Power, Politics, and Knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

Power, Politics, and Knowledge

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Question 1

Steven Luke uses his theoretical perspective of the three dimensional models of power with the main intent of highlighting the various factors integrated in this feature as a major concept in organizational and societal developments. In his discussions, he emphasizes that power is a multi-faceted factor that has a close connection with democracy despite the conflicting nature of the concepts. Based on his argument, power is an influential factor in any social setting. For this reason, powerful individuals have the ability to alter the thoughts and behaviors of other people in a particular decision-making process (Lukes 2009, 27). The policies and values preferred by the person in such a powerful position overrides the interests of his or her subjects. For example, political leaders use their positions and acquired resources to block any policy that would deter them from meeting their personal needs.

In the three-dimensional view of power, Luke indicates that power may result in the manipulation of other people’s psychology. This is a form of institutionalized supremacy, which individuals in various positions utilize to modify the perception adopted by persons within his or her jurisdiction on reality. This leads to a state of latent conflict (Lukes 2009, 35). This environment has no notable differences between the influential individuals in the society and those outside the authority structure. This state of affairs puts emphasis on the paradox between power and democracy. While power involves the utilization of one’s position and the available resources to promote a particular policy or value that allows one to meet his or her personal needs, the latter concept encourages the adoption of techniques that disallow destructive conflicts in different settings (Lukes 2009, 47).

As I evaluate these philosophical perspectives, I cannot help but relate Luke’s concepts to the key principle in modern advertisements. Various commercial organizations use marketing tools and tactics that compel customers within the targeted market segments to consider these products as the only viable alternatives in the market. For instance, McDonald’s portray their products and services as the most appealing in the market. Although the general population is aware of the health risks associated with such foodstuffs as French fries and burgers, this company continues to record an overwhelming sales percentage on a daily basis. Accordingly, the manipulative nature of power is one of the aspects that best explains such situations. In these promotion tactics, they portray a situation where the targeted customers use their independence to choose the products. This relates to Luke’s theory, which links democracy and power (Lukes 2009, 49). Furthermore, as this philosopher explains on the use of one’s supremacy to alter the perceived reality in a societal subgroup, McDonald’s uses effective techniques in modifying the perception of the general population on the health aspect of its goods.

Question 2

Machiavelli uses certain social values and principles to justify his position on power and the suitable techniques that individuals in various authoritative positions should adopt in order to succeed in attaining their preset objectives. To begin with, he refutes the conventional claim regarding the need for a leader to execute his or her official duties in a manner that concurs with the moral principles promoted by the society (Machiavelli 2013, 89). According to his argument, it is irrational to establish a moral basis for the evaluation of the legitimacy of power utilization.  In addition, he equates the influential nature of power to supremacy.

For this reason, the societal and political settings dictate that those in powerful positions rule those outside the authority-based structure. However, the attainment and maintenance of this supremacy is not because of the activities of the individual under consideration, which the community considers as morally acceptable. For example, a political leader may rule for several continuous terms despite the existing competition and questionable moral values (Machiavelli 2013, 90). This is because his or her tactics focus on acquiring a broader and more stable foundation of power as opposed to seeking approval from the community based on his or her goodness.

In addition, this philosopher argues that comprehension of the most effective means of utilizing power will increase one’s influence in the society. Based on this notion, a successful leader uses his activities to persuade his or her subjects to obey the proposed policies. This aids him or her to maintain his position for along period.  In addition, Machiavelli asserts that the coercive force within the reach of the political rulers is one of the chief factors that result in the adherence of the formulated laws (Machiavelli 2013, 110). In most cases, the general population does not follow the formulated laws because of their relation to the society’s moral values or essence in meting their personal needs but rather consider the possible consequences that may arise from questioning these policies. This fear is in accordance with his supposition that shows the inevitable use of violence in such situations. For example, the national laws formulated by political leaders may recommend the loss of life or certain privileges for people who do not follow the set rules. This shows the effectiveness of using violent techniques cautiously as a ruler (Machiavelli 2013, 111).

This theoretical perspective relates to the legal principles governing the political and social domains in a nation. I now understand why the structures of all political parties hardly use moral values to enhance their influence in the community. For example, in the United States, political leaders use political parties such as the Republican and Democrat to obtain and maintain significant positions in the country’s political system. At times, the values of these political entities differ with the conventional moral values although this aspect does not have a significant effect on the perception of the public about the candidates and the entire political sphere. For instance, these major political parties have a larger base of supporters in certain ethnic communities and social classes. Although this is against the basic value that discourages discrimination, the general populace continues to adhere to the parties’ operational mechanisms.

Question 3

The objectives of any commercial organization revolve around the need to increase their market share and the subsequent returns. This is only possible by aiding the targeted customers to understand that the offered products are the best alternative in the market (Storey 2009, 40). Accordingly, the marketing principles used by the business institutions aim at using the concept of persuasion to acquire the benefits of power without employing the coercive force. In the workplace, the human resources ought to understand that obtaining power does not equate to dictation. It is an effective approach of influencing the decisions and behaviors of the employees in different positions within the corporate hierarchy while still acknowledging their contributions to the development of the company. For example, the formal model of supremacy offers a manager the power to reward or punish an employee depending on his or her behavior. The approach used by the supervisor depends on his or her evaluation of the mistake so long as the decided act is in accordance with the policies governing the company (Storey 2009, 45)

In my view, these arguments justify the need for all the human resources to acquire and improve their persuasive skills within the organizational setting and other platforms that facilitate career development. These skills are not only efficient in attaining the trust of the customers but they will also be useful in creating and maintaining cordial relationships with one’s colleagues and the senior management. In addition, the personal goals of an employee should consist of the increase of one’s influence and power. This is only possible through the attainment of the persuasive skills, which are essential at the team and organizational levels.

As a college student, I have observed the impact of persuasion from a personal and team perspective. To start with, perseverance is an attribute required for successful leadership and the subsequent attainment of persuasive skills. This resilience propels other individuals to modify their behaviors in order to facilitate the accomplishment of your objectives. This explains why this attribute has a clear link with the concept of teamwork. As I have learnt from my personal experiences, it is difficult to perceive failure as a developmental platform without the help of other people. Furthermore, proper communication tactics enhances one’s sense of persuasion (Storey 2009, 51). This is in accordance with the correlation between power and communication.

 

References

Lukes, S., 2009. Power: a radical view. New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Machiavelli, N., 2013. Il principe = The prince. Milton Keynes, JiaHu Books.

Storey, R., 2009. Perfect persuasion. London, Random House.

 

 

 

 

 

 

IKEA Supply Chain Issue

IKEA Supply Chain Issue

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IKEA Supply Chain Issue

Historical Background

For any business organization, the supply chain is important as it ensures the production of goods and services offered. This management can be defined as the process through which supply materials moves from the source to the customers and the control measures that are implemented to ensure that this is achieved (Arrigo, 2005). Several activities are synonymous with this management. They include manufacturing, transportation, purchasing, supply planning, customer service and supply management. Companies are expected to comply with the proper practices that are conducted in the supply chain management in order to assure the products and services meet the commercial standards as well as other related activities that follow. IKEA is one of the companies that have been unfortunate to encounter a supply chain issues regarding its products.

IKEA is a world-renowned furniture-producing powerhouse based in Sweden. 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprand founded it in 1943 (Yoo-Nah Hahn, 2015). Its locality at that time was in Agunnaryd. The capital for establishing this company was from money that Ingvard has been give by his father for performing well in school. He started the company with sales of small stationery items such as wallets, watches, and pens at affordable prices (Arrigo, 2005). There was a mail ordering service, which was incorporated in the company sales stock. It began selling furniture in 1953 after the first showroom event was conducted. In the past, the company has maintained a reputable customer service with no issues cropping up concerning supply chain management until recently, in 2013, when the company was involved in a meatball scandal whereby traces of horsemeat were discovered.

Origin of the Issue

The issue concerning the meatball originated from the suppliers known as Gunnar Dafgard AB Company, which is a frozen food company, located in Sweden. The meat was tested the Czech authorities who discovered that it contained horsemeat yet the ingredients indicated the meatballs were processed from pork and beef (Arrigo, 2005). The Czech State Veterinary Administration stated that the horsemeat was found in one of the 1 kg packs of meatballs labeled Kottbullar. One further investigation, it was discovered that an approximated 760kg of meatballs were contaminated with horsemeat.

According to the supplier, Gunnar Dafgard AB, the meat was contaminated from the slaughterhouses located in Poland where they sourced their meat before processing it. The credibility of the source was questioned because the Poland slaughterhouse provided Dafgard with meat supplies that were approximated to be 5% of all the meat supplies the company orders (Jonsson, Rudberg & Holmberg, 2013). In a press conference, a Dafgard spokesperson expressed that the company failed to understand where the crime was committed along the supply chain and it has taken the matter to the authorities for further investigation to be conducted. He also stated that the company has taken precautionary measures that will prevent any similar occurrences in the future.

Measures to Solve the Problem

Dropping Suppliers

Several procedures and measures have been implemented as an action plan developed by IKEA’s supply management team in dealing with the scandal. Firstly, simplification of the supply chain has been achieved (Michael Sayeau, 2009). This was done to ensure that there was reduction of incidences of complicated flows and the company could achieve more control flows. To validate this, the company dropped an approximated 19 suppliers that failed to meet the standards in IWAY supplier code of conduct. The main reason that facilitated with action was the fact that the suppliers were non-compliant.

Quality Control

In terms of quality control, the company has implemented product audits for its suppliers to control the raw material processing and quality of the finished product. Regular audits have been increased for subcontractors and sub-suppliers (Jae-Woong Byun, 2011). With this routine auditing, the company reasons that the employees and suppliers will adhere to the standards and regulations outlined in the supplier code of conduct manuscript. There has also been improvement in terms of traceability standards. The company has placed measures which will guarantee that all the raw material provided by the suppliers undergo thorough traceability tests that ascertain their quality and compliance of the supplier to the standards of the company.

Phasing out Vendors

IKEA has focused its efforts in ensuring that all the standards outlined in the IWAY are complied to. This translates to its determination to ensure all the involved parties in the supply chain conduct sustainable practices that will further ensure product quality is achieved (Jae-Woong Byun, 2011). As of September 2012, more than 711 vendors were dropped after 993 audits were carried out by the company. Through this action, IKEA has experienced as easier process in implementation of IWAY, which has been instrumental in evaluating the compliance of all its food vendors.

Partnership with Other Organizations

The company has taken steps into developing partnerships with other organizations. The sole aim for this step is to guarantee that the suppliers are keen on the compliance of the standards in IWAY (Hultman, Johnsen, Johnsen & Hertz, 2012). One of the organizations that have collaborated with IKEA is UNICEF to work on community programmes all over the world with special focus being directed to India. The main aim of the program is increasing awareness sustainable practice and prevention of unacceptable practices such as child labor.

 

References

Arrigo, E. (2005). Corporate Responsibility and Hypercompetition. The Ikea Case. Symphonya. Emerging Issues In Management, (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.4468/2005.2.04arrigo

Hultman, J., Johnsen, T., Johnsen, R., & Hertz, S. (2012). An interaction approach to global sourcing: A case study of IKEA. Journal Of Purchasing And Supply Management, 18(1), 9-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pursup.2011.11.001

Jae-Woong Byun,. (2011). Value-based Services for Sustainable Business: A Case Study of IKEA. Journalofdistributionandmanagementresearch, 14(3), 147-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.17961/jdmr.14.3.201108.147

Jonsson, P., Rudberg, M., & Holmberg, S. (2013). Centralised supply chain planning at IKEA. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 18(3), 337-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/scm-05-2012-0158

Michael Sayeau,. (2009). IKEA Modernism and the Perils of Innovation. Modernism/Modernity, 16(3), 493-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mod.0.0130

Yoo-Nah Hahn,. (2015). IKEA and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study. Journalofdistributionscience, 13(10), 45-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.15722/jds.13.10.201510.45

Nutrition Issues

Nutrition Issues

Food and health industry is one of the biggest industries in America. Over the years, people have become more interested in knowing more about the food they eat. This follows the rising cases of food related illnesses and deaths. The rates of obesity have increased over the years, and it has become a major national problem. The government, health nutritionists, and other health practitioners are concerned about obesity and overweight problems in people, and they have raised awareness on the issue. Obesity causes many health problems, some of which include heart diseases and increasing rates of diabetes. Coupled with this is the fact that obese and overweight individuals experience loss of self-esteem. As people look at who to blame for this problem, the blame game has shifted from the government to the food companies, but rarely have people considered the fact that they are responsible for their own health.

There are many food and beverage companies in the country, but a few of them have managed to grow nationally, to become multibillion companies. The companies specialize in manufacturing processed foods and drinks. Processed foods and drinks are some of the main causes of obesity and weight increase in people. They are also responsible for causing some health problems. This is because they contain a lot of sugars, fats, and salts. These ingredients are risky for the human body, and people should consume them moderately. The companies have managed to entice people to consume the products using different means. They spend a lot of money advertising the products and making them more accessible to the people. They market the products well, making sure that they are available in many locations, and that they are cheap and affordable (1). The food companies have invested in research, and they have come up with different flavors that will entice people and make sure that every person can get his or her preferences.

People are responsible for their health. They are responsible for determining the food they choose to eat. People have changed their lifestyles, mostly because of the changing work environment and increased income. In addition, people tend to eat too much. Many people live a sedentary lifestyle, yet they continue to eat the same amount of food that people ate when they were more active. This means that they pack more calories in their bodies, and they do not utilize them. There are many campaigns in different media, which seek to inform people to eat well and lead healthier lifestyles. Fitness companies bombard people with messages encouraging them to buy and use fitness products or join fitness clubs. Despite the available information, people tend to ignore these messages, and they choose to live an unhealthy lifestyle. Parents have the responsibility of molding their children’s lifestyle at a young age, but some of them lack the knowledge. Many consumers tend to be more concerned about the taste of the products, and despite the health campaigns, they buy what they please. They do not want to hear more messages about the nutritive content of food. This happens to both the young and the old. The baby boomers are snacking just as much as the young people are, and they are choosing products with salt and fats. They are not looking for the healthier alternatives (2).

Governments have a responsibility of informing and protecting the people, and this applies to the food industry as well. The government has the power to intervene and ensure that people are more informed about the choices that they make (2). The government does this by requiring that manufacturers list all the ingredients they have used in their products. However, the government should do more to ensure that people know what they are purchasing. It should require manufacturers in the food industry to put labels advising on the consequences of consuming the products in high quantities; the same approach it uses with cigarettes and tobacco products. Healthy foods are more expensive compared to the processed and unhealthy alternatives. The government should provide more support to the farmers by encouraging them to plant organic and healthier foods.

Many people understand red meat such as beef and pork to be the main cause of heart failure and heart disease. Some people have stopped consuming red meat because of this. However, others have found a way of ensuring that people get red meat from other sources and this has led to the increasing interest in test tube meat (3). Although this may please animal welfare enthusiasts since it will mean that people will not have to kill animals, it does not do much in addressing people’s health and dietary concerns. If the test tube meat research succeeds, it will mean that people will continue or increase their consumption of red meat. Instead of investing money in this research, the government and other stakeholders should conduct a campaign that will address responsible eating. This campaign should encourage people to eat everything in moderation, and not to overdo it.

Food companies are noticing the changing trends, as people become concerned with their health. People have realized the consequences of eating processed foods, and they have begun changing their lifestyles. They are looking for healthier alternatives, such as products with less sugars and salts, and healthier fats. In addition, food-manufacturing companies are acknowledging their responsibility in addressing the country’s health problems (2). Many food companies have responded to this by creating a new line of food and drink products, which contain natural and healthy ingredients.

 

 

 

 

References:

  1. Seabrook, J. Snacks for a Fat Planet: PepsiCo takes Stock of the Obesity Epidemic. The New Yorker; May 16, 2011. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/16/110516fa_fact_seabrook?currentPage=all. Accessed April 30, 2013
  2. Moss, M. The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food. The New York Times; February 20, 2013. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/24/magazine/the-extraordinary-science-of-junk-food.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. Accessed April 30, 2013
  3. Specter, M. Test-tube Burgers; Annals of Science. The New Yorker; May 23, 2011. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/23/110523fa_fact_specter. Accessed April 30, 2013

Fundraising Management

Fundraising Management

 

 

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Fundraising Management

Part 1

Cancer Research UK is the country’s largest charity with the objective of fighting cancer. The organization supports researchers, as they develop new treatments for cancer. The organization has identified over two hundred types of cancer, and it works with different health personnel to provide kinder treatments for the patients. The organization’s efforts have helped to improve the lives of the cancer patients and increase their survival rates. It is involved in funding over half of the cancer research done in the UK. In addition, it has embarked on an education and awareness campaign aimed at informing people about cancer. It has held different campaigns over the years, such as campaigns aimed at reducing the use of tobacco. The organization has made progress on different fronts, including developing cancer drugs for different cancers, pioneering the use of radiotherapy as a form of cancer treatment, and pushing for legislation against smoking in England. The organization is a fundraising charity, and it depends on the support it receives from supporters and volunteers (Cancer Research UK-a). The charity holds different events throughout the year as a way of seeking funds, and it has made extensive use of the internet, especially social media, for marketing and awareness purposes.

The charity organizes different events for different purposes. Some of the events include Race for Life, Relay for Life, and different sports challenges. Events are an effective way of raising awareness about an issue. It enables many people to know more about the charity’s mission and vision, and if this stimulates the people’s interests, then they join as participants or they donate money towards realizing the goals and objective of the organization. Events create many opportunities for people to volunteer their services (Weinstein 2009). There are faster ways of raising money other than using events, but events help in raising the charity’s profile, and bringing in more people. Events are successful when they create greater visibility and publicity for the organization (Klein, 2011).

The time required to plan an event depends on the scale of that event, and on its complexity. Some activities can take a few weeks to plan, whereas others take years of planning and coordinating different activities. Charities have to ensure that they are able to interest people to contribute towards the event, because of increasing competition among the different charities. The most effective charities tend to be the ones with creative themes, endorsements of celebrities, or where there is a new twist that makes the event relevant to the community (Sargeant and Jay, 2009). Some events may take some time to succeed, as people take time knowing about them. Once many people know about the events and identify with the cause, they events become a success in terms of the number of people they manage to attract and the funds they are able to raise. Many charities that are concerned with health issues often prefer sports events. These types of events are often cheaper to organize compared to other events (Ilona, 2010).

The Race for Life event is a women’s only event held in the UK. Since its inception in 1994, the event has raised close to £500 million from six million participants. The Relay for Life is a community led initiative, which seeks to honor cancer survivors and celebrate life. This event is different in the way it raises funds. Different teams raise money throughout the year from their local communities, and they come together in an overnight celebration. There are different activities for the families to participate. Individual teams find ways of raising money for their teams, and team members and captains have to pay an entry fee. The charity organizes different sports challenges, which include running, cycling, and swimming (Cancer Research UK-b). The charity has a National Events Committee, which has helped organize different high profile events that have included the participation of royalty, politicians, and other dignitaries.

One of the events of the committee is Turn the Tables Lunch, which involves the participation of politicians. It has helped to raise more than £550, 000 for the charity, since its inception in the year 2000. the committee has also helped to organize other events such as the carol concert at St Paul’s Cathedral and has managed to attract her royal highness princess Alexandra, celebrity actors, and famous opera singers. The charity has taken measures to involve the entire community. Through the event of Young Art, the charity gives children and young people the chance to exhibit their artwork at the Royal College of Art, which is a prestigious venue, holding art collections by distinguished artists. The charity has made efforts to contact foreigners and expatriates living in the UK to contribute by holding special events such as the Fright & Delight and Foreign Sisters UK (National Events Committee 2011)

Non-profit organizations benefit from using the internet. The internet has become necessary for every organisation as it has become a communication tool, in addition to serving other purposes which include running daily operations of the business and managing marketing and fundraising activities (Hart et al. 2010). The charity has realised the potential of social media, and it has used this to its full advantage. It has presence on different social networking sites and other media such as Facebook, twitter, Youtube, and Delicious, in addition to having a blog and a website. During the charity’s recent campaign, which it dubbed ‘dryathlon’, the organization created Facebook and twitter accounts in addition to having a microsite dedicated to the campaign. These initiatives were intended to help those who participated in the campaign to support each other. They were a way for the organization to communicate with the participants, as it gave the participants tips on how to get funds for their campaign (Baker 2012).

Organizations have to integrate different online techniques if they hope to succeed in their fundraising efforts when using the internet (Tempel 2010). The use of social media and blogs helps in driving traffic back to the organization’s website. This is important because an effective and relevant website contains all information that relate to the company. It has more details concerning the company compared to other social media channels, which cannot hold all the information. Charities can engage the people using different social media channels in different ways. It is important for charities to do this, since it makes the people feel that they are a part of the organisations, and that they can contribute to the success of the charity. By asking questions in the social media channels, the charities compel the people to respond to these questions and to hold discussions. This enables the organization to know what the people want, their ideas concerning different projects, and their suggestions on how the charity can improve. Such discussions are an effective way of finding some great fundraising ideas (Davis 2012).

Through the internet, charities are able to contact and reach more donors than they would have using traditional methods. Social media acts more like word of mouth, whereby information travels from one person to another, without the need of engaging traditional media as advertising agents. They enable the charities to form friendships first, by establishing a fan base or followers, before asking the contacts for any help (Heyman 2011). When charities strive to develop intimate and meaningful contacts with the people, then the people feel that they are dealing with someone they know and they will be eager to participate in the charity’s fundraising efforts more actively. They will be willing to let their contacts on their personal sites know about the organization’s efforts, and this will be essential in publicizing the organization’s efforts and increasing awareness. People interested in knowing anything about the organization can visit the website. The charity uses the social media to raise and increase awareness on different issues, inform, communicate, and educate.

People can contact the organization through Facebook. Once a person becomes a fan of the organization on its Facebook page, he or she can get more information regarding the organization, such as the latest news and stories. Fans connected to the organization can share their opinions on different issues, their experiences, photos and videos. The charity has presence on twitter. It gives up dates on its activities through its twitter-feed and this enables those who follow it on twitter to know what is going on in the organization. The organization informs its followers concerning the latest news and development in cancer research and any other health issues. It also lets the customers know any information regarding fundraising activities. Through the organization’s Youtube channel, viewers see videos of past events, and of events that are happening currently. Viewers also get to see the different campaigns that the charity initiates and participates in, and the people involved in those campaigns. The Youtube channel consists of other videos involving scientific research.

The charity has developed CancerChat, which is a discussion forum where those suffering from cancer can share their experiences and discuss different issues. It has a blog, where it includes a lot of information, especially information concerning cancer research. The blog has links to different resources, where people can get more information. The company uses the blog to clarify different issues concerning health and cancer. Sponsors and other charity supporters learn more about their donations through the blog (Cancer Research UK-c). The organization has a Google+ account. It posts different articles on the account, in addition to photos and videos. The account contains the organization’s information, such as contact information, website links, and links to the organisation’s blog

Part 2

Charities need grants as means of additional funding to enable them to conduct their work and support different activities. Different funding organisations have different reasons for choosing to fund specific grants. Some of them aim to enhance research in a certain area, while others seek to find answers to problems facing humanity. Some organisations may choose to fund some projects and research, as a way of seeking partnership with an identified research institution. In this case, the research institution has the same goals and objectives, or it is interested in the same type of research as the funding organisation. It is important for the charity to understand the agenda of the funding organization, as this will determine if there is a possibility of getting the grant (Aldridge and Derrington, 2012). Wellcome Trust is one funding organization.

The trust focuses on different areas which include supporting outstanding research, accelerating the research application process, and exploring medicine in historical or cultural context. Cancer Research UK could approach the organization, since it deals with its areas of concern. Researching on cancer cure is one example of outstanding research. Cancer affects many people and despite the progress in medicine and research, researchers have not been able to find a cure. Through the fellowship schemes, the organization supports researchers who intend to create innovative solutions to problems and explore challenging questions. Cancer Research UK believes that despite the seemingly overwhelming challenges ahead, it is possible to find cancer cures. It has demonstrated its commitment towards its vision by supporting different researches which have led to great accomplishments in the area of cancer treatment.

Cancer Research UK is qualified for the grant because it is based in the UK and its activities take place in the UK, and it is an organization, and the trust awards grants through organisations. However, if this is the first time that the charity is seeking funding through the trust, the trust has to carry out an eligibility test. In this case, the charity has to provide articles of association, audited accounts for the last two years, information regarding any funding received through grants, and confirmation that the charity has not received, or is not intending to receive any funding from a tobacco company (Wellcome Trust-b).

Wellcome Trust funds biomedical science, and this includes funding for research in areas such as the spread of diseases and public health research aimed at improving healthcare. It funds the best researchers who have demonstrated the openness of trying out innovative and exciting ideas. It has established four funding schemes, which include investigator awards, strategic awards and other initiatives, PhD funding and undergraduate opportunities, and fellowship schemes. Cancer Research UK can apply for grants under the investigator award funding scheme. The organization awards this grant to researchers with the best ideas, and it gives the researchers enough support to address the health and disease questions they are researching. The Fellowship scheme provides support to scientists at all levels who are researching different projects that are relevant to biomedical sciences.

Writing successful bids has become increasingly important, as competition has increased. This has required individuals and organisations to write the bids that are of a high quality, and in a manner that will please the funding agents (Berry, 2010). The person seeking the funds has to show a need that is genuine and how the money received will go towards helping to fulfil that need. The organization should show why it is the preferred choice of receiving the funds. The funding agents need to see that the person seeking the bid has a practical purpose, in the manner of demonstrating how he or she will fulfil the objectives set. Having realistic goals is important, and it is a way of demonstrating competence and expertise.  The charity needs to have a clear purpose of needing the money, and how receiving the money will enable it to satisfy its need. Charities, however well known and big they are, should not make the assumptions that the funding organizations know about them, or that the organizations are aware of their work. The charities should explain who they are and what they do.

It is important for the charity to have a clear understanding of the funding organisation. The charity should do a background check to ensure that it is aware of the guidelines and requirements of the funding organisation, including such issues as eligibility criteria and the application process. If possible, the charity should seek to know the funding organisation, before sending the bid (Third Sector, 2012). Creating a relationship with the potential funding organisation is important and beneficial for the charity, and it can come in handy in future, even if the first attempt to seek funding fails. The charity should seek to know what the funding organisation wants, and the things they prioritise. The charity can ask for more information about succeeding at the bidding process from the organisation (Jacques, 2011). In all grant proposals, it is important for the people seeking the grant to ensure that they have presented the grant in an effective manner and that the grant is presentable and appealing, with minimal use of jargon (Walters, 2009)

The charity seeking the grant has to include its budget in the proposal. The budget should be realistic, and it should reflect the needs, goals, and objectives of the charity. The funding organization ensures that all the charity will use all the money in the budget for the intended purpose. Charities should ensure that they do not ask for more money than they need (Orlich, 2005). The charities have to demonstrate competence, since the funding organization seeks to establish whether they have the necessary skills required to handle the funds. Some charities are tempted towards reducing their budget estimates and they write very low amounts. While this may seem reasonable, it may work against the charities. If the charity succeeds in its grant proposal, it will end up getting insufficient funds. However, the people reviewing the grants are experienced in many fields of research, and they can estimate the budgets for specific projects. This enables them to know when charities are undervaluing their projects (Driver, 2010). The trust sets up a decision-making committee, which include experienced and knowledgeable scientists, who have gained a lot of experience in research (Wellcome Trust-a). Therefore, the committee is able to discern the seriousness of the proposal and the competence and level of commitment of the person seeking the funds.

Wellcome Trust has set some terms and conditions, which the charity or other group receiving the grant has to meet. The trust receives many grant applications and it assesses all the applications competitively (Wellcome Trust-a). The charity has to ensure that it meets the criteria for its proposal to succeed. The committee making the decision on the award can decide on several options. It can decide to award in full, in which case it awards the applicant the funds asked for, without any deductions. The committee can award the grant at a reduced level. It can give a conditional award, in which case the charity has to meet a condition set by the committee. The committee may decide to withhold a decision as it seeks further information (Wellcome Trust-a).

The charity issued with the grant has to ensure that it uses the money for the intended purpose. It has to repay any money that it has not used for the intended purpose, indicated in the award letter. The charity should have sufficient resources to ensure the completion of activities detailed in the award letter. The charity receiving the grant should ensure that it activates the grant within one year. The organization works with the budget information it has received from the charity seeking the funds. It releases funds based on the expenditure of the information received. The charity has to send in reports containing information on how it has spent the money. Failure to do this can result to the organisation suspending payments to the charity. The organisation can also suspend payments, if it is concerned about the charity’s spending. In case the charity completes its work without utilising the entire grant offered, the charity should ensure that it repays all the money that is not spent (Wellcome Trust, 2012).

The organisation does not make further payments to fund other activities that the charity might have identified. The organisation’s support towards the charity’s activities does not end once it stops paying the grant. The organisation requires the charity to submit reports showing the progress of the activities. In addition, the charity has to submit a report within three months after receiving the last payment. Other than issuing the payments, the organization has no further financial obligations to the charity. It is not responsible for any expenses or liabilities, which the charity incurs in the process of completing its activities. The organization acts in discretion, and it has the authority and legal right to terminate issued grants on notice (Wellcome Trust, 2012). The trust supports open access, and it requires all the scientists funded to have their research available online for free. Scientists who fail to do this risk losing the last grant payment (Alok, 2012)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Aldridge, J. and Derrington, M. A., 2012. The research funding toolkit: How to plan and write successful grant applications. London: SAGE

Alok, J. (2012). Wellcome Trust will penalise scientists who don’t embrace open access. [online] Available at <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/jun/28/wellcome-trust-scientists-open-access> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Baker R., 2012. Cancer research UK ask supporters to ‘go dry’. [online] Available at: <http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/cancer-research-uk-ask-supporters-to-go-dry/4004955.article> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Bauer, G.D., 2003. The “how to” grants manual: successful grantseeking techniques for obtaining public and private grants. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group

Berry, D., 2010. Gaining funding for research: a guide for academics and institutions. McGraw-Hill International

Bray, I. J.D., 2010. Effective fundraising for nonprofits: real-world strategies that work. Berkeley: Nolo

Brick, P., Kall, A., Jarvinen, J. and Flennes, T., 2009. Granting success: lessons from funders and charities. [online] Available at < http://evpa.eu.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/NPC-Granting-success-Lessons-from-funders-and-charities.pdf> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Cancer Research UK-a. Our story: a courageous spirit drives us all forward. [online] Available at <http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/who-we-are/our-story/> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Cancer Research UK-b. Support us: events. [online] Available at http://supportus.cancerresearchuk.org/events/> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Cancer Research UK-c. Contact us: keeping in touch. [online] Available at <http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-us/contact-us/Keepingintouch/> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Davis, E. 2012. Fundraising and the next generation: tools for engaging the next generation of philanthropists. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Driver, M. C., 2010. Guidelines for writing successful grant proposals for nonprofit organizations: jumpstart your vision: a basic guide to beginner grant writers. Bloomington: AuthorHouse

Gitlin, N.L. and Lyons, J.K., 2004. Successful grant writing: strategies for health and human service professionals. New York: Springer Publishing Company

Hall, S.M. and Howlett, S., 2003. Getting funded: the complete guide to writing grant proposals. Portland: Continuing Education Press

Hart, T., Greenfield, M. J., MacLaughlin, S. and Geier, P. H., 2010. Internet management for nonprofits: strategies, tools and trade secrets. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Heyman, R. D., 2011. Nonprofit management 101: a complete and practical guide for leaders and professionals. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Hogan, C., 2008. Prospect research: a primer for growing nonprofits. Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Jacques, E., 2011. How to write the perfect funding bid. [online] Available at <http://www.guardian.co.uk/voluntary-sector-network/2011/mar/21/perfect-funding-bids> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Klein, K., 2011. Fundraising for social change. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Koch, S. D., 2009. How to say it: grantwriting: write proposals that grantmakers want to fund. Penguin Group US

Miner, T.J. and Miner, E.L., 2008. Proposal planning and writing. Westport: ABC-CLIO

National Events Committee, 2011. High profile events in aid of cancer research UK: current events. [online] Available at <http://www.nationaleventscommittee.org.uk/foreignsisters.html> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Orlich, C.D., 2005. Designing successful grant proposals. Virginia: ASCD

Owens, J., 2013. Cancer research UK hunts for social media support. [online] Available at http://www.prweek.com/uk/news/1181692/cancer-research-uk-hunts-social-media-support/ [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Sargeant, A., and Jay, E., 2009. Fundraising management: analysis, planning and practice: Oxon: Routledge

Sargeant, A., and Wymer, W.W., 2008. The Routledge companion to nonprofit marketing. Oxon: Routledge

Tempel, R. E., 2010. Hank Rosso’s achieving excellence in fund raising. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Third Sector, 2012. The secrets behind a successful funding bid. [online] Available at  <http://www.thirdsector.co.uk/Finance/article/1122797/secrets-behind-successful-funding-bid/> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Walters, W. M., 2009. Write an effective funding application: a guide for researchers and scholars. Baltimore: JHU Press

Weinstein, S., 2009. The complete guide to fundraising management. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Wellcome Trust, 2012. Conditions under which a grant is awarded. [online] Available at <http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/stellent/groups/corporatesite/@sf_central_grants_admin/documents/web_document/wtx026668.pdf> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Wellcome Trust-a. Grant decision-making process. [online] Available at < http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Funding/Biomedical-science/Application-information/WTD004051.htm> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Wellcome Trust-b. Eligibility. [online] Available at < http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Funding/Public-engagement/Application-information/General/WTD003579.htm> [Accessed 10 May 2013]

Wells, K.M., 2005. Grantwriting beyond the basics book 1: proven strategies professionals use to make their proposals. Portland: Continuing Education Press

Worth, J.M., 2011. Nonprofit management: principles and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE

 

Restaurant Emerging Trend

Restaurant Emerging Trend

The restaurant industry has witnessed several transformations over the period it has been in existence. The shift in preference and focus on healthy and ethical food products have however emerged as a strong wave of change that has affected both small and large food establishments in the industry. This emergent trend concentrates on the nutritional value of the food products being presented to the consumer as opposed to concentrating on lowering food costs or producing new products that may have negative impacts on clients’ health. While healthy food products are the major aspect of this new trend, aspects of consideration for family requirements have also been attached to the health concerns.

According to a study done by the National Restaurant Association, most modern food establishments have received increased demands from their clients for healthier options in their menus. Most clients at restaurants also proposed that increased information on the process, contents and types of food products should be provided to them (Kerr, 2009). The variety of necessary information ranged from the calorie counts in various foods to discovering fresher produce on the menu. The study also revealed that over 72% of adults were focused on changing their diets and food consumption to take in healthier options (Kerr, 2009). Most restaurants reported that this change was witnessed in the increased orders in healthful foods as compared to two years ago. Some of the most preferred diets included foods that were gluten-free, children-centered, whole grain items, vegetables and fruits. This change in perception and behavior has been brought about by several aspects (Kerr, 2009).

Increased information on food options and consequences of healthy lifestyles has been a major causative factor responsible for the increased focus on healthy foods inn restaurants. Nearly all the avenues of information globally provide consumers with detailed information concerning what they consume on a daily basis. Health practitioners and professionals in the food sector are the most prominent actors in this regard. These two sets of experts have provided endless and influential information on calorie intake, physical and psychological effects as well as cost-cutting measures and other information that has greatly change the attitudes of most restaurant clients. From features on the Internet to television shows, the message being sent by most health and culinary experts has greatly pushed many people to reconsider their consumption patterns. Television shows such as Healthy Appetite with Ellie Krieger and renowned publications such as The Best Life Diet and Younger You have inspired many people to drop the conventional famous fast foods and pick up healthier alternatives (Kerr, 2009). Within restaurants, the conversion to healthier foods has also been prompted by increased information that is listed on the menu that clarifies calorie content, fat and other ingredients (Kerr, 2009).

Economic incentives have also been a major contributor towards changed perceptions of restaurant fast foods. Against the background of strained economic times, most citizens have a difficult time allocating enough money to cater for food needs. While the general perception among many people has been that healthier foods cost more, increased information on the food costs and comparison with different stores has revealed that healthier foods are quite affordable. With the increased awareness of this difference, people have started embracing healthier food options because of their cost saving benefits. Fast food establishments previously only had the monopoly due to highly subsidized raw materials that allow them to sell most foods for a small price. Even among low-income households, the switch to healthier foods has been prompted by increased medical costs. While fast foods may be cheaper, it has been discovered that they contain grave nutritional implications such as obesity, cancers and other critical diseases. Therefore, high medical costs have also encouraged many people to take up healthier diets and this has changed the food products offered in most restaurants.

Promotion of healthier alternatives for restaurants

The best approach towards realizing increased and affordable healthier alternatives within the food industry is to promote production of healthy and organic foods. The main challenge in realizing healthier diets in most menus is the availability of organic vegetables, fruits and other animal products. This can be traced back to the federal level. At this level, the government should be lobbied to subsidize further the research and development of organic produce. The government should also be lobbied to increase the import of organic foodstuffs into the country. When the availability of organic foods can seize to be a problem, most food establishments can comfortably include them in all their diets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kerr, A. (2009). Celebrate dinner: Eating gourmet the frugal way. Springville, Utah: Bonneville Books.

Bittman M. (2011, September 24). Is Junk Food Really Cheaper? New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/opinion/sunday/is-junk-food-really-cheaper.html?pagewanted=1&_r=3&

 

Second Journal Responses

Second Journal Responses

Name:

Institution:

Second Journal Responses

James Caroll on Contemporary Religion

Over the past few decades, religion has come under a lot of criticism because of inhuman acts that have been committed under the auspices of religion. The Catholic Church came under a lot of criticism for anti-Jewish sentiment following the holocaust and more recently, Islam has come under scrutiny following terrorist acts committed in the name of Allah by extremist groups. Carroll argues that one cause of this problem is that religions denigrate each other in their claims of faith. This is especially the case for religions “based on narratives of divine revelation”. However, religions are now being forced to scrutinize themselves. Carroll claims that this self-scrutiny within the religions could be beneficial to the international arena as it could be a source of peace.

Carroll makes a very good argument when he claims that religion could be a positive force in international affairs. One key thing missing in international affairs is peace. The world always seems to be on the edge. Some regions have seen intractable conflicts lasting decades. Examples include Central Africa, the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. If peace can be achieved on a larger scale in the universe, then the world will be moving forward. Religion can be a key instrument in the quest for peace. Most religions preach tolerance and peace as the key message, and this can be used to rally the world around the cause for peace (Adolf, 2009).

Religion can also be used as a platform for dialogue in the international arena. It is important to acknowledge that in reality religion also entails political power (Stiansen). Influential religious figures such as the Pope have a lot of political power and this power can be put to good use in the international arena. This has been the case before with a good example being Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s role in ending Apartheid in South Africa. Religion has also been a central issue in numerous peace negotiations. Examples include the Camp David Accords and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between SPLA (Sudan People’s Liberation Army) and the Sudan government in Machakos.

Theories on Security

Liberalism is the best security theory for America’s foreign and defense policy. The core tenet in liberalism is the liberty of the individual. This fits in perfectly with the liberal democratic nature of domestic American politics. Spreading this ideology to the world would help improve security by creating a range of states that are all liberal, and place the same value in individual rights and freedoms as America does. Additionally, other tenets of liberalism conform to core American principles. These tenets are; the promotion of free trade, international cooperation and the protection of property rights (Schmidt, 2012).

Liberalism is synonymous with the spread of democracy. This is because political rights are a large part of the individual rights that are emphasized by liberals. Spreading democracy can be a strong defensive policy for the United States because it could bring democratic peace. The democratic peace theory ascertains that democracies that recognize each other tend to be reluctant to go to war with each other (Nielsen, 2012). Alternatively, authoritarian and totalitarian governments are far more likely to instigate conflict either with other dictatorial governments or with democratic governments. America’s recent past is testament to this. Military operations by the United States since the end of the Cold War have mostly been against authoritarian governments. Examples include the First and the Second Gulf Wars, the Afghanistan War and the intervention in Haiti.

America’s current expansionist approach has only helped to instigate other states into action as they attempt to counter what they perceive to be aggressive action (Schmidt, 2012). As America attempts to increase her political might, states such as Iran and North Korea engage in aggressive power seeking policy to counter the threat they see in the United States’ expansionist policy.

National Laws to Protect the Environment, Food Safety and Labor Standards

Increasing awareness on the global climate, along with the recent global economic recession, has led to a lot of scrutiny of the world’s free trade policies. Most of the criticism of free trade targets the detrimental effects that the system has on developing countries. Firstly, international corporations take advantage of free trade agreements to shift their bases of production to regions with cheap labor (Shah, 2006). The treatment of workers in these third world countries has been horrible. The publicized case of Nike’s treatment of its workers in Vietnam, China and Indonesia is a good example of this. Additionally, this practice takes away employment chances from people in the developed world. Trade systems should be changed to make sure that countries are able to prioritize the employment of their citizens and to protect their citizens from exploitation as workers.

Countries should also be able to create national laws to protect themselves from exploitation by rich countries. The richer countries are often seen to apply free trade policies that will protect them from their industries but allow them to take advantage of poorer states. For example, Europe and North America subsidize their farmers and make it hard for the developing countries to export food to them. States in the developing world, on the other hand, are often pressured to remove subsidies by the World Bank (Shah, 2006). Additionally, aid sent to the impact of aid sent to the third world is negated by subsidies in the first world and the debt in the third world. Lastly, allowing developing countries to develop their own laws to govern trade can help them achieve food security, as they will be able to prevent the influx of food imports form the developed world (Shah, 2006).

End of Poverty

The End of Poverty is a documentary by Phillipe Diaz that seeks to establish why there is so much poverty in the world despite the wealth in the developed world. The documentary traces the growth of poverty from the 15th century and the age of colonization. Through interviews with economists, politicians and historians, Diaz establishes that the poverty is the result of exploitation of the third world by the developed world. One thing that the documentary shows is that globalization has had a detrimental effect on the third world. The rapid globalization of the world has meant that developing states have found themselves competing with the developed world. The latter has an obvious advantage and continues to come up with different ways to exploit and profit from the third world, while allowing poverty to spread at an alarming rate.

The film portrays globalization in a negative way. It shows how the process of globalization has led to an increase in poverty due to exploitation of the third world by states in the developed world. Proponents for globalization would disagree with the documentary’s core views. This is because globalization has helped develop the world and brought along numerous technological advancements despite all the negative effects. Globalization has also fostered international cooperation by making communication between countries easier and encouraging the spread of cultures to foreign lands.

The Ecological Footprint

The Ecological Footprint is a documentary by Dr. Mathis Wackernagel that explains the concept of the ecological footprint. The documentary explains how the human race is affecting the environment. Dr. Wackernagel’s theory is that the biosphere in which we live is getting smaller as the human race advances technologically. He explains that the ecological footprint is an accounting tool, similar to what is used in economics, which can be used to keep track of the impact that the human race is having on the environment. The primary idea is that the human race is using resources on earth faster than they can replenish themselves and this is driving the world into “ecological bankruptcy”. Ecological bankruptcy is a situation similar to financial bankruptcy where the world literally runs out of resources as well as the space to produce more of the replenished resources.

The main solution that Dr. Wackernagel suggests is an accountability system that can be used to keep track of the amount of resources used per person, country and region. This system of accountability is what he calls the ecological footprint. The main idea is that this system can be used to show how much action needs to be taken to mitigate the degradation of the environment and possibly help reverse the effects of the degradation. The ecological footprint can be used to calculate the amount ecology that is left for use and this could help prevent ecological bankruptcy. The use of this accountability system could help the United States prevent the impending ecological disaster. Dr. Wackernagel explained that the world was already spending more money than it has and this is especially the case for the US. The nation’s lack of accountability in financial matters suggests that there is need to develop a system to ensure ecological accountability.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Adolf, A. (2009). Peace: A world history. Cambridge: Polity

Carroll, J. (2003). Why Religion Still Matters. Daedalus, 132(3), 9-13.

Nielsen, R. (2012, May 24). Theory of Peace. Retrieved from http://robertnielsen21.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/theory-of-peace/

Schmidt, B. (2012). Theories of U.S. Foreign Policy. In M. Cox and D. Stokes (Eds.), US Foreign Policy (pp. 5-20). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shah, A. (2006, March 31). Criticisms of Current Forms of Free Trade. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/article/40/criticisms-of-current-forms-of-free-trade#ErodingWorkersRights

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why Difficult Poems such as these are “Worth the Effort”

Name:

Course:

Lecturer:

Date:

Why Difficult Poems such as these are “Worth the Effort”

Some poems are difficult, and many people tend to avoid reading them or trying to understand their meaning. Poems are one of the best ways of capturing history, the poet’s perception of the world, and people’s concerns and worries. They give the poet the chance to practice different skills and styles in poetry, in addition to exercising his creative abilities. Most of the poets who have decided to deal with complex and difficult poems, often deal with the complexities of life. They find that the only way that they can present the hard and often complex situations in life is through poetry. Others use the poems to express their displeasure over certain things. They may want to complain about the affairs in the country or the changing nature of the society. Some of the poetry becomes difficult when the poets try to talk about controversial topics in their societies. The poets find that they cannot find a way to navigate through the topics when using easy to read, and simple poems. By reading and trying to understand difficult poems, readers get a chance to explore the poet’s mind, while at the same time trying to understand the issues presented in the poem. The readers also get a chance to read and analyze the new forms of techniques, styles, and language used in the poem. This represents growth in poetry, in terms of finding new ways of doing things, and it serves to enhance diversity in poetry.

Ginsberg deals with sensitive and controversial issues in the poem, the howl. He expresses his concerns and ideas concerning issues such as homosexuality, drug use, and mental illness. The complex nature of the subjects he chooses to explore, and the structure and manner in which he chooses to do so complicates his poem. A person dealing with such issues certainly does not see the simplicity of life. The poet makes it clear that life is not as simple as it may seem to be, as people tend to pass through trying times and difficult situations. The creation of difficult poetry often compels the poet to try out different new styles. Ginsberg experimented by using long line in his poetry. The poet uses language liberally, to the point that he has used slang words, vernacular languages and symbolic words in the poem. Although the poem is difficult, it manages to evoke different feelings on the reader, use different unconventional styles that are not commonly used when writing poetry, and highlighted many of the problems facing the society.

Often, poets will only use one speaker in the poem, as this is the conventional way of writing poetry. However, difficult poems are often unconventional even in structure. The poets are often willing to try out new things. They do not have to depend on the traditional way of presenting poems in form of stanzas and short lines. Eliot decides to use different speakers in his poem, the Waste Land. Difficult poems often show the depths that the writers have gone through in search of ideas and materials. Poets not only depend on the world around them when writing poetry, but they also have knowledge of diverse subject areas. This is the case with Eliot, who uses the Bible to find his materials. The poet has included the use of different images in the poem, which gives the reader the chance to picture a vivid description of the events in the poem. This has allowed the poet to form a contrast between two different groups of people with different perspectives of life. The poet contrasts between the people in upper class, who spend time in archdukes, and have some level of luxury that enables them to travel to the south during winter, to the working class in the industrialized world. He contrasts the lives of those living in luxury, to those who struggle to earn skills that will enable them to live in the mechanized world.

Works cited:

Ginsberg, Allen. Howl and other Poems: Pocket Poets Number 4. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1956

Elliot, T. S. The Waste Land. Web. 2013. <http://www.bartleby.com/201/1.html>

Post-Colonial Fashion Featuring Shonibare

Name:

Lecturer:

Course:

Date:

Post-Colonial Fashion Featuring Shonibare

Yinka Shonibare, MBE is a British-Nigerian artist that lives in London and explores cultural identity, colonialism and post-colonialism within globalization contemporary context. His work resonates with the post-colonial themes. He integrates the global history from a perspective of the people who were colonized. He uses brightly colored clothes as his hallmark or trademark to explore his themes. However, he uses different mediums to explore his themes that include painting, sculpture, photographs, films and installation arts (Skilbeck 2). Particularly, he examines how identity is constructed as well as the twisted relationship between Africans and Europeans that resulted from colonization. In this regard, he seeks to explore the meaning of culture and identity today after colonization especially at a national level where he seeks to define the identity of a nation.

His work further explores fashion in different ways using the brightly colored clothes that use fabrics from African fabrics but coming from Dutch waxed cotton. This means the fabric is not an authentically African (Rosenberg 3). However, he considers it a crossbreed of different cultural backgrounds. This he considers showing how he views culture. To explore fashion, he paints the clothes brightly and stretches them onto canvases with thick painting or makes them into Victorian dresses that are then dressed on sculptures of alien figures (Bouchard 107). In other occasions, he recreates some of the famous paintings and dresses them on dummies of famous people but with the fashion taking an Africanized style instead of using their original costumes. Some of these include “Mr. and Mrs. Andrews without Their Heads” (1998) at Gainsborough and “Reverend on Ice” 2005 (Simola 202).

With the Elizabethan fashion, he is able to explore the18th century culture during the time Europeans entered Europe for the first time. When he uses the African culture as well, dressed o white dummies he is able to depict globalization, where any fashion can be won in different parts of the world (Hemmings 4). With Africans dressing in the Elizabethan fashion, it is a depiction of colonialism effects where Africans adopted the European style. Globalization is depicted by the interaction of fashion between the different cultures from different regions. This was the result of colonialism, which shows the post-colonialism times. More so, the colonial era is further depicted by some of the headless mannequins where two men are firing cannonballs that were use during the colonial era.

On the other hand, the fashion has been used to depict the woman body and its role within fashion. In his arts with 18th century women, Shonibare depicts women as people who were supposed to work in similar fields to men such as science where a woman is shown drawing a map (McNeil 4). This shows that women had some respect at the time. Unlike the Swing Painting by Fragonard where the body of a woman is depicted for pleasure, Shonibare manages to show women as respected people within the society. In the swing painting, the woman is on a swing where an elderly man is pushing her while her young lover is on the opposite side hiding. As the woman goes up, she opens up her legs to allow the young man hiding to have a view up her skirt. On the other hand, Shonibare shows women engaging in work. However, the depiction of

 

 

Works Cited

Bouchard, Jen Westmoreland. “Representations of Diasporic Unbelonging: Surrealism in The Work Of Biyi Bandele-Thomas And Yinka Shonibare.”  Migrations & Identities 1.2 (2008), 99–114. Print.

Hemmings, Jessica. “Hybrid Sources: Depictions of Garments in Postcolonial Textile Art.” The Space Between Textiles, Art, Design, Fashion 2.1 (2004): 1-6. Print.

McNeil, Peter. The Uses of History: Reflections on a HERA FEM workshop – Rokokomania – connecting the past and the present. New York. NY: Routledge. Print.

Rosenberg, Karen. Fashions of a Postcolonial Provocateur. The New York Times Art Review. New York, NY: The New York Times. Print.

Simola, Raisa. “Notion of Hybridity in the Discourse of Some Contemporary West African Artists.” Nordic Journal of African Studies 16.2 (2007): 197–211. Print.

Skilbeck, Ruth. Colonial Forces. The Art Collector.  New York, NY: The Museum for African Art. Print.

Second Journal Responses

Second Journal Responses

Name:

Institution:

Second Journal Responses

James Caroll on Contemporary Religion

Over the past few decades, religion has come under a lot of criticism because of inhuman acts that have been committed under the auspices of religion. The Catholic Church came under a lot of criticism for anti-Jewish sentiment following the holocaust and more recently, Islam has come under scrutiny following terrorist acts committed in the name of Allah by extremist groups. Carroll argues that one cause of this problem is that religions denigrate each other in their claims of faith. This is especially the case for religions “based on narratives of divine revelation”. However, religions are now being forced to scrutinize themselves. Carroll claims that this self-scrutiny within the religions could be beneficial to the international arena as it could be a source of peace.

Carroll makes a very good argument when he claims that religion could be a positive force in international affairs. The one key thing missing in international affairs is peace. The world always seems to be on edge. Some regions have seen intractable conflicts lasting decades. Examples include Central Africa, the Middle East and the Korean Peninsula. If peace can be achieved on a larger scale in the universe, then the world will be moving forward. Religion can be a key instrument in the quest for peace. Most religions preach tolerance and peace as the key message and this can be used to rally the world around the cause for peace (Adolf, 2009).

Religion can also be used as a platform for dialogue in the international arena. It is important to acknowledge that in reality religion also entails political power (Stiansen). Influential religious figures such as the Pope have a lot of political power and this power can be put to good use in the international arena. This has been the case before with a good example being Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s role in ending Apartheid in South Africa.Religion has also been a central issue in numerous peace negotiations. Examples include the Camp David Accords and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between SPLA (Sudan People’s Liberation Army) and the Sudan government in Machakos.

Theories on Security

Liberalism is the best security theory for America’s foreign and defense policy. The core tenet in liberalism is the liberty of the individual. This fits in perfectly with the liberal democratic nature of domestic American politics. Spreading this ideology to the world would help improve security by creating a range of states that are all liberal and place the same value in individual rights and freedoms as America does. Additionally, other tenets of liberalism conform to core American principles. These tenets are; the promotion of free trade, international cooperation and the protection of property rights (Schmidt, 2012).

Liberalism is synonymous with the spread of democracy. This is because political rights are a large part of the individual rights that are emphasized by liberals. Spreading democracy can be a good defensive policy for the United States because it could bring democratic peace. The democratic peace theory ascertains that democracies that recognize each other tend to be reluctant to go to war with each other (Nielsen, 2012). Alternatively, authoritarian and totalitarian governments are far more likely to instigate conflict either with other dictatorial governments or with democratic governments. America’s recent past is testament to this. Military operations by the United States since the end of the Cold War have mostly been against authoritarian governments. Examples include the First and the Second Gulf Wars, the Afghanistan War and the intervention in Haiti.

America’s current expansionist approach has only helped to instigate other states into action as they attempt to counter what they perceive to be aggressive action (Schmidt, 2012). As America attempts to increase her political might, states such as Iran and North Korea engage in aggressive power seeking policy to counter the threat they see in the United States’ expansionist policy.

National Laws to Protect the Environment, Food Safety and Labor Standards

Increasing awareness on the global climate, along with the recent global economic recession, has led to a lot of scrutiny of the world’s free trade policies. Most of the criticism of free trade targets the detrimental effects that the system has on developing countries. Firstly, international corporations take advantage of free trade agreements to shift their bases of production to regions with cheap labor (Shah, 2006). The treatment of workers in these third world countries has been horrible. The publicized case of Nike’s treatment of its workers in Vietnam, China and Indonesia is a good example of this. Additionally, this practice takes away employment chances from people in the developed world. Trade systems should be changed to make sure that countries are able to prioritize the employment of their citizens and to protect their citizens from exploitation as workers.

Countries should also be able to create national laws to protect themselves from exploitation by rich countries. The richer countries are often seen to apply free trade policies that will protect them from their industries but allow them to take advantage of poorer states. For example, Europe and North America subsidize their farmers and make it hard for the developing countries to export food to them. States in the developing world, on the other hand, are often pressured to remove subsidies by the World Bank (Shah, 2006). Additionally, aid sent to the impact of aid sent to the third world is negated by subsidies in the first world and the debt in the third world. Lastly, allowing developing countries to develop their own laws to govern trade can help them achieve food security as they will be able to prevent the influx of food imports form the developed world (Shah, 2006).

 

End of Poverty

The End of Poverty is a documentary by Phillipe Diaz that seeks to establish why there is so much poverty in the world despite the wealth in the developed world. The documentary traces the growth of poverty from the 15th century and the age of colonization. Through interviews with economists, politicians and historians, Diaz establishes that the poverty is the result of exploitation of the third world by the developed world. One things that the documentary shows is that globalization has had a detrimental effect on the third world. The rapid globalization of the world has meant that developing states have found themselves competing with the developed world. The latter has an obvious advantage and continues to come up with different ways to exploit and profit from the third world, while allowing poverty to spread at an alarming rate.

The film portrays globalization in a negative way. It shows how the process of globalization has led to an increase in poverty due to exploitation of the third world by states in the developed world. Proponents for globalization would disagree with the documentary’s core views. This is because globalization has helped develop the world and brought along numerous technological advancements despite all the negative effects. Globalization has also fostered international cooperation by making communication between countries easier and encouraging the spread of cultures to foreign lands.

The Ecological Footprint

The Ecological Footprint is a documentary by Dr. Mathis Wackernagel that explains the concept of the ecological footprint. The documentary explains how the human race is affecting the environment. Dr. Wackernagel’s theory is that the biosphere in which we live is getting smaller as the human race advances technologically. He explains that the ecological footprint is an accounting tool, similar to what is used in economics, which can be used to keep track of the impact that the human race is having on the environment. The primary idea is that the human race is using resources on earth faster than they can replenish themselves and this is driving the world into “ecological bankruptcy”. Ecological bankruptcy is a situation similar to financial bankruptcy where the world literally runs out of resources as well as the space to produce more of the replenished resources.

The main solution that Dr. Wackernagel suggests is an accountability system that can be used to keep track of the amount of resources used per person, country and region. This system of accountability is what he calls the ecological footprint. The main idea is that this system can be used to show how much action needs to be taken to mitigate the degradation of the environment and possibly help reverse the effects of the degradation. The ecological footprint can be used to calculate the amount ecology that is left for use and this could help prevent ecological bankruptcy. The use of this accountability system could help the United States prevent the impending ecological disaster. Dr. Wackernagel explained that the world was already spending more money than it has and this is especially the case for the US. The nation’s lack of accountability in financial matters suggests that there is need to develop a system to ensure ecological accountability.
References

Adolf, A. (2009). Peace: A world history. Cambridge: Polity

Carroll, J. (2003). Why Religion Still Matters. Daedalus, 132(3), 9-13.

Nielsen, R. (2012, May 24). Theory of Peace. Retrieved from http://robertnielsen21.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/theory-of-peace/

Schmidt, B. (2012). Theories of U.S. Foreign Policy. In M. Cox and D. Stokes (Eds.), US Foreign Policy (pp. 5-20). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shah, A. (2006, March 31). Criticisms of Current Forms of Free Trade. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/article/40/criticisms-of-current-forms-of-free-trade#ErodingWorkersRights

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spousal abuse and its effects

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Spousal abuse and its effects

People who are in abusive relationships find it hard to leave. They often make excuses for partners, sometimes even blaming themselves. “It’s his new job. He is undergoing a lot of pressure lately” might be an excuse for a woman who is abused and battered by the husband. In the end, what started as an occasional yelling turns into a regular battering. The husband constantly finds a reason to abuse his wife, no matter how flimsy. However, not just women are abused in a marriage setup. Men face the same problem. However, the stigma associated with it deters them to speak out. “….while at other times they tell themselves that it would be too hard to start over. They convince themselves that they do not have the financial means to leave” (Soileau xiv).

The abuse is gradual. “But I think it probably starts with the pushing, you know, pushing you back into a chair and you don’t think much of it…And then before you know it you’re getting the fists…” (MacGee 31). Spousal abuse hurts the victim emotionally, mentally and sometimes physically. An abuser seeks to control the victim. To do so, he hurts the victim in whatever way he can. It usually starts with a hurtful comment. He will bring the victim down by saying something that will injure emotionally. Over time, the abuser will feel that the effect of words is wearying off. He may then turn to inflicting shame on the victim, making them feel worthless. This, according to him, ascertains that the victim will never leave since no one will want them. Guilt is another card the oppressor uses. After all the yelling, an abuser will not take responsibility for his actions. He will blame it on the victim, making it look like if it were not for them, he would not have acted the way he did. “Saturday nights there was sure to be a fight. Either it was that Josie was ‘no fun, a man can’t be a man with such a wet rag around.’ Or it was that Josie was ‘a tramp. Why else was that guy staring at you, eating you up with his eyes”’ (Morales 561)

What is sad is that these strategies laid out by the abuser work. He will use them to his advantages and before long, the victim will feel as useless as he wants her to. The feeling of helplessness overtakes, and the victim feels that they cannot do without the oppressor. Their self-worth is shattered. They feel the oppressor is doing them a favor for being with them, without them they are nothing. A victim never seems to do anything right, no matter how hard they try. Their effort is met with constant criticism and humiliation. This may lead to anxiety, instability and depression.

When the first sign of abuse shows itself, whether physical or emotional, the oppressor might appear apologetic and even swear to never do it again. There will be a genuine show of remorse and guilt, prompting the victim to forgive. “He was crying now…he said he never could let her go that she was his whole life that he would die without her…” (Morales 563). However, once it starts, it never stops. Abuse will now seem like a solution to every difficulty faced in the relationship, a scapegoat. If a spouse questions or disagrees with a decision, harm is inflicted on them physically or emotionally. Others go ahead to abuse their spouses sexually.

“A common perception of police responses to domestic violence is that they will not take it seriously…” (MacGee 23). Victims chose to suffer in silence. They feel no one will care and that they might get blamed for it. They are also embarrassed to speak about it. People around them, mostly family and friend, tend to think they are okay and that their relationship is normal. Some tell signs would prove otherwise. Bruises may suddenly start appearing on the victim’s body. When asked, they often blame it on a minor accident mainly around the house. They will experience fear and startle easily. The victim may withdraw from family and friends. They may stop from attending social events due to the constant question about the relationship. The abuser may prevent the victim from being close to friends and family. Movement may be restricted.

Those who care for the victim are pushed aside while the victim tries to deal with the problem. There is always an excuse for not showing up to an family event. Both the family and friends find themselves lost on what to do since they might not understand what is going on and what they can do to help. Some feel like they will be meddling in the victim’s business and might end up offending them. They therefore chose to watch in silence and hope the situation does not turn to worse.

Children suffer when their parents or family members are in an abusive relationship. The mind of a child is not like that of a grownup. Sometimes they think their parent is abused because of them. They feel like it is their fault. Not being able to do anything about it makes them feel helpless. When a child lives in a house where there are constant arguments and violence, they end up not loving their environment. Going home means going back to the violence. They cannot concentrate on their studies in school since so much is happening in their head. They feel neglected and alone and feel they are alone.

No one is there to explain anything to them since they themselves are caught up in the violence and trying to deal with it. This has a long-term effect. Those children that are from an abusive background are more likely to be abusers themselves. Children learn by watching adults. A child will find that the only way to win in or end an argument is by hitting the one you are arguing with. They tend to be shy and withdrawn. Some develop stomach pains or headaches, while some wet their beds. These children later turn to drug abuse

 

Work Cited

MacGee, Caroline. Childhood Experiences of Domestic Violence. London [u.a.: Kingsley, 2000. Print

Morales Rosario. The Day it Happened: Exploring Literature. Longman, 2008 4th Edition

Soileau, Monica. Domestic Violence: The Forgotten Victiums. S.l.: Xulon Press, 2008. Print.