting to multitask and finish several activities in the least duration. Apparently, everyone is too engaged to participate in social events since they do not qualify as “business”. It is a constructive trend to be aggressive within the workplace as it promotes efficiency and independence. However, this phenomenon is a direct treat to the existence of the human race. This last section offers several solutions that can rectify the disadvantageous position in which humankind has found itself.

A drastic but highly effective solution towards the social crisis caused by development and innovation is changing the role played by technology in the lives of people. Currently, many people depend on devices and equipment to run almost every area of their lives from organization, communication, and relationships. Consequently, most social activities are rapidly disappearing and in their place, a lifeless replica of social contact is introduced. The idea is to continue using technology but avoid depending on it as the ultimate solution to all of man’s obligations, social or otherwise. Another solution involves realigning the social obligations. Most people have prioritized work at the expense of the family, friends, workmates, and even the public. People need to be reminded of the important priorities in life.

Conclusion

            At face value, it may be appropriate to conclude that times were better off in the 19th century when technology was still basic. In the 19th century, when people were investing in development and technology, the future was perceived as a bright one. People who have more time for each other, relatives could share many precious moments and the society in general would be improved. However¸ with the turn of the 21st century, this has not happened. Instead, employees, teenagers, males, and females have been enslaved in an endless pursuit of perfection, success, achievement, and excellence. People have become dangerously dependent on technology. It is necessary to find a long-term solution that will restore social balance in the society.

Response Paper Claire Barclay, The Millennium Hut, 1999 page 119

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Response Paper

Claire Barclay, The Millennium Hut, 1999 page 119

The Millennium Hut project was a 1999 initiative of the Govanhill Housing Association. It was part of the Millennium Space Project. The project is a three-storey structure measuring two meters by two meters. It comprises of a community garden store, workshop, library, a viewing platform, and shelves for growing crops. The artist worked together with the Studio KAP Architects to create the structure. It is made of different recyclable and environmentally friendly materials. Despite its small structure, the artists combined various natural resources, and they were able to create a small structure that would serve diverse purposes. The Millennium Space Project is a channel to celebrate Glasgow as the city of architecture.

The artist was successful in developing an eye-catching project that was able to capture the spirit of the overall project. The hut is a celebration of a willingness to adopt flexible architectural designs. The artist managed to communicate several messages through her creation. Her use of different materials in the creation of the project was a reflection of the diversity of the region. The project is a combination of various building materials including wood, stone, and iron. She combined the elements seamlessly, and this communicated the message that diversity does not have to lead to conflict. It can result in the creation of something beautiful and useful. That diversity should be celebrated. The artist also demonstrated her willingness to conserve the environment. She did this by using minimal space to construct the project. She ensured that the structure would fulfill different functions despite its small size. She also used renewable materials. The project has solar panels.

The artist was creative in her construction. It is clear that she took much time to think about the project before deciding to construct it. This is evident from the outcome of the project. The artist focused on two important topics as the subject of the work. The idea of including diversity and environmental conservation in the project is valuable. It shows the artist’s awareness of the prevailing issues. She is aware of the most important things that are occurring around her and she reflected this in her work. She also used her art to communicate an important message concerning harmony in the midst of diversity.

The artist decision to use architecture as a form is impressive. This is because the structure can stay for a long time before being destroyed. The structure stands in isolation. This is important because it means that people can admire it without having to compare it to any other structure. In essence, this allows any viewer of the art to interpret it with an open and independent mind. This is an important consideration for the artist. Different people will have different interpretations of the project.

The author was able to create work of such magnitude, which is a contrast to her typical work. She often creates large-scale sculptural installations. She combines different elements of functionality and aesthetics. She also uses diverse platforms to create her work. She combines different materials in the creation of her work. The Millennium Hut symbolizes some of her foundations that are represented in most of her work. However, the work also demonstrates her ability and willingness to venture into diverse areas. The creation of such a small objects shows her willingness to create art of various forms.

 

Work Cited:

Thompson, Nato. Living as Form: Socially Engaged Art From 1991-2011. New York: MIT Press, 2012. Print

 

 

Integrated Communications and Measures Plan

Integrated Communications and Measures Plan

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Integrated Communications and Measures Plan

Tesla Motors designs, manufactures, and sells electric vehicles, primarily the Model S. By the end of 2014, the company had sold more than 50, 000 vehicles. It also deals with the selling of advanced electric vehicle powertrain components, systems for stationary energy storage. The business prides itself on the fact that its cars combine functionality and luxury, and they have zero carbon emissions (Bloomberg Business, 2015). The current target markets for the vehicles are the wealthy, upper middle class, and environmental enthusiasts. This is based on how the company determines the selling price for its products as well as on the fact that the business has chosen to focus on the manufacture of electric and hybrid vehicles. The business sells its products directly to the customer through its showrooms. Customers can also buy products from the company through its website and other online retail channels.

The company has several strengths, which it can continue to utilize, especially in its promotional campaigns. Its focus on electric vehicles makes it a target for environmental enthusiasts. The company has a good safety record. This makes it appealing as some of the car companies recall their cars due to malfunctions. The company aims to make the mass production of electric vehicles a reality. One of the obstacles preventing this is the cost of manufacturing such vehicles. However, as the company continues in its innovation of different products, systems, and methods, such costs will come down. Another threat facing the company is the fact that many car companies are now developing electric and hybrid vehicles. Some of these car companies have been in the market for a long time, and they have managed to build a strong brand. Therefore, Tesla has to use different pull strategies in its promotional efforts to ensure that it attracts as many people as possible.

Promotion Mix

Push strategies focus on the channels of distribution and ensuring that the product offering is in the channel. Pull strategies, on the other hand, aims at stimulating the product demand to the users. The company can benefit from different promotional strategies. Some of the methods that the company could use include advertising, personal selling, and public relations. Advertising is an effective form of pull strategies because it will focus on the communicating the benefits of the products to the consumers. The company can concentrate on the fact that the business has chosen to manufacture a product that considers its environmental impact. Advertising has more choices and options regarding the media and channels to use. It can reach a large number of people at any given time. It also enables the marketer to be creative in delivery. Personal selling is effective in persuading the consumers. This form of promotion allows the sales person to communicate with the customers directly. This has several advantages. The customer can ask any question concerning the product for the sake of clarity, the sales person can show the client the benefits of the products, and it is easier to convince the customer using this approach. Public relations are important especially in ensuring that the company reaches a large audience in its communication campaign. It is especially effective for the business because the customers will associate the product with high-quality media channels. This enhances the company and the brand.

Product Future AIDA

The AIDA model comprises of four components or stages, which include attention, interests, desire, and action. The stages are developed because customers usually pass through the purchasing decision in three steps, which include cognitive, affective, and behavioral. The attention stage is cognitive, as people get to learn about the product. The interest and desire stages are affective, as they involve feelings. The action stage is behavioral, as it requires the customer to take explicit actions. The identified methods of promotion focus on different areas. All of them have various levels of effectiveness based on the particular stages. Advertising and public relations are most suitable for the attention and interest stages. The desire stage would benefit more from personal selling and direct and interactive marketing. Personal selling is also appropriate for the action phase.

Costs

PR costs are relatively low as compared to other forms of promotions. However, they do depend on the media and channels used. PR is cheap because it is an unpaid form of promotion. Advertising costs depend on the media used. Television adverts are more expensive than other media channels used. Other media used will include newspapers, radio, and magazines. It is not necessary to use all the media channels available. The adverts will be featured in sports magazines and televisions. The cost of adverting will also depend on the advertising agency used. American companies spend much money in advertising. For instance, companies such as General Motors and Procter & Gamble spend about $4billion annually in different promotions. Tesla can dedicate the advertisements costs based on the percentage of revenues. This will ensure that the company does not overspend. It will also ensure accountability and determine the type of advertisements that is best suited for the business. The cost for personal selling will depend on the company. If the company dedicates 10% of its revenues on promotional efforts, about 5% of that could go towards personal selling, 4% to advertising, and 1% to PR. Personal selling is effective but expensive. PR is free in most cases. However, the company can have other costs trying to convince journalists to cover their brands.

Key Performance Indicators

The company’s goal is to speed up the innovation of sustainable transport by enabling the mass-market purchase of electric cars. Therefore, the performance indicators will focus on the generated revenues of the company. The company’s income statement reports revenue of 3.7billion and a quarterly revenue growth of 24.10% (Yahoo, 2015). The company is also focused on the safety of its customers. Therefore, customer reviews and the accidents reported about the vehicle will provide another way of knowing the business’s performance. The company has a good safety record compared to other types of vehicles on the roads. The company has reported an average of one fire for every 6333cars on the road. This compares to one fire for every 1350 cars for gasoline vehicles (Musk, 2013). Measuring the responses and feedback from the customers will indicate how the company is performing based on customers’ standards.

The return on investment for the period 2013-2014 registered was at 95%. The benefits that arose from the sale of the car in comparison to the cost used in its development fetched the ROI in greater value. The proportion of revenue brought by the sale of Tesla Car was at 0.7% (Peckham, 2013). The number of units sold in the financial year implemented the customer satisfaction through exhibitions and awareness programs put in place by the company. It generated the key performance indicator according to the first principle for the business on customer inquiries. Innovation and feature development was the second highest scorer on Tesla Company’s performance indicators. According to the proportion of revenue brought by each of the units sold according to featured models, the sales increased forthwith. The Tesla Car model with enhanced features and extended options had surpassed the expected value through innovation requirements from customers. The company’s incorporation of the next generation kind with a shortened version of platform model was requisite for the increased sales. According to Peckham (2013), it delivered on the minimal environmental burden as well as the development of eco-friendly prevalence and use of the latest technology.

The sale of the company’s own vehicles through its owned showrooms and online availabilities will provide the impetus as the cost is lesser as opposed to targeting of the affluent buyers and use of high-end productions (Peckham, 2013). The pricing strategy is set to appeal to more consumers, as it is pocket-friendly with the automotive technology in place. The target is emulation of typical product life cycle with the technological availability into more competitive markets with lower points for prices. The developed drivetrain technology and battery life extension is sure to reap the dividends of the new Tesla car model. In addition, with the restrictive measures of taxes, the increase of sales is guaranteed with increased market opportunities within the United States and beyond.

 

References

Bloomberg Business. (2015). Tesla Motors Inc. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/snapshot/snapshot_article.asp?ticker=TSLA

Morning Star Financials. (2015). Tesla Motors Inc. Morningstar. Retrieved from http://financials.morningstar.com/ratios/r.html?t=TSLA

Musk, E. (2013). The mission of Tesla. Retrieved from http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/mission-tesla

Peckham, M. (2013). Lessons learnt from Tesla Motors – New York Times Dustup. Techland, 1, 1-3.

Yahoo (2015). Tesla Motors, Inc.: Key statistics. Retrieved from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ks?s=tsla+key+statistics

 

Reading Outline

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Reading Outline

The article Virtue Theory and Abortion covers significant issues related to the moral and ethical nature of abortion. It develops a concise and strategic approach towards the issue by drawing relevance to the theory of virtue that has been used over the years to derive meaning for various social and ethical dilemmas. Evidently, the theory of virtue has been studied widely across different fields. The article concentrates on the concept primarily based on the constrictions of happiness, rightful actions, the moral rules, and consequences for undesirable actions. However, the concept has acquired constant criticism over the recent years to reflect the inaccuracy and inconsiderate nature, particularly regarding abortion. Critics have concentrated on the lack of eudaimonia. It bridges the gap between rationality and happiness determining it as hopelessly obscure. It also lacks a trivially circular nature between the virtue and the agent. It concentrates more on being and not with doing and fails to consider the affiliate moral concepts. The theory fails to consider the idea of pluralism and possibility of cultural relativism.

In relation to abortion, the article concentrates on the connection between personal rules and allowances to the conformity of virtues and vices. Similarly, it reflects criticism of worthwhile and ways people facing the threat of abortion perceive and make their decisions. It is clear that the author identifies with the issues related to making decisions particularly that of ending a life. Any normative theory such as that of virtue should be intrinsically supplemented by aspects that are worthwhile, meaningful, and practical. Similarly, the conformity to rights such as life and free will should be applied when approaching moral and ethical issues. Nonetheless, decisions should be based on facts such as biological notions and should not be overlooked as merely general assumptions. Under such circumstances, the application of virtue theory applies once people understand the positive and negative values purported by the virtue theory to make rational, ethical, and informed decisions.

Microbes and Behavior

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Microbes and Behavior

Concerning the chemotherapeutic of microbial management of microbial disease, the most important changes surrounding the practice are based considerably on the novel information derived from the study of communication within cells on a microbial level. The understanding surrounding cell communication in bacteria has undergone a significant dynamic over the years. Currently, studies show that bacteria of disparate species as well as bacteria and the host are capable of detecting and responding to the chemical signals released by each entity (Sifri 1073). This new information has established significance concerning the inhibition of quorum sensing especially in therapeutic applications.

The new informational changes regarding the chemotherapeutic applications of microbial disease via management associate significantly with the innovations regarding communication between cells at the microbial level. In fact, new information surrounding the practice shows that the aspect of cell communication at the bacterial level is intrinsically related to the discoveries evident in intracellular bacterial communication and cooperative behaviors. Accordingly, pathogenic elements do not engage in a singular conversation with the affected host (Sifri 1075). This plurality in communication allows therapeutic applications to exploit intracellular communication in the management of microbial disease.

One imperative aspect surrounding the innovations in cell communication as well as the management of microbial level at a cellular level involves the novel significance that biofilm bears in the respective practices. Accordingly, microbial biofilm possesses a considerable effect on the treatment of infectious diseases due to their resistance to antimicrobial medication (Sifri 1074). In this respect, they are hard to eliminate with normal antimicrobial therapy. Additionally, the cell makeup of biofilms may actually be capable of carrying bacterial genes through the presence of bacteriophages. Lastly, the development of microbial biofilm acts as a breeding platform of chronic infections and ailments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Sifri, Costi. D. “Healthcare Epidemiology: Quorum Sensing: Bacteria Talk Sense.” Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 47.8 (2008): 1070-6. Print.

 

Innovation Management

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Innovation Management

Firms need innovation to continue existing in the current markets. Many companies used to benefit from developing original innovative products. However, the current rapid rate of technology has increased the rates of competition in industries and firms have to find ways to adapt and compete well. Pioneers no longer have the opportunity to benefit with their products for a long time. They have to deal with the fact that follower companies are introducing competition to the market at a faster rate. Through effective strategies, it is possible for early entrants to reap from their innovations.

It is important for firms to time entries in accordance with the evolution of complimentary technologies and customer requirements. Companies need to determine how its products will affect the market. They need to conduct thorough research aimed at identifying the needs of a customer at a particular time. SixDegrees identified the needs of its customers to connect with each other when it first began. The likely success of a technological innovation depends on timing. Launching a product at the wrong time can decrease the chances of its failure regardless of how good the product might be. Technological introductions are less likely to be successful when they are introduced early in emerging markets. However, in established markets it is important to ensure that any introductions are not late, as this will increase the chances of competition from earlier entrants (Schilling 390).  In the case of SixDegrees, it succeeded in the first years because it launched at a time when there was no competition.

When a pioneer starts a new market with an original product, the costs and risks are often very high. This makes product survival in the market difficult. However, incrementally new products realize lower risks and costs. This makes it easier for the pioneers to survive. Pioneers can also benefit from the early market monopoly. Early followers can exit the market without incurring heavy costs as the pioneers (Min, Kalwani, and Robinson 15). Even though SixDegrees closed after only three years, it had managed to get over three million users at its peak. It had the market’s monopoly since it had little competition. Early followers have the chance to learn from the mistakes of the pioneer. This was the case with Facebook. The company launched in 2004 and released to the public two years later.

Instead of controlling all its development in-house, as its rivals had done, the company opted to invite the users to develop the features they wanted. Facebook knew the importance of engaging the users in many activities once they visited the site. Within two years after its introduction to the public, it had already overtaken MySpace, which was the main social networking site at the time. In contrast, people using SixDegrees felt that the networking site did not attract many members. They felt that the site was not interesting enough to attract many people. In addition, the site developers did not develop applications that would enhance the user experience. Those who joined the site could only invite their friends and receive requests from other friends. There were limited activities for the members to participate in once they logged on to the site.

A first mover advantage is the firm’s ability to beat its competitors because of being first in the market in a new product category. Firms can take advantage of this to improve their market share and increase their profitability. Firms achieve first mover advantages when they are able to develop a technological edge over their competition. Starting first means that the company will have more time to accumulate and develop expertise on the technology. Another way that firms are able to achieve first mover advantage is by creating loyal customers. The company needs to find ways of ensuring that customers will find it inconvenient and expensive to switch to later entrants. Companies need to anticipate their competitors’ access to scarce resources. This includes supplies, people, and location (Suarez and Lanzolla). However, rapid technological changes are changing the competition for first entrants. Technologies are developing at a faster rate than they were before, and this is affecting how companies operate once they introduce a new product to the market.

SixDegrees was limited in its technological applications. When it launched, technology was not as it is today, or as it was when Facebook was first launched. In addition, many people did not use the internet as frequently as they did when Facebook was launched. These factors determined how Sixdegrees developed. The company was not able to meet the demands of the clients. The users felt that they had limited options since they could not interact with each other once they had created their profiles and invited their friends. Facebook was able to develop quickly because it took advantage of the emerging technologies at the time. Technology helped it to overcome the limitations that SixDegrees had experienced. By the time Facebook developed and grew, digital technology had grown significantly. People could access the internet through their mobile phones with minimal effort. This made it possible for people to interact more easily. They did not have to be limited by the fact that they had to access the internet through their computers.

Facebook was able to appeal to many diverse classes of people because it was able to identify the market needs. The ability to identify and fulfill the needs of its customers caused greater customer satisfaction. Users came up with different activities and applications including social games, product reviews, and groups. People liked the fact that they had so much to do when they visited the site. Moreover, allowing the market to determine its features enabled the site to serve the interests and needs of their clients. Users could share all manner of information with their friends. This included photos and data. In addition, Facebook gave the users more flexibility in determining the people who would access their information. The site was more secure and it appealed to its initial users by avoiding advertisements. Facebook emerged in the market when people needed something different. It was able to overcome the limitations of MySpace, especially in improved security and giving the users more flexibility.

Knowledge of innovation strategies will enable the company to benefit from its innovation. Collaboration strategies are effective for small companies that need the capital to progress and expand their market share. Identifying the right partners and the right type of collaboration is important. Companies need to determine how collaboration will enhance their strengths, create a competitive advantage, and overcome their limitations. In addition, they need to determine how much control they are willing to relinquish when determining the type of collaboration strategy they want. Knowledge of these factors will enable the company to determine whether it is willing to collaborate. Companies opt to work individually when they have the required capabilities, when they feel that it is important to protect and have exclusive control of their technology, and when they want to determine and control the use and development of their technology. In addition, if the product is essential in developing the firm’s capabilities, then companies will remain for solo business instead of collaborating. Some firms realize the magnitude of developing their innovations and they may lack the capabilities needed. Such firms opt to look for other businesses that are willing to collaborate with them. Firms realize several benefits when they decide to collaborate.

Collaboration enables firms to achieve much at a faster rate. Firms are able to acquire the resources they need for development purposes. They get the opportunity to learn from their partners. In addition, collaboration enables firms to reduce asset commitment. They do not have to incur much costs and risks when they collaborate. The joint venture collaboration between Dyesol and Tata Steel enabled Dyesol to get the funds it needed to continue with the development of its product. Dyesol would benefit from the expertise of Tata Steel, which is one of the largest steelmakers in the world. In addition, Dyesol would benefit since its collaboration with Tata Steel meant that more people would get to know more about its technology and its products. This would enable it to expand its markets. Because of this collaboration, Dyesol was able to develop the largest DSC module. It developed a solar steel roof, which was installed in a building. This achievement would not have been possible without the input from Tata Steel. The collaboration with Pilkington was beneficial for Dyesol. The two companies formed DyeTec Solar under a joint venture. This enabled Dyesol to use its technology on architectural glass. The company was able to identify a new market for its product because it opted to collaborate with Pilkington. It reaped from the market base that Pilkington had already developed over the years.

Collaboration strategies can have several disadvantages. Firms have to share the rewards they get. They also have to relinquish some of the control over its products. In addition, there is a risk of partner malfeasance. Dyesol was concerned about its partnership with Tata Steel. Tata Steel is a big company compared to Dyesol. The main worry that Dyesol had was that Tata would know how to reverse engineer its dye product. It was also concerned that in time, Tata would be able to   circumvent its patent. If this happened, Dyesol would lose its knowledge and expertise. Its main partner would become its competition. Another disadvantage with collaboration strategies is that they can cause a rift or disagreement among the shareholders. The managers at Dyesol could not agree on what the company ought to do after its second joint venture. Some of the managers felt that it would be better for the company to license the technology to different manufacturers. Making this decision would enable the company to reap from the royalties it had. In addition, the company did not have to worry any more about protecting its intellectual property since others would be able to use it legally. However, others felt that this would not be a wise decision. Licensing the product would mean relinquishing control and sharing knowledge.

 

Works Cited:

Min, Sungwook, Manohar Kalwani, and William Robinson. “Market Pioneer and Early Follower Survival Risks: A Contingency Analysis of Really New Versus Incrementally New Product Markets.” Journal of Marketing 70.1 (2006): 15-33

Katz, Michael L. and Carl Shapiro. “Technology Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities.” Journal of Political Economy 94.4 (1986): 822-841

Schilling, Melissa A. “Technology Success and Failure in Winner-Take-All Markets: The Impact of Learning Orientation, Timing, and Network Externalities.” Academy Management Journal 45.2 (2002): 387-398

Schilling, Melissa A. Strategic Management of Technological Innovation. New York: McGraw Hill. Print

Suarez, Fernando and Gianvito, Lanzolla. “The Half-Truth of First-Mover Advantage.” Harvard Business Review. Apr. 2005. Web. 16 Feb. 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kaiser Family Foundation Webcast Summary

 

Kaiser Family Foundation Webcast Summary

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Kaiser Family Foundation Webcast Summary

The Kaiser Family Foundation website contained a webcast that outlined the personal stories of people suffering from HIV/AIDS and their experiences in acquiring appropriate healthcare during the Obama regime that was marked by changes instituted by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). The first statement was that of Maria from Atlanta who narrated the way in which she had been previously uninsured and was depending on the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program solely. For close to two decades, Maria was HIV positive. Currently, she is enrolled in a health plan supported by the ACA. The previous program now assists in managing her insurance premiums expenses that facilitate her beneficial position in insurance (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). The next story in the video was that of Valentine from Brooklyn, New York. Valentine expressed her pleasure with the new ACA insurance cover mainly because of the wide coverage that included doctors and medication. However, she complained that it was slightly more expensive forcing her to make budget cuts to other expenses (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). Valentine has been living with HIV for half a decade. Her initial ACA health plan was affordable but did not cover her rheumatoid arthritis. She is also a beneficiary of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). The last character in the webcast is Shandora from Atlanta, Georgia who fully depends on the Ryan White Program since 2009. She has been suffering with HIV/ AIDS for over two decades (Somers, & Mahadevan, 210). She is uninsured and does not qualify for any state health insurance including ACA and Medicaid (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015). Most of the HIV care needs are handled by the Ryan White Program. Other health needs are still neglected. From this webcast, I learned that the Affordable Care Act is still not sufficient to meet the needs of most American patients (Campbell, 2015). I also learned that money was still the deciding factor in accessing quality healthcare (Ford, & Spicer, 2012). What I did not understand was why ACA was advertised as a healthcare insurance option but still failed to cover critical issues such as HIV/ AIDS (Kates et al., 2014). The title of the webcast is “The ACA and People with HIV: Video Profiles from the Field”.

 

References

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Campbell, K. R. (2015). Losing our way in healthcare: The impact of reform. New Jersey: World Scientific.

Ford, M. A., & Spicer, C. M. (2012). Monitoring HIV care in the United States: Indicators and data systems. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2013). Medicaid and HIV. Menlo Park, Calif: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Kates, J., Garfield, R., Young, K., Quinn, K., Frazier, E., Skarbinsk, J., & Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2014). Assessing the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage of people with HIV. Menlo Park, Calif: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Somers, S. A., & Mahadevan, R. (2010). Health literacy implications of the affordable care act. Hamilton, N.J: Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc.

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Case Study 2: Inflation

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Case Study 2: Inflation

There is a wide spread global concern that the economic world is about to enter an era of high inflation given the imbalanced fiscal and monetary systems monitored over the last three decades. It is the perception that Saudi Arabia despite its natural resource pools will not be able to move away from the global implications given that it has depicted the same economic patterns as other big markets over the last five years. The government’s open trade system and substantial fiscal expansion are insufficient to shield the country from subsequent high inflation rates. Economists fear that despite inflation rates being moderate since the 2008 high (11%), government fiscal expansion raised by 10% and global inflation in feeds will proportionally influence Saudi Arabia through its import channel.

CPI in Saudi Arabia

Consumer price Indexes in the kingdom measure changes in pricing that consumers experience per basket of goods and services. The consumer price index in the country puts emphasis on foodstuffs and beverages (26%), water, fuel, rent and renovation (18%), telecommunication and transport (16%). Other minor CPI categories include home furniture (11%), footwear, clothing and fabrics (8%), education and entertainment (6%), Health Care (2%) and other service expenses at 13% of the total weight.

 

According to the Central Department of Statistics and Information in the kingdom, there are no frequent surveys made in the labor market on its productivity and inflationary expectations (Office of the Chief Economist 4). In addition, the source identifies inflation in the country to be a measure of also the Cost of Living Index (CLI) and Wholesale Price Index (WPI). When compared to the American basket of goods and services, the two nations highlight integration of the same consumer price index categories. Both countries focus on foods and beverages, transportation, housing, recreation, medical services, education and communication and other expenses. Divergence exists in the percentages of relative importance to CPI. For instance, Saudi Arabia joins education and entertainment while the USA combines education with communication. In terms of relative importance, housing and other goods and services represent the biggest and least significant baskets in the USA CPI. In Saudi Arabia, food and beverages represent the biggest CPI factor while health care represents the smallest. The divergence highlights the varying rates of consumerism in the two economic markets.

Unlike the United Sates or other major economies, Saudi Arabia does not depend on household consumptions given its supremacy in terms of natural resources. Household consumptions only represent a third of the GDP at 29.4% having its relationship with inflation as weak (Office of the Chief Economist 6). Economic principle dictates that higher consumption rates result in elevated demand that in turn structures inflation. Despite the pack of dependence on household consumptions, the Saudi market depicts higher dependence on food and beverages given its climatic conditions structuring the high inflation rates in the kingdom. Similar to the United States is the influence that urbanization has in determining consumer price indexes as it fashions patterns of consumption.

Historical Trends of Inflation Rates and Reasons Behind

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has a low and stable history of inflation. The CPI inclusive of a large variety of products is based on a 1999 index where 10% of the goods and services are subsidized by the national authorities. The prices set on these goods and services are fixed for lengthy time margins therefore rarely make an impact on the CPI. The Saudi Central Bank employs an overreaching policy that ascertains exchange rate and price stability. Consumer prices rose in the region by 1.3% in 1990-1999 and by 0.6% in 2000-2006 (Alhamad 2). Despite the good pricing, there were several changes on the exchange rate. According to the Central Department of Statistics and Information, the kingdom owes it period of moderate inflation to number of factors that include the ease in cheap imports, an open capital account and flexible labor market. The fixed exchange rate facilitated mitigation of the inflation expectations as experienced by other countries.

Major inflation in the country began in the year 2007 where the consumer price inflation rose to 4% from 2.1% in 2006. At the end of the financial year, the inflation rate had risen to 6.5% (Office of the Chief Economist 8). Prices continued to rise until 2008 where it reached its peak at 11.1%. Saudi economics argued that the countries exchange rate peg was behind the sharp price increments. Forceful monetary tightening employed by the central bank was ineffective. Under the approach, there were two highlighted factors. One, the peg system was generating import inflation because the price increments coincided with the weak American dollar at the time. Two, the Saudi trade weighted basket had an upward pressure from the import prices necessitating proportional adjustments in retail pricing. Another reason behind the inflation was the rigid monetary system employed by the central bank. The monetary policy constrained leeway by dictating interest rates therefore domesticating credit growth. When the Saudi rates fell away from major currencies because of the system, it risked unwanted capital flows that in turn caused upward stress on the exchange rates (Office of the Chief Economist 9).

Subsequent investigations on the inflation rate supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in its association of the predicament with trading partner’s inflation. The organization in its findings highlighted that the country’s lack of exchange rate adjustments had a direct and heavy impact on domestic prices. Given that Saudi Arabia’s top most consumables are foods and beverages, it was imperative that the republic fall prey to the global food crisis in the ending years of the past decade. In the year 2007, there were significant increments in the inflation rates of Germany and China, which represent Saudi Arabia’s third and second importation bazaars respectively. After the 2008 inflation peak, consumer prices cooled down. Prices fell to 4.5% from 6.5% by the end of the year 2009 (Office of the Chief Economist 9). The causes of price reduction also exemplified the argument of the IMF. Given the global financial crisis in 2008, adjustments made by the USA to address its Subprime Mortgage Crisis resulted in a strengthening dollar. The global competence matched the reduction in food prices in Saudi Arabia as investors found safety in the American market. The dollar made it easy for Saudi importers to carry out price exchanges. The inflation pattern was the same in the four major economies that are China, Germany, the United Kingdom and Japan.

Current Cost of Living versus 20 Years Ago

Despite the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia having identified modern inflation dynamics, the republic still depicts elevated conditions of living. Inflation remains relatively high even after the kingdom joined the World trade Organization increasing its volumes of imports and exports. Having an average of 4.17% in terms of inflation in 2007 to 2013, consumable prices are the worst in the determination of cost of living (Alhamad 3). Based on billions of dollars, the consumer price index in the country in 1995 was 4.67 as according to the American Department of State. By the end of the year 2014, beverages had the same inflation rate at 6% while the Housing industry, Gas, Electricity and other fuels had an average of 7.9%. In comparison with the year 1995, fuel inflation was at 4.06%. A concern to the Saudi population is that the rate of inflation increase supersedes that of wage increments resulting in further constraints in the cost of living for the average citizen. According to the Ministry of Economy and Planning, the average consumable pricing in the year 1995 was at 96.6 dollars, but has risen to 130.337 in 2014 (Alhamad 3). The values represent a 35-40% increment in consumable pricing within a twenty-year period. Implications of this on the average cost of living are yet to be substantiated fully.

Despite the spike in inflation in the kingdom over the last two decades, the outlook is promising. Beginning with food, 2014 depicted stability with supply lagging behind demand in the strong agricultural sector. High cereal prices during the 2008 spike resulted in elevated plantation of the crops creating higher yields for subsequent financial years (Alhamad 3). Therefore, wheat stocks that represent the largest food consumable in the country are adequate since the spike. The stability equally lowers importation of cereal foodstuffs reducing government expenditure. The global market under the standardization of economic practices after the 2008-2009 crises depicts greater production levels. In this, supply supersedes demand in most of the influential CPI baskets such as transportation and housing.

 

 

Works Cited

Alhamad, H. S. The High Cost of Living in Saudi Arabia: Growth and Inflation in a Macroeconomic Perspective. The Student Pulse. 5 May 2015. Web. 27 June 1015. < http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/918/the-high-cost-of-living-in-saudi-arabia-growth-and-inflation-in-a-macroeconomic-perspective>

Office of the Chief Economist. Inflation in Saudi Arabia: Drivers, Trends, and Outlook. Samba Financial Group Report Series. (2013). 1-16. Print.

 

 

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Regional trade agreements are necessary to simplify trade in a global marketplace. My fashion company, located in Asia is subject to the Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), which includes China, India and Bangladesh among others (Hansen, 2013). There are rounds of talks principally organized to discuss tariff concessions among member countries. Consequently, there are three key organs that facilitate the operations of this trading block; the secretariat, the standing committee and the highest decision making organ known as the council of ministers. Similarly, there are other economic treaties in this region namely, South Asian Free Trade Area and South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement among others as well.

Consequently, a reduction in the tariffs imposed would trigger a decrease in the exportation fee thereby making my products profitable across the region (Rugman & Verbeke, 2008). In addition, the integration among different countries has created job opportunities for citizens from various countries hence lowering the cost of labor. Such actions have tremendously cut the cost of production and led to a reduction of the retail price into one that is affordable to large sections of the population. The ease of cross border trade occasioned by these agreements has created a suitable environment for expansion because of the high demand potential present in all the member countries 9tran & Harvie, 2008). The company can thus leverage on its affiliation with APTA to lay an elaborate distribution network to capture the diverse market segments. For example, it could offer a low-cost franchising contract to attract strategic partners within the region who would then establish local branches. These would form a competitive edge and increase the brand visibility while maintaining customer loyalty. Moreover, raw materials can be sourced from other member countries, as they would be cheaper (Andersson & Andersson, 2000).

References

Andersson, A. E., & Andersson, D. E. (2000). Gateways to the Global Economy. Cheltenham England: E. Elgar.

Hansen, H. (2013). Food Economics. New York: Routledge.

Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (2008). A Regional Solution to the Strategy and Structure of Multinationals. European Management Journal, 26(5), 305–313.

Tran, V. H., & Harvie, C. (2008). Regional trade agreements in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.