Carroll and Rosson + Zimmerman et al + About Face Chapter 2
Carroll and Rosson + Zimmerman et al + About Face Chapter 2
Getting Around the Task-Artifact Cycle: How to Make Claims and Design by Scenario by John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson
On analyzing the modern day world, there are many telltale signs that portray that indeed the production of anything is done so in a self-conscious way. According to Carroll and Rosson, the unambiguousness of matters of critical importance is very low. This translates to the fact that fundamental issues cannot be made explicit in the fast growing scientific world today. Due to the continuous development of the Human Computer Interaction (HCI), the target as described by the authors is to understand and bridge the gap between the practices of the HCI and science. This can only be achieved if the developmental process of the HCI is scientifically oriented. The result would be a HCI approach, which is an action science, a combination of two different elements.
In the process of generating scenarios while designing an artifact, it is feasible to apply different approaches depending on the intended outcome. The scenarios act as a briefing about the user course of action in the pursuit of a particular need. There are two approaches. Empirical approach simply means all the probable scenarios are categorized empirically. This type of approach is resourceful as it generates many sets of scenarios which are fragments lacking any sort of structural framework. The analytical approach is considered useful in relating the wide sets of scenarios provided by the empirical approach
The construction of a design is usually made more understandable by the provision of instructions. The set of instructions should act as guideline in operating the product as well as handling any scenario that might occur. Another additional guide is the what-could-go-wrong scenarios. According to the authors, the additional information enables the user to find solutions in situations such as a malfunctioning product amongst others.
Generation of claims is analytical analysis, which involves both the behavior of the user and the ability of the design to meet their needs. Firstly, the claims are evaluated depending on the users needs. Secondly, this information is usually gathered from the user reports. Behavior is also scrutinized. Before the generation of claims is done, the above-mentioned factors should be considered and executed in order to handle any claims that might result afterwards.
An Analysis and Critique of Research through Design: Towards a Formalization of a Research Approach by John Zimmerman, Erik Stotlerman and Jodi Forlizzi
The article focuses on a research method termed as RtD, which uses various methods from the practice of design to make inquiries. The main aim is expansion of the approach to find out more information on the knowledge deduced from Research through Design. There has been major increase in interest concerning the RtD. Zimmerman , Stotlerman and Forlizzi argue that this can be attributed to the fact the researching community itself is expanding thus there is evolution to its main goals. The change includes shifting from usability to developing solutions for the existing ‘wicked problems.’ The most interesting part of reviewing this article was the characterization of the RtD. Owing to the different opinions offered by various researchers; a clear outline of the characteristics is created.
Despite the preferred use of RtD by the researchers, it provides different outcomes. The outcomes are in form of different designs. The authors reiterate that the theory is often viewed as a design-producing tool even though not much respect or deepness is accorded to the resulting products.
‘Action followed by meaning’ process is the differential component of this theory. Unlike other theories which employ the ‘meaning then action’ technique, RtD focuses on the reverse of this approach .This is the most intriguing aspect of the books as it gives the main point of difference between scientific and RtD theorem.
The theory is aimed at creating societal change. This canonical character associated with RtD has a moral inclination to it. The efforts by the researchers to solve the wicked problems might be the sole motivating factor inspiring the use of this theory. The concept itself according to Zimmerman et al is aimed at segregating the scientific thinking from the societal.
About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design by Alan Cooper, Robert Reimann and Dave Cronin
The focus as portrayed by Cooper, Reinmann and Cronin is interaction design. The simple definition is the practice of designing and construction of electronic designs, services and systems. The form of design is important but the fundamental aspect is behavior. The reason why behavior is important is that human conduct is affected by the design of any construction or digital product. An example provided by the authors is the difference in architectural constructions in various regions all over the world.
One noticeable feature is the differential use of physical space. In terms of the digital products when comparing the modern day product and the first model, they are quite different in their mechanisms with the recent prototype being more complex in its operation. The human behavior changes over time thus the design of the products also undergo similar change.
The authors argue that when analyzing a particular thing, human beings have a tendency of perceiving it as a whole entity and not as that with different componential parts. Thus, it creates the notion that for every problem a specific solution should be formulated to solve it wholly. This statement by the authors is in accordance with the Gestalt Theory. For there to be a holistic approach to viewing various objects, a range of methods should be performed for that to be accomplished.
A business can reap great benefits from implementing interactive design. In the book, the discussion of how to inculcate design in to a corporation was intriguing owing to the fact that the section was detailed and provided relevant guideline information for any professional that might be interested in setting the design department in their business. There are various groups mentioned which are necessary for this team to fully become functional. The major players are the design teams who have the sole responsibility of ensuring user satisfaction is met. The next team under the hierarchy is the engineering squad who a play the role of developing the actual product. They follow the budget and the directives stipulated by the design team on the specifications of the product. Finally yet importantly is the marketing team. They are charged with the duty of creating a clientele pool for the products being manufactured
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