Prince among Slaves, Written by Terry Alford

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Prince among Slaves, Written by Terry Alford

Prince among Slaves is a compelling narrative that takes the reader through the entire life history of Abdulrahman Ibrahima Ibn Sori. It is a true story based on the experiences of having been captured by slave traders from Africa to the states. Terry Alford narrates the drama cycle in relation to the historic and pedagogic forms. This journal puts forward the experiences that Ibrahima went through as a slave. The journal is also subdivided into periodic sections that explain the occurrences at different times.

Early Life in Africa before Being Captured

I was a married Muslim Fulbe prince with a son. Although I was not first in line for succession, I had the title of a prince in Futa Jallon. Being a member of the royal blood, I was assigned to lead military troops within the region when there were local clashes. Life in Guinea ran smoothly as always. People went about their usual businesses as usual. This was until tragedy unfolded in the early 1970s when a military campaign against Non-Muslims was conducted. On that specific day, I had taken my army out for war and lost the battle. My army men and I were taken captive in ambush and sold to the Mandika slave traders. We were later taken down to river Gambia and sold to the European slave traders in exchange for a few muskets, eight twists of tobacco and some rum.

Early Life in America: Adjusting to Slavery

At only 26 years of age, I felt helpless and hopeless in a new land. The conditions at the island were brutal and filthy as we were packed below decks. After eight months of endurance, I was purchased by Mr. Foster Thomas in Mississippi. Thomas was a struggling farming who thought it wise to get a slave who would help him in his farmhouse. Despite my numerous efforts of making my royal statutes known, I was still treated unfairly. Thomas actually laughed at this statement as he ridiculed African royalty. This thus earned me the name prince in my foster country. The scenario was indeed terrible and difficult to cope.

Middle age in America

It was a difficult experience as a slave in a foreign country. The first idea that I had on arrival was to escape. I promptly pursued my desire and escaped to the Mississippi swamps. After several months, I was hit by the harsh reality of the situation. There were no friends, no resources and no security. The conditions were intolerable at the swamp that I voluntarily decided to return to my slave masters. I adopted an unimaginable life when reality forced me to draw closer to God and have faith in Him. As time passed, I became a replica worker at Thomas’s farm and utilized the skill set and knowledge I had in cotton farming to his planting fields. After harvesting, I used to take the farm produce to the markets together with my own produce from my small kitchen garden. Eventually, Thomas became a wealthy man in Mississippi through the high yields he acquired.

Becoming a Family Man

In 1974, I married Isabella, an American enslave. She was also one of Foster’s slaves and worked in the farm. We were blessed with nine children, five sons and four daughters. At this point, I was able to take care of my family through the money I got from selling my produce. I rose consecutively and eventually became the de facto supervisor. I enjoyed this advantage and utilized it to the latter.

Later in Life

Going about my usual businesses one day in the market, I bumped into Dr. John Cox who was an old acquaintance. This was a gift of fate after twenty years of enslavement. The Irish surgeon had served in an English ship long ago. It was on this trip that Dr. Cox fell ill in Timbo and had to stay ashore. My family took him in and took care for him for nine months. This made Cox feel indebted to me that he made an effort to try to help me out. He went and begged Foster if he could buy me but his request fell on dead ears. Slavery bonds were too strong for his debt to free me. Even after attempting to buy me at higher prices, Foster remained firm to his decision.

Two decades later, a chance presented itself. Having acquired forty years of enslavement, a local printer became my hero. In 1816, I wrote a letter to my relatives back in Africa informing them about my whereabouts. This captured Marschalks attention. He was a local printer based in New York and was moved by my letter. He later decided to send a copy of the letter to Reed, Washington’s representative who forwarded it to the U.S. commissioner in Morocco. A meeting between the Moroccan Sultan and the American president at that time resulted. President Adams later appealed for my freedom. To my amazement, Foster agreed to release me without any payment in return. Finally, I was released and sent back to Africa via Morocco.

After Attaining Freedom

Attaining freedom at last was the best dream I had ever achieved. However, this joy and merriment was cut off when I realized that my family would not enjoy the same privileges. Furthermore, I had been banned from going back to the United States since that was part of the deal in my release forms. I worked extra hard so that I could get enough money to cater for my family’s release. The price was seemingly higher that I could only afford to buy my wife back. Despite the restrictions I had received, I still went back to the U.S. in quest to get my family back.

I solicited contributions from well-wishers so that my family may be freed. This resulted to a meeting with the Moroccan President. I corrected Adam’s perception and confessed that I was not a Moroccan. On hearing this news, he retrieved his funding and support to help me free my family. Numerous threats from the American government and sickness forced me to return to Africa. This is because they threaten to jail me for being an illegal immigrant. Back in African, I continued to push for their freedom.

Reflections on the Tour to the United States

It was indeed a terrible experience back in the U.S. Having been a prince in my native land then turned to a slave in another was an unexpected turn of events. The situation in the foreign land forced me to submit to reality. However, this did not mean humiliation since I still displayed my leadership qualities in Mississippi. Mr. Foster attributes his success to my hard work and role as the supervisor in his farm. I am an example of the harsh conditions experienced by slaves. Slave trade is an absurd form of doing business. In my case, I would consider myself lucky for attaining my freedom at last.

Conclusion

Slavery should be abolished completely from the human race. Races of black origin are discriminated against through slavery. It is important to note that every person is the same regardless of their skin color. This journal reflected on my life and experience with slavery. The effects even after I as freed left a scar in my life. I believe that this journal would be preserved and passed on to later generations. Finally, it is my wish for both American and the African communities to realize my dream.

 

Ellen Lupton – A Case Study

Ellen Lupton – A Case Study

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Abstract

Between 1980 and 1995, graphic design took part in revolutionary change in communication. Ellen Lupton is a postmodern designer as she started design in the early 80’s, which was in a postmodern era. Lupton inspires a new kind of Visual Literacy, which influenced the younger generation. Visual literacy has no longer been the ability to decode images, but having the experience of creating. Ellen Lupton first confrontation of a manifesto was in the late 1980’s. The Philosophy according to Lupton (1996a) can be a manifesto, which can be neatly summarized into three nouns design, writing, and reading.

In addition to this Lupton and Miller (1996b) stated that this formulation is a less of an attempt to overturn conventional priorities than underscore their (Miller & Lupton) own primary role as designers. Lupton (1996a) also mentions that graphic design involves forging relationships between images and texts by cutting and pasting, enlarging and reducing, layering and framing, comparing and isolating. According to Armstrong (2009):

“Design is a social activity. Rarely working alone or in private, designers respond to clients, audiences… While our work is exposed and highly visible, as individual we often remain anonymous, our contribution to the texture of daily life existing below the threshold of public recognition” (p. 6). Meaning that a designer has limitations to their work, because of clients and tiring to communicate to a pacific audience. Whereby an individual has freedom to express whatever they feel like to whomever they want.

 

 

 

 

 

Ellen Lupton – A Case Study

Ellen Lupton’s work may be classified as postmodern, in most of its aspects. Her design often features a visually thrilling mix of elements. Her typography usually consists of colorful components that are mostly on the borderlines of luxurious. In most of her works, she avoids ludicrous styling, in the name of creativity. This approach is true to post-modern design philosophy, which opts for complex design focused on exaggeration. Her work contrasts with modernism, which focused on simplicity and functionality. However, she has maintained some ideals of Bauhausian design, especially simplicity. It is important to note that postmodernism was more of an evolution of modernism, in the field of design, unlike other occupations. Most of her developed typography has a style statement, filled with embellishment and theatricality. This is seen through her adopted letterforms and fonts (Lupton 2004). Similarly, her work is influenced by developments from the 1980s, which was a dominantly postmodern era.

Designers are often influenced by the social environments with which they interact. The postmodernist society of the late 20th century had profound effects on Lupton’s work. Postmodern design centered on the enhancement of graphical components. This is seen in most of Lupton’s works. She maintains various visual cues from the postmodernist philosophy. For instance, her typography features types that are often decorative, and visually appealing (Lupton 2004). Similarly, some of her works feature expression and diversity. Her works, especially those oriented towards web publication. For instance, postmodern design is seen through Lupton’s extensive use of serifs and uneven stroke weights. These components allude to historical types. This approach is distinctly postmodern in design.

 

Postmodernism has influenced the global culture, since its introduction in the post-world war 2 eras of the 60s and 70s. It changed culture with various premises. Firstly, it stated that culture offers inaccurate communications to the mind of another party. Similarly, it stated that time and cultural differences complicate communication further. Secondly, it identified meaning as a combination of objects and events, and the subjective sense of an individual. Therefore, it advocated for self-expression in design.

From postmodernism, it is seen that effective communications requires understanding of aspects such as cultural and historical backgrounds (Lupton 1996b). In postmodern design, this highlights the appreciation for historical components such as font types. Lupton’s work features such cultural influences. For instance, her work often features decorative and expressive aspects, instead of focusing on functionality. This is based on the presumption that language does not offer effective communication. Therefore, focus should be based on expressional aspects. An instance of this is her typography, titled ‘Stadsschouwburg’. It is visually appealing and creative, while maintaining complex cues.

 

Postmodern thought has influenced political activity throughout the world. It has advocated for the micro-politic brand, which is concerned with culture, personal identity and subjectivity. This political influence is seen through Lupton’s implementation of subjectivity and identity in her typography. Ellen Lupton has worked on various projects for her clients, as well as her own. For instance, she has developed pieces for exhibitions such as ‘Mechanical Brides’ and ‘Mixing Messages’. However, most of her work has focused on personal projects. There is limited influence from client’s projects on her work.

Ellen Lupton has maintained relatively considerable influence on the world of design. She has worked as a curator of contemporary design at the National Design Museum. Her curated exhibitions have played a significant role in the development of design throughout the world. Similarly, she is a director of the Graphic design program at the Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA). Lupton has contributed to the field through various scholarly publications. For instance, she has published an essay focused on how Deconstruction theory relates to graphic design. In the paper, she shows how cues from Deconstruction and post-structuralism emerge, and can be used, in contemporary design projects. Similarly, she has contributed to design thinking and theory. Lupton has influenced design towards consumers being producers, by granting them access to the fundamentals of the field (Lupton, 2004).

She has made various intellectual contributions to the study of typography. Firstly, she advocates for use of multiple typefaces. She maintains this as an approach for achieving contrast, necessary for attracting attention to the text. A typeface represents an individual’s activities of choice. Lupton has advocated for the use of clean typefaces that evoke a minimalist feel. This may be attributable to Bauhausian influences. In Web design, Lupton has advocated to use of grids. This concept has also gained traction with the mainstream (Lupton & Tobias, 2002).

Lupton has brought design to the public through various publications, bringing about social change in the process. Through her Design It Yourself (DIY) series of books, she has brought design to the mainstream. She has focused on developing various visual cues such as baselines, descenders and bowls in her typography (Lupton & Miller, 1996b). Similarly, Lupton maintains contrasting typefaces and colors in her works. Her ideas about careful and detailed use of multiple headers have gained widespread following. This is especially common in the internet. Her simplified approach towards design concepts has also broadened the field’s appeal to the masses. For instance, she relates design to the creation of a sandwich. Consequently, readers of her books have adopted these cues. In the process, Lupton has played a significant role in social change. She has participated in the creation of a global society that is more familiar with design concepts. This is seen through web platforms such as blogs like Tumblr, and other sites (Lupton 2004).

Designers often maintain unique approaches to their works. For Ellen Lupton, her focus is on the mixing of different typefaces and hand lettering. Similarly, she focuses her work on screen culture, rather than print, as it is the dominant form of information consumption in the contemporary world. Her approach centers on creativity, while conforming to the rules of typography. For instance, she advocates for careful mixing of types, as it can lead to ugly representations of subject matter. Similarly, she maintains visual eloquence in her work. She creates simple designs that offer appealing aesthetics to subjects.

Lupton views typography as the convergence of art and language forms. In ‘Thinking with Type’, she describes Typography as what language looks like (Lupton, 2004). She views it as an important tool for self-expression. Through this idea, the influence of postmodernism on her can be seen. The idea serves as the basis for her work. She finds it necessary to use artistic cues, for effective presentation of language content. Similarly, she idealizes creativity, over simplicity. Saussure’s work and postmodernism have played an influence on this idea (Armstrong, 2009). Her work uses different types to achieve creativity. On every day, a large number of typefaces are ignored around the world. Lupton maintains the idea of clean representation of content. She focuses on easy presentation to subjects, rather than creativity that is on the borderline of destructive. For instance, she states that selection of type requires knowledge of letterforms (Lupton & Jennifer, 2008). This ensures that the content is visually appealing to subjects, thus achieving communication.

Ellen Lupton has carried out a large number of projects. Through her positions as curator of various organizations, she has been able to organize a number of exhibitions. In 1993-4, she carried out the ‘Mechanical Brides: Women and Machines from Home to Office’ project. The exhibition focused on feminine machines of the 20th century. She displayed washing machines, telephones, and the design for her book- that goes by the same title. In 1996, she conducted the ‘Mixing Messages’ exhibition. This project displayed the advancements of typefaces through history. In 2011-12, Lupton conducted the ‘Graphic Design: Now in Production’ exhibition that centered on changes in graphic design over the 21st century.

 

References

Armstrong, H. (2009). Graphic Design Theory: Readings from the Field. New York: Princeton Architectural.

Lupton, E. (1996a). Mixing Messages: Graphic Design in Contemporary Culture. New York: Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

Lupton, E. (2004). Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors, & Students (1st ed). New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Lupton, E., & Jennifer C. P. (2008). Graphic Design: The New Basics. New York: Princeton Architectural.

Lupton, E., & Miller, A. (1996b). Design, Writing, Research: Writing on Graphic Design. Hong Kong, China: Kiosk.

Lupton, E., & Tobias. J. (2002). Skin: Surface, Substance Design. New York: Princeton Architectural.

 

Health Care

Health Care

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Health Care

Health Care Industry

Health care industry is the division within a country’s economy system delegated with duties that involve providing of goods and services in treating patients. This industry utilizes the palliative, curative, rehabilitative and preventive care approach in treating patients. In the modern health care sector, various divisions and subsections with trained professionals are in the field. They have been able to deal with chronic diseases by providing the necessary healthcare needed.

The number of people who suffer from chronic diseases has risen over the years. Asthma, coronary heart disease, HIV and rheumatoid arthritis are the most common chronic diseases in the world. Estimates of about 174 billion dollars per year of the total healthcare costs have been due to diabetes (“The Impact of Chronic Diseases on Healthcare”, 2013). The healthcare sector has been forced to lookout for ways that can help in medical follow-ups of such patients. The Electronic Health Records (EHR) has proven to be one of the sufficient techniques in taking care of patients suffering from chronic diseases. EHR is an electronic version of a patient’s medical record. It takes into account the hospital demographics, past medical history, progress notes and laboratory data.

Some of the methods used by EHR are surveillance of diseases, their risk factors and the audit and feedback techniques. Using this method allows health practitioners’ stay connected with their patients. For instance, a clinical health worker may consider administering a certain type of drug to a patient due to its past positive effects. Patients are able to manage themselves by recognizing and responding to changes in their disease. They are also able to deal with the problems incurred with the disease. The society benefits from management of these diseases because they are able to live freely and independently with them (Magura, 2013).

Benchmarking for a Health Care Organization

Healthcare benchmarks have been related to improved performance and reduced risks in revenue. They use openly available statistics from state’s resources and compare them with an organization’s interior presentation against peer performance. The outcomes observed lead to continuous improvements in an organizations patient safety, quality, satisfaction and efficiency. Omaha’s Neb-based Alegent Creighton Health organization is one of the facilities that have used benchmarking methods. The organization conducted the healthcare quality benchmarks. This specialty focuses on utilizing the patients’ data and amalgamates it with the hospital data. This in turn results to immediate access of review and management reports of the hospital publicly.

Alegent Creighton Health organization has benefited from this benchmarking method. Its main goals have been to help the psychiatric patients in improve their healthcare (Saldi, 2013). Being a Catholic mission-based hospital, it conducts its services freely. It has been rated as the best hospital regarding psychiatric cases thus attained its goals. In terms of benchmarking, this was an appropriate method used by the organization. The organization had to have a healthcare quality benchmark that would enable it to have a proper public report. The fact that it offers free service may receive a doubting reception from the public. Hence, benchmarking was beneficial to the organization.

Benchmarking approaches vary in terms of performance and efficiency. The organization would profit more if it had used the patient safety benchmarking technique. It utilizes the analysis of patients’ safety conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). This is accompanied by the quality measures involved and published publicly (“Healthcare Performance Benchmarks”, 2013). The fact that the hospital deals with psychiatric patients, safety would be an important aspect to consider. Thus, the public would approve such organizations.

Increasing Minority Participation in the Health Professions

In the medical world, divisions and subdivisions have to be created for efficient provision of services. Minority participation has increased in healthcare participation. More students are taking up courses in this field with a passion to improve health services. The Texas A & M Health Science Centre and Howard University College of Medicine have had many students graduating in medicine. Institutions that teach medicine have worked in minority basis to reach the society. It can be observed that the Morehouse School of medicine offers online services. It can also be reached through social sites (“Morehouse School of medicine”, 2013). The Emory university school of medicine has their students subdivided in smaller groups for better research programs. A common feature in all these universities is that, fewer students of different ethnic groups take up medicine.

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing conducted a research on diversity in the nursing field. It was evident that students from minor racial and ethnic groups were represented in smaller percentages (“U.S. Census Bureau Projections Show a Slower Growing, Older, More Diverse Nation a Half Century from Now”, 2012). This has painted a discriminating feature on America. It noticed its need to improve its work diversity and employed certain measures. These measures were meant to motivate students from minority ethnic groups to pursue nursing and other health related studies. A healthcare provider’s background does not affect the services he offers. The changes they have put in place would enable the country fight racial discrimination. Qualifying professionally in their respective fields is the basic rule for one to work with patients. Hence, race, ethnicity and religion do not affect provision of healthcare.

 

References

Healthcare Performance Benchmarks. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.mckesson.com/providers/health-systems/enterprise-intelligence/healthcare-performance-benchmarks/

Magura, C. (2009). Chronic Disease Management – The Expert Patient. Retrieved from http://www.disabled-world.com/health/chronic-disease-management.php

Morehouse School of medicine. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.msm.edu/HomePage.aspx

Saldi, G. D. (April 2013). Psychiatric Core Measures Help Hospitals Improve Care. Catholic Health Association of the United States. Retrieved from http://www.chausa.org/publications/health-progress/article/march-april-2013/psychiatric-core-measures-help-hospitals-improve-care

The Impact of Chronic Diseases on Healthcare. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.forahealthieramerica.com/ds/impact-of-chronic-disease.html

United States Census Bureau. (2012). U.S. Census Bureau Projections Show a Slower Growing, Older, More Diverse Nation a Half Century from Now. [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-243.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Augustine’s Confession

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Augustine’s Confession

In Saint Augustine’s Neo-Platonic quest, he is trying to understand the mystery behind the existence of God, yet he was brought up in a philosophical world. His skepticism is evident as he used his philosophical reasoning to account for occurrences that happen in the world. At the time, he was faced with a clear dilemma as he tried to understand God being in a human body. He perceived himself as evil and wicked during his youth, but as he was maturing, and he embraced the idea of the existence of God. He is at an intellectual state that allowed him to acknowledge that Christianity is real, and it is for this reason that he opens his mind and embraces the faith. It is in his neo-platonic quest that he explains that Christianity is not a fallacy but a reality. Therefore, he concludes that truly, God does exist.

He explains this through an account of his personal experience. He sets out to find the root of evil, but his methodology is so flawed that, he almost loses himself in his search. He realizes that evil cannot exist on its own, as everything in life has a balance. He backs his stand by accounting for the numerous philosophical literatures that he has come across. Moreover, this was coupled by the fact that they were pagans who acknowledge God. Firmius’ failure to account for two similar horoscopes accurately causes Augustine to disregard astrology. He uses immaterial objects like sunshine for his reasoning behind God’s omnipresence but accepts that it is not in his place to do so (Chadwick 119).

Is his reasoning persuasive? Yes, it is. His own personal experience while trying to account for Christianity compels one to believe his reasoning. In order for a balance to exist, there has to be two entities. Evil cannot exist alone, and the nature of being good has to have an origin. Therefore, the conscious denial of God’s existence by humans means evil can be identified. He is influenced by Paul’s scripture writings so much that, he ends his quest, claiming that Paul’s work appealed to his emotive nature. In conclusion, the sinful human nature and pride make humans deny Christ.

 

 

Works Cited

Chadwick, H. Saint Augustines confessions. London. Oxford University Press. 1991. Print.

William “Billy” Mitchell

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William “Billy” Mitchell

William Mitchell, famously known as Billy, was a United States Army general considered the father of the United States Air Force (Cooke 1). He was born in 1879 on the 29th day of December in the French town of Nice to a wealthy Wisconsin Senator of Scottish descent, John L. Mitchell, and his wife, Harriet. He grew up in the present West Allis suburb of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. His grandfather Alexander Mitchell was the wealthiest person in Wisconsin for his generation and established what was to become the Milwaukee Road along with the Marine Bank of Wisconsin. Mitchell Park and the important shopping precinct Mitchell Street were named in honor of Alexander. At 18, following his graduation from the Columbian College of George Washington University, Billy enlisted in the 1st Wisconsin Infantry Regiment as a Company M Private on May 14, 1898, early in the Spanish-American War and quickly gained a commission due to his father’s influence and joined the U.S. Army Signal Corps.

Mitchell remained in the army even after hostilities had ceased and predicted, while an instructor at the Army’s Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, that future conflicts would take place, be won in the air, not on the ground. In 1908, Mitchell, a young Signal Corps officer, observed Orville Wright’s flying demonstration at Fort Myer, Virginia and was probably the first person with ties to Wisconsin to see the Wright Brothers plane fly. Fascinated by aircrafts but prohibited by law from Aviator training by age and rank, Mitchell later took flight lessons as the permanent assistant to Lieutenant Colonel George O. Squier at the Curtiss Aviation School at Newport News, Virginia at personal expense receiving a rating as a junior military aviator. In March 1912, at age 32, he became the youngest of 21 officers selected to serve on the General Staff after assignments in the Philippines and Alaska Territory that saw him tour Russo-Japanese War battlefields and conclude the inevitability of war with Japan. He ironically testified against a bill to make Army aviation a branch separate from the Signal Corps in August 1913 at legislative hearings and was appointed as temporary head of the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps being the only Signal Corps officer on the General Staff in may of 1916.

Billy Mitchell is considered by most a hero, whose efforts and warnings served to ensure the United States was able to field the world’s largest air force in time to fight World War II (Waller 65). He argued that the aeronautical advances being made were drawing the US closer to its potential enemies and that soon distance would be a factor of time and not miles. Others, however, saw him saw him as overly ambitious and egotistical zealot who bullied anyone opposing his views on air power. The 1920s saw Billy Mitchell voice the need for strong air defenses by vigorously advancing the theory that airplanes would replace the fleet as America’s first line of defense long before anyone else. He also made a case as to the flying machines offensive strategic advantage over an enemy’s industrial resources, submarines, and ships as well as for reconnaissance and counter-espionage missions.

In April 1917, Mitchell, a Lieutenant Colonel, was assigned to the American Expeditionary Forces in France, which was one of the first Americans on the scene after the United States declared war on Germany. He was brisk to advocate the creation of local American air units but was frustrated by delays in getting American planes and pilots into the war. This he viewed as reducing their control and effectiveness, as they had to rely on the French for air support. On meeting British General Hugh ‘Boom’ Trenchard, Billy quickly convinced him to his thesis on the strategic advantages of airpower to a relentless and incessant offensive in wartime and its potential over sea power (Mitchell 1). American pilots were assigned to squadrons on arrival were put in the air in French planes. In March 1918, Mitchell was placed in charge of all American aviation units at the front as the Germans begun a desperate push against the Allies. He proved his combat leadership prowess at the Battle of Saint-Mihiel coordinating a 1,481 strong British, French, and Italian air force to support American ground forces earning him a promotion to brigadier general where he increased his advocacy of the importance of a strong military air arm. His vigor, flamboyance, and ability to gain the media’s attention led him to build airfields, hangars, and other facilities quickly and unhampered gaining him notoriety among his non-flying peers and making him the best-known American in Europe.

He was appointed an assistant chief of the U.S. Army Air Service on his return in 1919 and was appalled at the speed with which the organization he had helped to build in war disintegrated in peacetime and soon provoked the Navy admirals into open hostility through his tirades against their super-dreadnought concepts. The hero soon turned the agitator as he tried to prove that airplanes could accomplish the things he forecast. He made some daring innovations for the Air Service that stunned the non-flying Army generals including troop carriers, a specialized mechanics squadron, standby reserve civilian pilots, long-range fighter planes, and armor-piercing ammunition. He urged bombsight development, supercharged engines, aerial torpedoes, and ski-equipped aircraft (Schwarzer, Drapala, and Rezeli 35). He encouraged Army pilots to set speed, endurance, and altitude records to keep aviation in the news. He died aged 55 while undergoing treatment in New York on February 19, 1936. He had elected to be buried in Milwaukee, his hometown, where he enlisted in 1898, rather than at Arlington National Cemetery.

 

Work Cited

Cooke, James J. Billy Mitchell. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 2002. Print.

Mitchell, William. Winged Defense: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power-Economic and Military. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2009. Print.

Schwarzer, William, Robert V. Drapala, and Debra D. Rezeli. The Lion Killers: Billy Mitchell and the Birth of Strategic Bombing. Mt. Holly, N.J: Aerial Perspective, 2003. Print.

Waller, Douglas C. A Question of Loyalty: Gen. Billy Mitchell and the Court-Martial That Gripped the Nation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004. Print.

Week 2 Assignment

Week 2 Assignment

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Week 2 Assignment

Introduction

Because of the growing concern of organizational misconduct that allowed companies to get away with unethical crimes, the Federal Sentencing Guiding for Organization was (FSGO) formed. It was established by the U.S. Sentencing Commission (USSC) in 1991 to ensure ethical compliance of organizations. The creation of this commission meant that organizations were responsible for the conduct of their employees. The FSGO’s mandate was to create a consistent standard that would be used across the nation by judges presiding over such cases. The organization’s mandate prevented intermediary sentencing; therefore, similar cases would have analogous verdicts. A standard sentencing structure clearly outlined the penalties that were accompanied by breaching the ethical compliance policy. The penalties were stiffer to organizations than they were for the employees. The areas that were focused on were those of safety, competition and environment.

Events That Led To Each of These Regulatory Measures

The conception of this FSGO was because of the increased well-organized white-collar crimes. Those involved robbed the public of their investments and shut down business thereafter. An example of this white-collar crime is the infamous III Wind Investigation that was beneficial to scammers within the military and corporate world, but was at the expense of the U.S. government and its people. It was carried out during the procurement of defense equipment, and there was a lot of bribery in the attempts to win the tender from the U.S. government. Millions of dollars were lost through embezzlement of funds from the numerous contractors and military personnel involved. These scandals led the U.S.S.C. to pass the federal sentencing guidelines and curb the collateral damage inflicted to unsuspecting investors and employees.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was implemented in 2002. It brought about significant changes in the financial sector. It was amended to provide security regulations in the business and accounting practices of organizations. Its main aim was to address the loopholes that were exposed by fraudulent scandals during the early 2000s conducted by companies like Enron, Adelphia, Tyco International and WorldCom. The act has eleven titles, but the most crucial sections include 302, which states that a mandate that compels senior management to verify and certify the accuracy of their reported financial statement. Moreover, section 402 compels auditors of a firm and management to set up internal controls and report methods that highlight the adequacy of those regulations. Additionally, section 404 states that the cost of publicly trading companies incurred is too expensive to attempt to do the necessary internal controls. Section 409, which highlights that the changes in the financial conditions of the company warranted an urgent disclosure to the public in easily comprehensible terms. Section 802 has stiff penalties for changing, destroying, mutilating, hiding, falsifying records, documents or tangible material with the intention of obstructing legal investigations from being carried out.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) was established in the year 2011 as a means to protect consumers from lenders with malicious intent (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell 2005). It was set up after there was an economic meltdown that had ripple effects in the real-estate business. Its main mandate was that of upholding the existing regulations that restricted the opportunistic lending of creditors in the economic boom with the intent of auctioning property in the wake of a meltdown. This enabled the government to consolidate the responsibilities of previously different governmental branches. This makes it easier for the government to assist the citizens when it comes to financial advice for mortgages. This is crucial as citizens are educated and have a good idea of what they are getting into prior to signing of contracts that bind them. This helps the mortgage payer not to be enrolled in high-spending insurance plans and prevents the use of risky features.

Impact of These Laws on Business Ethics

The impact of the implementation of the law has led to companies upholding ethical compliance. The consequences of fraudulent activities to the organizations involved are very stiff, and as a result, companies avoid these tendencies, as previously they seemed to be governed by bystander apathy (Shaw, 2010). Some of the penalties are monetary fines, restitution, organizational probation, community service periods that last for years and serving of jail terms. These outlined rules are set to provide a guideline for organizations to come up with programs that help re-educate these violations and create a prevention and detection mechanism. Unlike before, today a prevailing system is used in sentencing. Organizations that attempt to implement the ethical compliance guidelines face less stiff penalties.

The necessary steps undertaken include effective communication of the protocol observed in disseminating the internal audits and generation of comprehensive reports. Caution in the delegation of tasks to employees that have criminal cases filed against them should be observed. This prevents unnecessary court scenarios where the management is fined because of negligence. A well-organized program compliance structure helps to reduce the likelihood of malicious employees. Breaking of stipulated rules leads to disciplinary action against the offender. This shows that action is indeed taken in order to control fraudulent employees. Establishing a reporting system can be used to report perpetrators. Observance of these principles and laws has made business increasingly transparent and accountable.

For instance, the CFPB ensures that the borrower has a sufficient asset base in order to repay the loan prior to agreement. This prevents the borrower from entering a financial agreement where the creditor extorts them because of lack of knowledge. As such, businesses have to review their manifestos lest they be charged for fraudulent activities. It also prevents institutions from asking for an upfront fee of more than 3% of the loan. Companies now have to conduct employee surveys or distribution of questionnaires as a measuring tool used to understand the organizational culture. This means that organizations have to meet with the new (FSGO) requirements to fulfill the program effectiveness criterion. These have an effective compliance and ethics program, periodic evaluation of the organization’s compliance of the ethics program and oversight of the same through carrying out of internal audits.

Specific Example

Serena is one of the companies that have been affected by the Sarbanes – Oxley Act after it was enacted in 2002. These effects were experienced in the Information Technology (IT) department and corporate governance sectors. After the legalization of the law, the IT department had to revamp the security systems to control the breaching of network protocols that would lead to loss of information. More stringent security systems were set up, and security passes were limited to area codes within the company. As such, those working in the marketing department could not readily access data and information from the accounting section. There was also increased accountability measures put in place that ensured the ease of tracking the monetary transactions, which was in compliance to the Act.

Previously, there were errors undetectable to the enterprise resource planning system, which meant that there had to be a restatement of the company earnings. It is because of this that new systems were put up to ensure fast detection of oversight errors and avoidable risks. There were also better documentation processes, which ensured the auditing techniques used were clearly outlined in case of the need for confirmations. This was in compliance to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act whose main aim was to ensure the accuracy in the internal audits and financial reporting that is done by companies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2005). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Print.

LRN. (2006). The impact of codes of conduct on corporate culture: Measuring the immeasurable. Retrieved from http://www.ethics.org/files/u5/LRNImpactofCodesofConduct.pdf

Serena. (2006). The Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on IT and Corporate Governance. Retrieved from http://www.serena.com/docs/repository/products/change-governance/sarbanes-oxley-it-co.pdf

Shaw, W. H. (2010). Business ethics: A textbook with cases. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth. Print.

Wulf, K. (2012). Ethics and compliance programs in multinational organizations. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

 

 

 

 

 

William “Billy” Mitchell

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William “Billy” Mitchell

William Mitchell, famously known as Billy, was a United States Army general considered the father of the United States Air Force (Cooke 1). He was born in 1879 on the 29th day of December in the French town of Nice to a wealthy Wisconsin senator of Scottish descent, John L. Mitchell, and his wife, Harriet. He grew up in the present West Allis suburb of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. His grandfather Alexander Mitchell was the wealthiest person in Wisconsin for his generation and established what was to become the Milwaukee Road along with the Marine Bank of Wisconsin. Mitchell Park and the important shopping precinct Mitchell Street were named in honor of Alexander. At 18, following his graduation from the Columbian College of George Washington University, Billy enlisted in the 1st Wisconsin Infantry Regiment as a Company M Private on May 14, 1898, early in the Spanish-American War and quickly gained a commission due to his father’s influence and joined the U.S. Army Signal Corps.

Mitchell remained in the army even after hostilities had ceased and predicted, while an instructor at the Army’s Signal School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, that future conflicts would take place and be won in the air, not on the ground. In 1908, Mitchell, a young Signal Corps officer, observed Orville Wright’s flying demonstration at Fort Myer, Virginia and was probably the first person with ties to Wisconsin to see the Wright Brothers plane fly. Fascinated by air crafts but prohibited by law from Aviator training by age and rank, Mitchell later took flight lessons as the permanent assistant to Lieutenant Colonel George O. Squier at the Curtiss Aviation School at Newport News, Virginia at personal expense receiving a rating as a junior military aviator. In March 1912, at age 32, he became the youngest of 21 officers selected to serve on the General Staff after assignments in the Philippines and Alaska Territory that saw him tour Russo-Japanese War battlefields and conclude the inevitability of war with Japan. He ironically testified against a bill to make Army aviation a branch separate from the Signal Corps in August 1913 at legislative hearings and was appointed as temporary head of the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps being the only Signal Corps officer on the General Staff in may of 1916.

Billy Mitchell is considered by most a hero, whose efforts and warnings served to ensure the United States was able to field the world’s largest air force in time to fight World War II (Waller 65). He argued that the aeronautical advances being made were drawing the US closer to its potential enemies and that soon distance would be a factor of time and not miles. Others, however, saw him saw him as overly ambitious and egotistical zealot who bullied anyone opposing his views on air power. The 1920s saw Billy Mitchell voice the need for strong air defenses by vigorously advancing the theory that airplanes would replace the fleet as America’s first line of defense long before anyone else. He also made a case as to the flying machines offensive strategic advantage over an enemy’s industrial resources, submarines, and ships as well as for reconnaissance and counter-espionage missions.

In April 1917, Mitchell, a Lieutenant Colonel was assigned to the American Expeditionary Forces in France and was one of the first Americans on the scene after the United States declared war on Germany. He was brisk to advocate the creation of local American air units but was frustrated by delays in getting American planes and pilots into the war. This he viewed as reducing their control and effectiveness, as they had to rely on the French for air support. On meeting British General Hugh ‘Boom’ Trenchard, Billy quickly convinced him to his thesis on the strategic advantages of airpower to a relentless and incessant offensive in wartime and its potential over sea power (Mitchell 1). American pilots were assigned to squadrons on arrival were put in the air in French planes. In March 1918, Mitchell was placed in charge of all American aviation units at the front as the Germans begun a desperate push against the Allies. He proved his combat leadership prowess at the Battle of Saint-Mihiel coordinating a 1,481 strong British, French and Italian air force to support American ground forces earning him a promotion to brigadier general where he increased his advocacy of the importance of a strong military air arm. His vigor, flamboyance and ability to gain the media’s attention led him to build airfields, hangars, and other facilities quickly and unhampered gaining him notoriety among his non- flying peers and making him the best-known American in Europe.

He was appointed assistant chief of the U.S. Army Air Service on his return in 1919 and was appalled at the speed with which the organization he had helped to build in war disintegrated in peacetime and soon provoked the Navy admirals into open hostility through his tirades against their super-dreadnought concepts. The hero soon turned the agitator as he tried to prove that airplanes could accomplish the things he forecast. He made some daring innovations for the Air Service that stunned the non-flying Army generals including troop carriers, a specialized mechanics squadron, standby reserve civilian pilots, long-range fighter planes and armor-piercing ammunition. He urged bombsight development, supercharged engines, aerial torpedoes, and ski-equipped aircraft (Schwarzer, Drapala, Rezeli 35). He encouraged Army pilots to set speed, endurance, and altitude records to keep aviation in the news. He died aged 55 while undergoing treatment in New York on February 19, 1936. He had elected to be buried in Milwaukee, his hometown, where he enlisted in 1898, rather than at Arlington National Cemetery.

Work Cited

Cooke, James J. Billy Mitchell. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner, 2002. Print.

Mitchell, William. Winged Defense: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power-Economic and Military. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2009. Internet resource.

Schwarzer, William, Robert V. Drapala, and Debra D. Rezeli. The Lion Killers: Billy Mitchell and the Birth of Strategic Bombing. Mt. Holly, N.J: Aerial Perspective, 2003. Print.

Waller, Douglas C. A Question of Loyalty: Gen. Billy Mitchell and the Court-Martial That Gripped the Nation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004. Print.

Article Summary

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Article Summary

The ‘Industrial Revolution” article elaborates on the transitioning of England’s economy. The paper delves intro provide details on the facilitating factor of industrialism which is capitalism in terms of production. The main industry that was involved in the revolution was the cloth production whose wealth was resourceful in the generation of capital. The reason for the transformation is attributed to the fragmentation of the political powers, which allowed merchants to trade within the region as well restricting their access to land. The second topic that is discussed within the paper is transformation of England and its English people. Concerning economic progression, the issue that remains persistent is the manner in which England was able to transform from an agricultural based economy characterized by sheep rearing to wool production, which later on drew merchants and financiers. The article provides intricate details on this meteoric economic transition. Concerning the competitive aspect in the economic markets in England, the reader is provided with information about the Indian and Dutch immigrants who were involved in the textile industry business and trade. On a closer look, one is able to distinguish the competitive advantage each competitor possessed as they sought to dominate the textile industry in England. The author highlights on the major issues that stemmed from mechanization. At this point, the reader is educated on machinery in the textile industry for manufacturing clothes and cotton products.

The article “Europe and The People without History” commences with an introduction on interconnectedness of the human race and the processes that entail this co-relational interaction. This part of the article provides details on the development of social hierarchies and communities that have enhanced the manner in which human beings connect through interactions, norms, and beliefs. The second part of the article discusses on the introduction of social science. The reader is able to decipher the varied entities that exist in terms of cultures, which are defined but external boundaries and internal architecture. The author discusses on the turning point that facilitated the split of human kind in to varied communities throughout the globe. He goes further to provide reasons for the split and hence justifying it as a mean of enhancing the human social relations. From an economic angle, the author educates the reader of the studies conducted by earlier sociologist on the important of social relations as part of a driving force for the political economy. Through this, one is able to learn the elemental components that bind social structures.

Based on the information presented in the articles, it is valid to state that the authors have directed their focus on educating the readers as well as the target audience on the social and economical transformations that have occurred through history to the modern day. The material serves as educative elements that not only provide the fact on the subject matter but also combines sociological and economic studies to justify the stages of transformation the global community has undergone. The reader should be able to understand the chronological events that led to the severance or alienation of the social element from the ideological, economic, and political contexts found within varied societies. In my personal opinion, the separation of disciplines serves as a historic marker that divided the societal elements that constitute the fabric of the community. This concept has been embraced to the recent day thus justifying this historic occurrence.

 

Modernism of Art

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Modernism of Art

As societies develop in understanding and complexity, the themes that artists are able to express themselves through become fewer and it has made it hard for artists to predict their audiences’ reception correctly. Artists have to be careful with how they use symbolism and other artistic tools to pass their message to ensure they are not prejudicial against any group, class, creed, or race. This led to many social topics being ignored for fear of raising controversy and furthering the status quo that existed even though the topics and themes continued to be seen in many literary and art works. This led to the rise of a historically conscious faction among the Western privileged society that sought to understand the building blocks of each society and how they influence the present. This culture is known as the avant-garde and its origins coincided with the scientific revolution in Europe.

This new class was averse of politics though they had to align themselves with revolutionary politicians in their fight against the status quo that existed. The avant-garde also maintained their links to their privileged society because of the monetary support they continued to enjoy from them. The avant-garde played the important role of ensuring cultural continuity in a time that was plagued by uncertainty and unrest with the literary and artistic poets creating pieces that transcended the barriers that society had created. These pieces elicited an interest and interpretation that was free from prejudice and allowed people to appreciate the art works for their own beauty and not for what they might infer from them. Another culture, the reargarde, also emerged from the emigrants who although they learnt how to read and write were still denied the privilege of partaking in the refined arts and found them too boring for their liking. This new culture was based on industrialization and academics forming the Kitsch, which has outgrown its classical cousin in both popularity and marketability with huge profits.

Many people in America today are turning their focus to art though most argue that their creations are based on the themes from French paintings making them look like recreations. Some painters have however come up with unique techniques that make their works stand out as fresh and draw their inspiration from both earlier European and American painters. These artists use their canvas to show their emotions and events as opposed to simply reproducing objects in their surroundings. They employed a sort of laissez-faire approach to their work, which meant that even they had no idea as to what the outcome of a painting session would result in. This effect was brought about by the fundamental difference in which these painters regarded their minds as the canvas and the canvas as a screen to enable others to share in his visions.

Such paintings can only be truly appreciated if the audience is privy to the life experiences of the painter since they are a representation of his state of mind and body at the time of the painting much like poetry. Such works can only be interpreted by focusing on the way the artist uses different variations of hue and intensity to portray feelings and can be highly subjective. The new kind of criticism necessary for the appreciation of these modern works is becoming increasingly complex with artistic freedom growing in leaps and bounds, having, and taking over many projects including architecture.

Lecture on Inequality

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Lecture on Inequality

All men are born equal before the law and before God. When an individual or a group of people create situation where their rights supersede that of other individuals or groups, inequality is said to have taken place (Glaeser 2005, p.1). Equality is the foundation upon which democracy and most religions are built. Equality is the basis upon which people develop their sense of morality. It is the fabric that holds our societies together an allow us to coexist in peace and harmony. Inequality on the hand tilts the scales in favor of a selected few. In doing this, it effectively denies the most people access to opportunities and resources to help them develop and improve their lives. However, it should be noted that this is both a good and a bad thing. Inequality is bad as it robs the needy of much needed resources and opportunities to improve their lives. Without adequate empowerment, these people could be able to work their way out of poverty. This would also benefit their overall economies from the increase in output. Inequality stems from poor policies that allow selfish interests to prevail over the allocation of public resources. It should be noted that rights in resource allocation only comes into play when addressing public resources. This is because private entities have discretionary control over the management of their resources.

Inequality is a good thing as it inspires innovation and creativity and has been instrumental in the development of the entrepreneurial spirit (KESSELMAN and GREEN 2006, p.25). Necessity being the mother of invention, the disparities caused by inequality has forced people to turn to ingenuity for their livelihoods. This has resulted in the development of products and services that have revolutionized the way we work and live in unprecedented ways. Through frugal innovations, entrepreneurs have been able to identify untapped potentials in their environments. There are five kinds of inequalities in our societies today. First, political inequality is the result of oppressive regimes and political systems that deny the people the right to choose their leaders. Civil rights and liberties have seen significant growth and development due to increasing democratization and mounting global pressure. There are still some regions in the world where there is blatant disregard for civil rights and impunity. Political equality can be further enhanced by more participation from the public. Second, wealth and income inequalities have been a sore thumb for many countries around the globe. Governments’ main source of revenue is taxation. The people who earn relatively little money are taxed more, leading to a growing gap between the rich and the poor. It should however be noted that the rich create businesses that help the government solve unemployment by creating many employment opportunities. Expecting them to pay high taxes again would be subjecting them to inequality as well and might be counter productive.

Third, there is a great disparity in opportunities for personal and group advancement. Many governments have failed to develop and enforce sound policies to ensure that all their citizens have assured fair access to all available opportunities for their development right from birth. Fourth, there is a high level of inequality in treatment brought about by the intricacies of social development and governance. The establishment of a ruling class and a followers’ class has unwittingly created disparities in treatment with regard to access to social and public amenities and facilities. The powerful always get preferential treatment against the commoners. Last, there is a global inequality of membership as is even evident in the country membership of global bodies such as the G8 and OECD. With the increasing complexities that come with the development of societies, there has been an increasing disparity in membership to schools, clubs, churches, and even neighborhoods.

 

Bibliography

Glaeser, E. L. (2005). Inequality. Cambridge, Mass, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Kesselman, J. R., & Green, D. A. (2006). Dimensions of inequality in Canada. Vancouver, UBC Press.