Aviation Safety

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Aviation Safety

Format 1

Oster, Strong and Zorn are renowned scholars who have specialized in analyzing safety systems in various aspects of human life. Having witnessed various aircraft accidents, this work is well known since its release followed a series of safety mishaps that scarred the image of the aviation industry, especially the occurrence of 9/11. The article is an insightful study of the safety records of commercial aviation while proposing changes to existing lapses.

The authors think that airline safety standards are mostly compromised by human error rather than equipment malfunction. In most instances, poor maintenance structures have contributed to this problem hence exposing passengers, crew, and other stakeholders to great danger. It is their opinion that the financial position of an airline is a factor that drives costly cost cutting measures, which result in a series of mistakes that lead to the occurrence of accidents. Such a phenomenon is prevalent in developing countries as compared to European nations as well (Oster, Strong and Zorn 156). Terrorism is another significant cause of this problem according to the above authors and they especially single out large scheduled commercial airline services as the most affected.

Increasing levels of screening in airports is seen as a viable option of limiting the carriage of deadly weapons and bombs. They also propose that pilots and cabin crews need to undergo regular training sessions to enhance their safety skills. Licensing options also need to be limited by strict regulations in order to employ competent people while the scholars consider advancements in technology as helpful in improving aircrafts’ capability to handle extreme pressure conditions. By so doing, they believe fatalities would be reduced and accidents will be minimal thereby making air travel still the safest mode of transport globally.

It is a fascinating piece that offers accurate accident records tracing back to the last two decades. The sequence of events is chronological and some of the aviation lingo used is explained such as the go around being an aborted landing of an aeroplane during its final approach due to safety concerns. As such, the interpretations about the causes of aviation accidents are sound and even the recommendations are practical as well as necessary.

It is noteworthy that the variance between accidents in developed countries and in developing nations is huge but the amount of numerical data is insightful in understanding the veracity of the problem. The organization of the article is admirable too especially the segment on dealing with commercial airline activities in the US because it is exhaustive. As such, the authors’ views are agreeable because terrorism has become a big threat to air travel prompting a massive overhaul of the sector globally. While better equipment can tackle the malfunctions, it is incumbent upon the pilots to avoid unhealthy lifestyle changes that nay hinder their work as well (Belobaba, Amedeo and Barnhart 329). Critics who have previously argued against the resistance to abandoning air travel now believe that despite the accidents, it is still the safest mode of transport and human intervention is vital in maintaining this trend rather than the upgrade of machines alone.

Aviation safety is a major world concern due to the volume of traffic and costs involved. In most instances, many people agree that human error is the cause hence the article reinforces this notion and the recommendations contained therein are viable in making flying safer.

 

Works Cited

Belobaba, Peter, Amedeo  Odoni, and Cynthia Barnhart. The Global Airline Industry. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley, 2016. Print.

Oster, Clinton, John Strong and Kurt Zorn. Analyzing Aviation Safety: Problems, Challenges, Opportunities. Research in Transportation Economics, 43(2013): 148-164. Print.

Types of TV Program

Types of TV Program

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Types of TV Program

Introduction

Television is a communication medium that is used for transmission of both sound and images in either two or three dimensions. Televisions became available to the public for use in the later 1920s. After the Second World War television sets improved in terms of capabilities as they gained mainstream publicity in the United States and European countries such as Britain. Research indicates that the type of television content that children are exposed to determines and influences the quality of their respective executive functions. During the 1950s television became a critical tool for influencing public opinion, with subsequent advancements in 1960s enabling access to color broadcasting. There are different types of television programs such as nature programs, talk shows, series, documentaries, sports programs, soap operas, comedies, cartoons, and news.

  1. Comedies

These are television shows developed with the aim of being humorous and amusing the audience to induce laughter. The term comedy can be traced to ancient Greek society whereby public opinion amongst voters was influenced through the use of political satire as preformed by selected comical poets. Comedy is made up of a variety of categories such as opera, plays, jokes, improvisational comedy, and standup comedy amongst others. Modern comedy shows such as Friends have focused on utilization of popular culture as a means of creation of appeal and inducing viewership amongst the public.

Friends focuses on the lives of three young men and women living in one apartment complex and the numerous challenges they face in love and life. The show utilizes experiences that are common amongst American youth as a means of enabling the audience to relate with the content of the program. People watch comedies as a source of humor and understanding trending issues in their communities, society, or country. Secondly, they watch comedies to alleviate stress due to the humor associated with comedy programs.

  1. Talk Show

This is a television program that features the presence of an individual or group of people who engage in the discussion of issues and themes selected by the host of the television talk show. The guests are usually individuals with experience in relation to subject matter being discussed or brought forth by the host. Listeners may also participate by providing their views in relation to the issues or themes being discussed in a show. Talk shows such as the Ellen Lee DeGeneres Show hosted by Ellen Lee DeGeneres which debuted on television in the year 2003, are relatively effective in inducing specific public opinion. Talk shows are favored for various reasons such as the educational nature or knowledge and skills imparted by the guests and hosts to the public. In addition, they also enable the public to engage in public discussions on pertinent issues affecting local communities or society as a whole.

  • News

These are programs that present new received and important information for the public in relation to events. It is also considered as a published report or broadcast of information that pertains to the welfare of the public. News programs have evolved significantly to feature fully-fledged television channels dedicated to all-round news broadcasts. For instance, CNN provides reliable news broadcasts twenty-four hours each day.

Conclusion

It is evident that television programs play a critical role in imparting new information to the public on both relevant and irrelevant issues. In addition, televisions play an important role in influencing public opinion, which is illustrative why they are utilized by politicians and entertainers at inducing public favor and following.

The Education System

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Education System

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The Education System

Anna Leon-Guerrero argued that the current education system was appropriate in indoctrinating children to a certain way of life. However¸ she also proposed that the education system lacked the ability to prepare students to maximize their skills and experiences in the industrial condition. Her analysis of the education system concluded that a very small percentage of the academic instruction could be implemented in the real life situation (Leon-Guerrero, 2014). Most of what was learned in school did not reflect what was being practiced in the economy. One of her ways the education system could support the economic agenda is by updating the curriculum. The author recommended that the United States had to keep up with the global standards of education. She noted that across the states, an obsolete curriculum was being used to teach the children. This outdated curriculum exposed the children to insufficient and inappropriate content that made them less competent to fit in and work productively in the economy (Leon-Guerrero, 2014). The education should also be structured and perceived as a means of upward mobility rather than a means of perpetuating inequality. Within the United States, people study and attaining educational qualifications with the intention of evading poverty. People who cannot access quality education end up marginalized and poor. This is a destructive notion for the economic growth and development of the United States as a significant number of citizens who failed to attend elementary school and college cannot contribute towards the economy. The same is also true for gender inequality. The education system, through the testing processes creates a series of tracking records that separate bright students from ordinary ones. This separation eventually translates into occupational gaps that ensure a small percentage assume prestigious vocations while the majority become unskilled or semi-skilled workers.

 

References

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Leon-Guerrero, A. (2014). Social problems: Community, policy, and social action. Thousand oaks: Pine forge press.

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Survey Assessment

Survey Assessment

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Survey Assessment

The assessment for the firm’s training/ learning programs is effective in the production of behavioral change that may be advantageous to the respective organization. The aim of the evaluation is to assess applications based on learning and the implications they pose after implementation. Interestingly, a training evaluation can equip the learner with the aim behind the activity as well as opportunities for diagnosis and prospects connected to the mission and vision of the organization. Participants within the evaluation are concealed from possible identification. This allows the survey to prevent any biased repercussions that may arise after its culmination. As such, respondents are requested to act in anonymity by maintaining silence regarding the respective exercise. Additionally, suggestion boxes are incorporated in order to ensure confidentiality as well as obscurity on the part of the respondents. Indeed, there are instructions evident at the start of the survey. The respondents are expected to maintain a level of ambiguity due to the personal nature of the assessment. Furthermore, the respondents are expected to cooperate with the respective process by adhering to the company’s ethical values. Several items are illustrated in respect to the collection of data within the survey. These comprise focus-based interview questions. The interviews will be conducted on a one-to-one basis. Aside from the interview questions, open-ended questionnaires are also evident in the survey. In this case, the items evident in the survey are incapable of measuring the same variable. This is due to the overall nature of the survey. Accordingly, most of the items employed for the collection of data are aimed at addressing qualitative aspects. Only two items for the collection of data are used in order to complete the survey. The time used for finishing the survey will be two weeks. This is in respect to the number of employees assessed for the training program. Lastly, qualitative analysis will be incorporated in conducting statistical assessment for the respective survey.

Navigation Devices for People with Low Vision

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Navigation Devices for People with Low Vision

White Cane

  • This is the most prominent navigation aid used by people with partial and complete loss of vision. The said person swings the cane back and forth rhythmically across their body towards their travel trajectory.
  • The device helps them to discern their environment through their other senses mostly auditory and tactile cues. The information provided about the terrain includes changes in elevation and other obstacles.
  • The symbolic white cane is also for the benefit of the normal bystanders, to make them aware of the person’s deprived situation in order to facilitate the person’s navigation when necessary (Maidenbaum et al. 1355).

Dog Aid

  • The dog guide is a popular device among the blind. Nonetheless, the efficacy of the said navigation device depends on the familiarity of the person with low vision with the particular place.
  • The individual receiving the assistance gives orders to the dog to change directions. The dog is useful in helping the individual avoid obstacles. The onus is on the individual to discern the timing to perform functions like cross the road (Maidenbaum et al. 1355).

Global Positioning Systems

  • The person with limited or complete loss or vision can use the help of portable GPS devices to verify their locations when lost. The rise of the smart phone era has made the said GPS devices readily accessible to majority of the low vision populace used in conjunction with other visual impairment applications.
  • The devices have screen readers enabling the user to hear the information. In turn, the user gives voice commands when they need to change the navigation modes and even listen to music. All this is possible thanks to the built-in speech recognition (Hanlu et al. 34).

Augmented Reality Glasses

  • This is specifically for people who retain part of their vision in the retina even when labeled legally blind. The optical aids are still proving the concept but have the potential to be the greatest navigation device for the visually impaired.
  • A built in deep sensor working in concert with software simplifies the features surrounding objects by highlighting their outlines (Hanlu et al 45).

 

Works Cited

Hanlu, Ye, Malu Meethu, Oh Uran, and Findlater Leah. Current and Future Mobile and Wearable Device Use by People with Visual Impairments. ACM, 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701, USA, 2014. Print.

Maidenbaum, S, D.-R Chebat, S Levy-Tzedek, and A Amedi. “Navigation Patterns and Spatial Perception with and Without Vision Using Assistive Technology for the Blind.” Journal of Vision. 14.10 (2014): 1355. Print

Question 2 Response Paper

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Question 2 Response Paper

The Dictator Hunter is a film features Brody and Souleymane that shows the processes that were triggered by fugitive former Chad President Hissène Habré after he perpetrated grave human rights violations including mass murder and torturing of citizens. Souleymane Guenggueng was a close associate to Reed Brody in addition to being his political guide in Senegal. Souleymane was similarly important in contributing towards the collection of content for the documentary (Brody 78). The two administrators and human rights activists cooperated in petitioning Canada as well as exposing the violations committed by the former leader. In particular, the film shows the political situation in Chad from two perspectives: from the victims’ side and from the human rights perspective (Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, and Mariezcurrena 19).

One of the key advantages of a joint focus is that it reveals the urgency of the case. By outlining the struggles of the Chad residents, the film reached out to the feelings of the viewers. Displaying the tormented victims, widowed families, and poor societies was essential to invoke the much-needed uproar at the inhuman conditions facilitated by Hissène Habré during his period in office. On the other hand, recording the relevant human rights violations and dealings shed light on the administrative needs that had to be tackled before justice could be realized for the people of Chad (Brody 34). Putting together both viewpoints created a critical and pressing picture that held the possibility of grabbing the interest of the global community. It is essential to note that most of the agencies and organizations accountable for maintaining peace get serious reports from different countries on a frequent basis. The Chad issue is just one of many human rights cases that demand attention and backing (Roht-Arriaza et al., 25). Given the deficiency of finances and human staff, it was necessary to present an overall perspective to guarantee that the case would be given the highest priority. Presenting only one side of the case would be equivalent to being biased towards one aspect. This does not serve the planned purpose. Having a joint focus in the documentary also justifies the hefty expenses and allocation of resources to the Habré case. Brody and Souleymane collaborated with a single goal to show the way international treaties and laws were being desecrated in Chad. They also illustrated the physical and mental injuries of the actual victims (Edward 16). The addition of Souleymane worked to introduce an element of legitimacy to the struggle for justice. He was a direct victim of the torture during Habrés’ reign having endured physical assault in the process. He also contributed greatly towards facilitating the reinforcement of the human rights environment within Chad by joining the Chadian Association of Victims of Political Repression and Crime. This and other agencies championed for the realization of human rights on behalf of the Chad citizens. However, Souleymane plays a bigger role in the film by acting as the voice of the victims. In the film, Brody noted that Habrés’ case was taking too long because of Chad’s insistence that it could conduct its own free and fair trials against the perpetrator. However, little had been done in the time Chad had taken control of the case (Edward 47). This ensured Souleymane became a very significant advocate for human rights.

By bringing together the roles of the victims and that of human rights entities, The Dictator Hunter shows the best of both worlds and this makes it a comprehensive work. In the video documentary, the presence of Reed Brody has several positive implications. One, he acts as the legal face of the whole account. Brody had the necessary legal experience in international human rights cases and this was important in handling the Habré case. The African setting in which Brody’s case presented itself required the contribution of an experienced attorney. Additionally, Brody’s character and current position was also vital in following up with the case. He was fully devoted achieving realizing justice for the people of Chad to a degree that he declined an opportunity to work with United Nations.

 

Works Cited

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Brody, Reed. The Victims of Hissène Habré Still Awaiting Justice: Chad. New York, N.Y: Human Rights Watch, 2005. Print.

Edward, Halle. The Prosecution of Criminal Responsibility under International Law: Political Repression and Dissent in Chad, the Case of Hissene Habre, the Creation of the Extraordinary African Chambers. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2014. Print.

Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, and Javier Mariezcurrena. Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.

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Winter Precipitation

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Winter Precipitation

Introduction

California has a large number of climate zones, with the frost dates varying across the small areas. It is important to note that the historical data provided by the United States national weather service provides relatively accurate and reliable information on the approximated dates of frost across the different areas in the state. Research and existing records are illustrative of the possibility of continued intensification in the hydrological cycle due to the increase in greenhouse gas effects. Observations are indicative that of the increase in precipitation trends as well as other hydrological variables such as evaporation.

Temperature data

According to the United States climate data, average temperatures ranged from highs of 75.3°F and lows of 47°F. In addition, the temperatures, based on the records provided, were on a gradual decline as the months moved into the winter period. In the state of California, the Mediterranean climate is divided into three distinctive patterns (Chung 29). The first variation is cool summer and cool winter climate located on the coast and in Sierra Nevada’s western slopes. The second variation is along the coast whereby there is a frequent summer fog. The third variation is in the interior valley marked by hot summers and relatively cool winters. A majority of the precipitation takes place during the winter months as opposed to summer, which is considered as unusual when compared to other parts of the world.

Precipitation Data

The data presented is indicative of the increase in levels of precipitation that is correlated with high levels of evaporation all of which are attributable to greenhouse gas effects. Annual precipitation levels of rainfall were at an average of 26.61 inch. The driest weather is experienced in the month of July when the average rainfall reaches an estimated 1.3 mm (0.1 in). In addition, the wettest month is January when the rains reach an estimated 132.6 mm (5.2 in).

Precipitation and Temperature

The relatively mild temperatures and winter rainfall of Mediterranean climate supports a relatively high number of animal and plant species in the state of California (Kahrl, and Roland-Holst 15). On the other hand, the desert climates of California rival the Mediterranean climate in terms of richness of animal and plant species. The topography in the state of California is associated with the distinctive and varied climate conditions across different areas. Chico, located on the Sacramento valley should anticipate floods and other natural phenomena in the event of El Nino rains given that it is a low lying are that experiences cool summers and relatively friendly precipitation levels as identified in the records.

Conclusion

Research reports are indicative of the increase in intensity in both precipitation and temperatures in the winter or summer months in California (Kahrl, and Roland-Holst 27). This is largely attributable to the extensive industrial activities taking place within the state resulting in high incidences of overly hot climates during the dry months of summer and overly high precipitation levels in the winter or wet months, mainly in July and January respectively. The shifts in climate in the state of California and more so around the United States can be associated with increase in incidences of pollution and global warming because of excessive production of gases by industrial and domestic activities. In addition, the variations in climate conditions around the state are attributable to the presence of different landscapes, which enhance altitude that influences the temperature and precipitation experience across the state.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Chung, Francis. Using Future Climate Projections to Support Water Resources Decision Making in California. Sacramento, Calif.: California Energy Commission, 2009. Print.

Kahrl, Fredrich J, and David W. Roland-Holst. Climate Change in California: Risk and Response. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. Print.

 

 

Reading Summary The Garden and the Red Barn

Reading Summary

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Reading Summary

 The Garden and the Red Barn

This article discusses pastoralism and land use within the United States. Of particular concern is the attitude towards environmental management. Previously, little attention was given to countryside landscapes. The paper sought to reexamine the popular notion of contemporary pastoralism using two concepts: the garden and the red barn (Schauman, 1998). The essay uses a massive a mount of visualization techniques and this has the effect of convincing the reader by painting a vivid picture in their minds. The organization of the paper took a chronological approach that delved into the history of land use. The constant degradation of natural landscapes by agricultural activities is a process that has been occurring for over five decades. The relevance of the chronology was that it revealed the progress of decline in appreciation of natural landscapes. The reader has an opportunity to understand how civilization contributed to the change in environmental perceptions. The prediction that the future American generation will have little connection with the countryside is true. Using the historical trends, the paper was able to make an accurate estimation that real countryside will be replaced with fabricated and artificial ones. The author’s explanation includes an aspect of intentional ignorance of the dilapidated landscape that is in line with other related studies on the same topic. My personal opinion of the article is that it was elaborate, accurate, and relevant to the topics of public spaces and geography. The authors took great care in organizing their arguments on the need to preserve natural landscapes and regulate agricultural activities. I think that the data provided in the study is enough proof of the need for the current generation to rethink their attitudes concerning the environment. However, I also felt that more wok was necessary in reinforcing the correlation between assumed perceptions of the environment and the actual natural landscape.

Reaping on the Margins

The paper discussed the development of organized garden plots that are created by small-scale gardeners as part of the traditional agricultural practices among Europeans. Furthermore, it analyzed the way in which agricultural movements have evolved within the United States. The main motivation behind the movements was the need to assist society in adjusting to tough economic times. In the paper, community gardening was singled out as the most recent form of gardening designed to institute a wide variety of benefits including patriotism, aesthetics, work relief, and appreciation for nature.

The paper’s approach towards the issue concerning nature and man was effective in that it successfully managed to relay the message that agriculture played a major role in American lifestyle. By arranging the agricultural movements in a chronological fashion, it was relatively easy to follow through with the progress. Geopolitics has always been an interesting theme for most scholars in the geography field and Thomas Bassett managed to create a strong correlation between agricultural activities, geographical locations and consequent economic activities. Most of the previous studies on agrarian economic activities equally reiterate Bassett’s idea of the progress from potato patches in 1890s to community gardens in the present (Bassett, 1981). The author was limited in comparing his work to other related studies although he mentioned other renowned contributors such as Henry Parsons who had invested heavily in the oats business.

In my opinion, the paper was very informative and thorough. It contained accurate information that was arranged in a chronological fashion. The chronology was useful in outlining the progress of the agricultural movements within the United States. I thought that the discussion on how community gardening was influential in supporting the social framework was very relevant to the studies on nature and geography. However, I also felt that several areas needed improvement. Future studies on the same topic should seek to strengthen the argument in favor of the benefits provided by nature. I felt that a greater part was still missing from the discourse.

 

References

Schauman, S. (1998). The Garden and the Red Barn: The Pervasive Pastoral and Its Environmental Consequences. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 56, 2, 181.

Bassett, T.J. (1981). Reaping on the margins: a century of community gardening in America. Landscape. 25, 2. 230.

 

Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

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Analyze the maritime aspects of the terrorist attack on Mumbai

The most noticeable aspect of this attack was that the terrorists shifted their tactics. They did not rely on suicide bombers or on the common use of bombs. Instead, they decided to use the commando-style military assault and approach Mumbai through the water.  This created a lot of fear especially for large port cities such as New York (Greenberg 31). The attackers in this case showed a certain level of sophistication and coordination. This is from the judgment carried out from the evaluation on the bullet holes that showed certain levels of precision and the unheard of maritime approach.

In addition to their ability to kill up to 500 victims, the terrorists worked together as a unit is and that is the main thing that led to their success. There was the advancement in communication as well, with most of the participants relying on the use of hand signals to communicate (Greenberg 27). Besides the difficulty and challenges in water transport, and convincing authorities on the reasons for entry to the country, these attackers faced more challenges as they were disciplined and determined. This new tactics affected the public because it increased the fear they had and due to the consistency, the activity made news that lasted for a long time.

The targets were the most crowded places, which were densely populated, multi cultural capitals and centers for media and entertainment. Research carried out to see how dependable America is in protection from the ocean, the NYPD and the coast guards agree on the impossibility of controlling all the activities at the coast (Greenberg 30). This is with regard to the large amounts of uninspected cargo that often manages to cross the border from time to time. Mumbai was a major reminder that there was urgent need for better maritime security in all big cities especially those that are adjacent to ports .It is evident that international terrorism is not going away and everyday there are new tactics and threats (Greenberg 22). The Mumbai incident encourages preparation and preparation of a solid defense, this time in all areas that have been neglected over time especially, involving the ocean.

 

 

 

 

Woks Cited

Greenberg, Michael D. Maritime Terrorism: Risk and Liability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Center for Terrorism Risk Management Policy, 2006. Web accessed 28th October, 2015

REAL GDP AND MONETARY POLICY

REAL GDP AND MONETARY POLICY

 

 

 

 

 

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Real GDP and Monetary Policy

Question 1

From the information and presumed status of the economy, there is a high inflation rate, which has given rise to an increase in the unemployment levels in the country. Furthermore, this is also reflected in a slowdown in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. An expansionary approach would provide the government with a means of inducing production and more so the exports into new markets through a variety of measures[1]. The government may undertake a variety of measure such as the purchase of existing securities in the open market; reduce the interest rates and the reserve requirements for financial institutions and credit facilities. Increasing the gross domestic product accruable to the country would focus primarily on inducing exports by enabling new capital investments after the reduction of existing reserve requirements. Purchase of bonds by the government would result in an increase in the prices of bonds within the securities market and in the process contributing to a decline in interest rates.

Lower interest rates would attract new capital investments into various segments of the economy resulting in an increase in employment levels[2]. An increase in demand for goods and services due to relatively low costs of operation results in decline in unemployment levels due to new production opportunities for investors. Furthermore, the demand for the Australian currency results in increase in demand for foreign currency resulting in a favorable exchange for the Australian economy, all of which contributes to enhanced balance of trade.

Question 2

The interactions between interest rates in an economy and the components of aggregate demand (AD) namely consumption of goods and services, investments, government expenditure exports and imports can be understood to be linear[3]. The reduction of interest rates is usually driven by the need to induce demand for exports and attract capital investments into an economy with the aim of inducing increase in gross domestic product, exports, and enabling growth of employment opportunities. The purchase of securities in the market can provide the federal government with an effective means of reducing interest rates.

In essence, consumers as well as investors tend to save funds because of decline in confidence over the possibility of positive returns from various investments such as the securities market. this means a reduction in money supply as a large number of the population is unwilling to spend resulting in decline in employment levels and increase in imports given that goods produced in the economy are relatively expensive to produce under existing market conditions. On the other hand, it is important to note that lowered interest rates may not be effective in curbing a recession.

Essentially, interest rates affect all types of businesses, whereby the presence of relatively low or favorable interest rates, businesses, and individuals are able to access finance or credit at cheap rates[4]. The aim of reducing interest rates is usually to induce purchases and expenditures in the population. Low interest rates enable access to cheap credit for investors who may utilize this to undertake capital investments for production of different goods and services. Low interest rates are synonymous with reduced costs of doing business within a given economy, which are passed on directly to consumers in both local and foreign markets in the event of export of goods and services.

 

Bibliography

Galí, Jordi, and Mark Gertler. International Dimensions of Monetary Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Jorda, Oscar, Moritz Schularick, and Alan M. Taylor. Financial Crises, Credit Booms, and External Imbalances 140 Years of Lessons. Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010.

Kannan, Prakash. Credit Conditions and Recoveries from Recessions Associated with Financial Crises. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2010.

Mishkin, Frederic S. Monetary Policy Strategy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2007.

Semmler, Willi. Asset Prices, Booms and Recessions Financial Economics from a Dynamic Perspective. Berlin: Springer, 2006.

 

[1] Jordi Galí and Mark Gertler. International Dimensions of Monetary Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009) p.23.

 

[2] Willi Semmler, Asset Prices, Booms and Recessions Financial Economics from a Dynamic Perspective (Berlin: Springer, 2006) p. 31.

 

[3] Frederic S. Mishkin, Monetary Policy Strategy (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2007) p.33.

 

[4] Oscar Jorda, Moritz Schularick, and Alan M. Taylor. Financial Crises, Credit Booms, and External Imbalances 140 Years of Lessons (Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010) p.44.