The Design of Postural Aid Equipment

The Design of Postural Aid Equipment

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The Design of Postural Aid Equipment

The increasing importance of ergonomics in the design of medical equipment as well as other industrial products has replaced the traditional method that focused on the clients’ needs.

Problem Statement

The article discussed the results generated by several hundred projects that were carried out using an ergonomic approach. The projects were mostly created because of earlier projects that were centered on the client’s needs. Furthermore, these projects were categorized according to different sectors. Within the sectors, most of the changes made included media redesigns, enhanced office designs, software upgrades and ascertaining that emerging technology does not obstruct usability. The major problem identified in the article revolved around the client-centered approach. Clients regularly had a pre-visualized concept of their problems to be tackled as well as a proposal of the solutions to be adopted. While design clients often outline project limits and possess pre-conceived thoughts on the way these directives should be realized, this is not a direct implication that designers should comply with the principles blindly (Prevost, & Spooner, 2012). An ergonomic approach seeks to offer solid results such as usability test results, prototypes, and task analysis. It equally offers clients access to information that is difficult to access. Many of the clients encountered in the line of duty are barely aware of the industrial information, experiences and alternatives to make an informed decision.

Drivers

One of the key driving factors in the case study is the limited amount of information possessed by clients. The greater part of project are closely monitored and influenced by the demands of the clients. However, most of these people are normally ill informed. The firm’s objectives include introducing and embracing an approach that focuses on ergonomics instead of the client-centered approach. In this particular case, the firm is interested in shifting their approach when developing the postural aid equipment (Prevost, & Spooner, 2012). The goal is to come up with medical equipment that can serve the main purpose of rectifying patient problems rather than serving the needs of the medical staff or any other stakeholders. The long-standing dependence on the prominence of the client has made it difficult for industrial actors to adopt a contemporary and effective approach.

Problem Solution Framework

The initial section of the problem solution framework involved preparing the users for the surveys to follow. The participants of the survey were categorized into four: traditionalists and experiencers, conceptualizers, and idealists. Individuals in these four groups represent different levels of acceptance and comfort with adopting ergonomic approaches of production. The study then categorized the participants into two major user profiles. Designers worked with either the therapist or the technician in the development of postural aid equipment. The second part of the problem solution framework involved data collection (Prevost, & Spooner, 2012). The first session was one-one-one in which the participants were asked direct questions concerning the way they dealt with their patients. This part of the survey collected the information from the designers and allowed the study to gain a better understanding of the way people perceived changed in production approaches.

Analysis and Interpretation

The analysis of the case study was conducted initially through written transcripts of the recorded sessions. The cognitive task analysis outlined the errors, losses in time, delays as well as hesitations. This was followed by a list of the optimal strategies applied and categorization of the issues according to their significance. Several useful ideas were acquired from the grouped information. Short-term ideas that could be implemented in six months, mid term and long term ideas emerged from the procedure.

Recommendations

One of the key recommendations involves engaging all the involved personnel in a sensitization program that will ensure they are exposed to new industrial standards and needs. The conventional approach has been in place for several decades. It is imperative that the key players are exposed to newer approaches of developing their designs. These newer techniques incorporate ergonomic concerns that have emerged and this knowledge has to be delivered to the relevant people. Another significant recommendation is adopting a flexible approach that includes a drift from the strict project timelines and scope (Prevost, & Spooner, 2012). In the past, it has been discovered that clients place great limitations on the designers. By allowing for greater flexibility, designers can come up with better solutions. The last recommendation is to ensure that research is carried out by the firm on new ways to facilitate the adoption of ergonomic standards (Attwood, Deeb, & Danz-Reece, 2004). The results of such a research can assist other players improve their implementation efforts.

Limitations

One of the key limitations is the access to production facilities and experienced designers. The quality of the results of the study is limited by the participants in the survey. During the survey and data collection process, all of the respondents were chosen from the specific industries. Another limitation is the translation of the outcomes of the study to the medical field. While the study on ergonomics has revealed a massive wealth of information, implementing it in the production of postural aid equipment will require additional technical expertise. Other limitations that emerged in the study include the unavailability of finances and insufficient time for investigation.

 

References

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Attwood, D. A., Deeb, J. M., & Danz-Reece, M. E. (2004). Ergonomic solutions for the process industries. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Prevost, M. C., & Spooner, D. (2012). Anticipating needs and designing new items rapidly – A case study for the design of postural aid equipment. Work, 41, 5274-5281.

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On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

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On War: Clausewitz’s Legacy

Clausewitz is the most enduring authority on war strategy. Contemporary theorists even his detractors have heavily appropriated or referenced his ideas towards fleshing out new ones. The Prussian was a paradox in that he acknowledged the essence ensuring his work reflected the prevalent reality all the while avoiding to be tied done by empiricism. He realized that war was irrational hence not subject to scientific conventions. The longevity of his works is attributed to his insights on the dynamic nature of war and its corresponding strategy. It follows that its concepts are adaptable to the moving target of war strategy. The overarching abstraction enables his concepts to be fluid uniting concepts that pros in opposite trajectories it follows that its primary strength downplaying of immediate practicality for the bigger picture. The hypothesis presented by Clausewitz has time and again been tested in contemporary context still retaining relevance. Proponents appropriating its ideas only have to utilize modern analogies and aphorisms to increase comprehension to the modern audience. His commitment to abstraction has rendered his seminal work open to interpretation thus characterized by differing opinions of various concepts. Some of clausewitz origin thought is often lost during translation due to the presence of problematic words. For instance, the word politik is translated to both policy and polituics. As such key clasewits assertion like the war is an instrument opf politik has varying implications. It is by no means the ultimate manual to victory in war, it is exposition on the disparate paths one can travel to achieve peace in an otherwise hostile world. Rather than elevate weapons Clausewitz reiterates the essence of humans in war. As war is an extension of politics, the battle begins in the political arena. Politics was a c onseqiuce if geography, natural resources of the given stae anmd ots population. Similarly, policy was a function of human leaders influenced by their idiosyncrasies and iqually unique situations. When reflecting historical wars the Prussian was keen to utilize the val;ues and instituions of the respective timerline in adherence to his belief in the dynamism of stratyegy. The advancement of technology has caused Clausewitz ideas to be further refined into self-sustaining subject matter. Key among these is Thomas schelllis’s work that has divorced coercion from violence elevating it as a strategic tool in its own right. Schellis use of coercion as a negotiation tactic is quintessential in an epoch where restraint is valued over aggression. The above is not prompted by [pursuit of honor rather by pragmatism. In the wake of nuclear weapons, the cost of war surpasses the glory and lot the conqueror may gain. A prominent playwright George Shaw further pursues the supposition on the futility of war by satirizing aristocrats of his day perception of war. War was elevated as a process of building character separating the weak from the strong in the purest sense of the word, survival for the fittest. Those who emerged victorious in war were recognized a benign warriors to whom the virtue of honor was intrinsic. However even in the days of the reign of aristocratic wars was still a function of politics with the nobility exploiting the peasants to achieve their ends while claiming the glory of victory and its corresponding spoils. Clausewitz posits that chaos is inherent in human relationships culminated in politics. As such war is a matter of when rather than if. As such it is the mandate of any rational leader to act first upon realizing that imminent war is inevitable in order to capitalize on its advantage. His distractors have often alleged that his theories were not conpreheisve excluding aspects of war suh culture. The above is more an error in inteprtation as his definition of state was all-encompasing. Rather than restrict its self to a sovereign entity it impliede an organized community. the trritinity of war is the central pillar that holds the character and disposition

of the populace, skill and

prowess of the military, and wisdom and

intelligence of the government.

 

References

Cohen, E. A., & Earle, E. M. (1997). Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler.

Keegan, J. (2011). A history of warfare. Random House.

Schelling, T. C. (2008). Arms and Influence: With a New Preface and Afterword. Yale University Press.

Shaw, G. B. (2004). Plays by George Bernard Shaw. Penguin.

Van Creveld, M. (1986). The Eternal Clausewitz. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 9(2-3), 35-50.

Von Clausewitz, C., & Graham, J. J. (1873). On war (Vol. 1). London, N. Trübner & Company.

 

 

Women and the Arabian Society

Women and the Arabian Society

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Women and the Arabian Society

Family

Family is at the core unit of Arab life and is predominantly in extended form incorporating uncles, aunts, and elder relations. It is the conduit of leveraging political networks, economic resources, and social relations. It is based on a patriarchic structure with continuity between the family, religion and the state unbroken. It follows that the government distributes resources through family heads reinforcing patriarchic biases and promoting nepotism. The women are faced by patriarchic impediments in every sector, the private, public, and domestic sphere.

Family is the primary political institution as elevation to the echelons of power is possible only with the support of one’s relatives. A person’s social identity is relative to their familial background. For instance, the entity of a female is derived from her patriarchal relations, the daughter of a given father, and the sister of the brother of the father (Adely, 2012). Family law is deferred to religious institutions officiated by exclusively male clerics. Civic institutions scope is very limited. The financial security of family members is hinged upon the family hence the importance of fiscally stable relatives, the elderly, and other dependents are to be protected by the family. Though there are provisions for female inheritance in the law, it rarely practiced. Some females intentionally leave their inheritance to their male siblings as a backup plan for a failed marriage. The family is a religiously revered institution mandated with maintenance of spiritual sanctity. It is tool of controlling the behavior of the respective family members.

Patriarchic Norms

Patriarchic norms are the social guidelines in the Arab world that elevate the status of males and elders to some extent, inclusive of women. The authority and the power of males are relative their age and gender (Fernea, 2010). These rights are justified in kinship terms. The females are socialized to revere their male counterparts from the father, brother, cousins to uncles. Similarly, the youth are expected to respect and defer to their elders. Upon maturity, the authority of the male adult in his respective kinship circles is validated. His clout at that juncture increases inversely proportionate to that of the elder women. Conversely, males are raised to be guardians of their female kin whilst the elders are mandated to take responsibility and protect those they supersede in age. Even younger males may have authority over their older sisters. It follows that in some communities like Saudi Arabia a woman should not venture out in the public without the accompaniment of a male kin.  A younger sibling may suffice. Patriarchic norms presuppose patrilineality where the father becomes the base of descent. It follows that even when married the wives retain their father’s lineage.

Though these laws are largely observed in Arab societies, there exist various exceptions and differing interpretations. The male patriarchic authority differs in relation to their political, influence, economic resources, and social capital. It follows that a younger brother with a successful political career may become more influential in the decision making of families affair. The authority of the uncles may become diminished if they do not fulfill their social duty of protection and provision. The father may lose authority over their sons if their health or wealth becomes declined. In the same manner, the authority of a successful aunt or warm derived from independent wealth or an increase in political clout may transcend the patriarchal guidelines. In terms of lineage, the maternal relatives may become more important if they are more influential, have imbued with more resources than their male counterparts. If any patriarchic authority is not supported with political, social, or economic resources, it is susceptible to challenge.

Socialization

The socialization entails the process through which an individual in integrated into a particular group. It gives one their identity, a sense of belonging. The individual is inducted into the group’s norms, values, and principles that guide one’s interactions, such as ways of greetings. The socialization process in the Arab world is characterized by social segregation (Four Women of Egypt Rached). The males are known to be more intimate in their greetings relative to their Western counterparts. The women go to same sex events even schools settings with few exceptions. It follows that majority of women encounter the opposite sex at the work settings. The separation is instrumental in upholding the perception of morality in the society. The women embrace the practice as an important part of maintaining their virtue. The females are socialized to be dependents economically and politically. The women access finances through their male kinship relations while the some do not interact with money at all. The women are disenfranchised as such their male relations make their political decisions on their behalf (Adely, 2012). This informs their career decisions of some educated women who prefer to stay home and nurture their children. The women are raised to respect their male relatives. It follows that they at times forego their inheritance rights to prevent discontent in the family. Being subjugated becomes normal. As aforementioned, even where the political rights of women are present, without social reinforcement they are redundant. Women are raised to compromise to maintain social stability and avoid confrontation with the opposite sex. With the exception of their male children during their formative years, every male encounter demands subservience on the female’s part.

Culture, Gender, and Power Dynamics in Arabian Societies

The Arabian culture is the arena that informs power and gender dynamics. Contemporary society has witnessed a departure from traditional values and norms that characterized the Arab world. There are changes in the familial structures and the corresponding power hierarchy, the central tenet of culture in Arabian lives is religion that also influences the power dynamics in society. Research has shown that majority of Western based perspective on the Arab world are superficial coercing conformity to their allegedly superior ideals. The above misconceptions cause Westerners to depict from the Arab society as backward. The departure from traditional norms in Arabian societies is influenced by the compromise towards economic growth.

Economic growth has shifted power dynamics by incorporating women into the workforce. To spur innovation, political organizations are forced to increase the access of women to the workforce (Wing, 2016). The power relations were previously defined in kinship terms with the male relations has full control over the life of the female. Female subordination was expected in exchange for maintenance and sustenance. The primary role of the female was child bearing and rearing. It follows that their marriages were arranged at the onset of puberty to maximum the fertility of the girl.

Every country in linked to a global economy that has codes of conduct while some can be ignored without consequences others are universal. The global society requires political maneuvering that translates in economic growth. It follows that Arabian authorities have had to adjust some of their policies to align with international standards (Adely, 2012). For instance, the age of marriages in some Arab countries like Tunisia and Egypt have been shifted to the age of eighteen. Nonetheless, some relics of the past ages persist. Hitherto, the elder males still broker their daughter’s marriage without their consent. The competitive nature of the global system even amongst the Arab nations has forced them to promote literacy among their populations. The educated females progress into the working class pool. Their recruitment into the workforce is due to necessity rather than a change in religion. In some countries, primarily Northern African countries, there has been legalization of women’s right to vote. By being allowed to participate in politics, they are innately empowered. The women have been given opportunities to run for political office.

The level of deviation from the traditional gender and power relations is informed by the degree of the respective families’ exposure to modernization and their innate social class. While religion remains the cultural compass of the Arab society, some governments has opted to interpret it liberally (Adely, 2012). The said liberal interpretation has worked toward diluting the potency of patriarchic reign in society. As some women are educated, they are able to amass wealth and subsequently autonomy. As aforementioned, the power hierarchy in the kinship family is informed by amount of resources. It follows that a woman with independent wealth or political stature may become revered than his corresponding poor male relation. The loss of innate authority by the males leads to a loss of identity destabilizing the society. The integration of modern culture has led to a change the familial structure. The power hierarchy emphasized that a younger sibling becomes subordinate to the older brother. The sibling rivalry is gradually declining as families are having one daughter and one son. The emulation of the nuclear family system proposed by the West had translated to a decline in the essence of the family in the social sphere. The family was the linkage to the public sphere, state, the domestic sphere, family, and the private sphere, civic (Wing, 2016). The family has been relegated in the power hierarchy given the decline in its communal strength. The family becoming weaker as the custodian of religious conformity it leaves a vacuum for other more fundamental groups to step up to role.

The Western analysis of Arab societies and their gender relations is compromised by generalizations. Majority of the researcher do not recognize the diversity innate in the Arab world as tribal traditions blend with religion and national legacies to form unique cultures. It follows that a study of a particular group cannot be a representative of the entire Arab society (Wing, 2016). Similarly, they do not take into account the differing social classes. The power relations are not equally distributed across society. It follows some families that desire to be polygamous are limited not because of their liberal inclinations but the due to insufficient funds. Similarly, the researchers ought to take into account individual preferences some women though educated autonomously decide to become homemaker’s fulltime equivalent to the Westerners stay at home mums. The above is not because of systemic oppression or dysfunctional socialization. Different cultures have different definitions of progress that may not necessary fit into the Western model.

 

References

Adely, F. (2012). Gendered paradoxes: Educating Jordanian women in nation, faith, and progress. University of Chicago Press.

Fernea, E. W. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: an ethnography of an Iraqi village. Anchor.

Rached, T. (Director). (1997). Four Women of Egypt [Motion picture on DVD]. Canada: Office national du film du Canada (ONF).

Wing, A. K. (2016). Women in the Revolution: Gender and Social Justice After the Arab Spring. J. Gender Race & Just., 18, 341-499.

THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE CIVIL WAR IN SYRIA

THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF THE CIVIL WAR IN SYRIA

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Introduction

The Syrian Civil War is a continuing armed conflict facilitated by various domestic parties as well as international groups that occurs in Syria. The civil strife emanated out of the Arab Spring disputes in 2011 and worsened to military conflict after the administration oppressed protestors demanding his expulsion. The two main actors in the war are the Syrian Democratic Forces, the Syrian Government, a disjointed coalition of Syrian Arab rebel groups, jihadist groups, and ISIL. All the parties enjoy considerable support from overseas actors, affirming the suspicions that the issue is a proxy war fought by the regional and global major powers. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the negative effects of the Syrian Civil War on economic and social sectors of the region.

The Syrian Civil War has had a massive effect on the overall Syrian population. It is relatively difficult to confirm the accurate death toll arising from direct warfare. However, on an average day in the Syrian War, it was estimated that over 397 Syrians died in conflict-related activities. In general, the overall casualties are approximately 50,000 people (Erlich 2014, 98). Given that Syria has a sparse population, such a massive death toll is a significant concern for the nation. The surviving Syrians exist in a state of constant terror and danger. Consequently, many Syrians have become refugees in neighboring countries in the pursuit of safety. According to U.N. reports, over 400,000 refugees have been recorded in their refugee program (Gilsinan 2015, 54). This figure is probably higher since a substantial percentage of refugees are not officially registered with the organization.

The Syrian Civil War also had a negative effect on the infrastructure as well as the country’s natural and built assets. The war approaches of both sides entail taking control of vital strategic locations. Urban areas especially Damascus were attacked by ceaseless bombing and combats. Entire districts, and, in some instances, cities were completely wiped out. This is equivalent to ensuring that thousands of Syrians were rendered homeless and without any possessions for survival in the war times. In the event that a terrible event occurs in a country, the citizens are displaced and their properties lost. However, less significant effects include the indirect economic effects of asset destruction. Certainly, the Syrian people are distracted from being productive economically. However, even if this was not the case, it is relatively difficult for public or private investment within Syrian in the absence of infrastructure. Social; instability has the effect of discouraging economic growth by instilling investor fear. In the face of a devastated economy and destroyed resources, Syrians have been forced to live in poverty even after the war quelled. Syrians are facing over a decades’ worth of economic and infrastructure reforms before they can restore their nation to its initial condition.

The Syrian Civil War has had an equally devastating effect on the regional trade within the Middle East. The disastrous civil war in Syria is questionably a major one. The economic impact of the war traversed beyond the nation’s boundaries and affected the adjacent countries. Specifically, trade is a major channel through which the impacts of the civil war are transferred to neighboring states (Erlich 2014, 25). The war has obliterated the nation’s infrastructure, restricted students from going to school, shut down processing plants, and discouraged investments and trade agreements. The economic impacts of the conflicts have mainly affected Lebanon, the country most cooperative with Syria in terms of economic activities (Kanj, & Sharara 2014, 39). Syria contributes towards the biggest part of Lebanon’s borders and therefore, it is natural to assume that any activities affecting Syria’s peace will reach Lebanon (Gilsinan 2015, 78). Trade is a central element in the economic recovery process and therefore, by restricting trade, the war had the negative effect of stifling any hopes of economic rebound. The erosion of trade ties with various other countries is a major negative aspect since, through trade, Syria would have enjoyed other benefits such as loans as well as assistance from international organizations.

In terms of socio-political impact, the Syrian Civil War has created internal displacements within its borders leading to a worrying case of refugees. The mounting security lapses have also been an outcome. After the outburst of conflicts in 2011, a large number of Syrian refugees relocated into Lebanon placing massive economic pressure on the nation. This large influx of refugees has reached a dangerous level since it represents slightly over 10% of the overall Lebanese population. These population changes have created mounting tensions with the Lebanese locals (Williams 1981, 78). Away from home, Syrian refugees have been the target of armed attacks and abductions. In the same way, Syrian refugees have been blamed by the government for the sharp increase in criminal incidents. Additionally, Lebanon has been engulfed in the conflict between refugee sympathizers and opponents (Shekelestein 2015, 56).

At the global level, the Syrian Civil War has had a negative effect on the state’s reputation. The war had a corrosive effect in terms of disrupting its relations with both the East and the West. Differences on the way to address the conflicts in Syria have created outstandingly bitter criticisms and allegations on both parties (Fakih, & Marrouch 2015, 45). Therefore, this conflict interferes with fluid cooperation at the international level particularly on diverse issues in the imminent years. These differences pitted the humanitarian stand made by the United States against the authoritarian communist states such as China and Russia (Erlich 2014, 66). The argument between these two factions generated addition conflict over the use of veto powers at the expense of human rights violations. Consequently, these disagreements resulted in further degeneration of policy relations between Russia and the United States (Gilsinan 2015, 21). Policy concerning the Syrian civil war has reveled and worsened essential disparities between the Western world and the East about many other issues including Middle East, as well as the purpose of interventions in the international affairs. Therefore, it would be accurate to conclude that the Syrian War exacerbated the ideological conflict between the East and West.

A key negative effect of the Syrian Civil War is the violation of human rights. In this respect, the violations were perpetrated by the state and rebels. However, most of the criminal activity was carried out by the Syrian government. The report by various channels indicated that over eight deliberate mass killings happened between 2012 and 2013 with the major perpetrator being exposed as the Syrian government and the opposition to a lesser extent. As of 2013, roughly 6,000 women were raped from when the Syrian War started (Phillippe, & Merton 1936, 18). It is quite possible that these figures are higher since most rape cases are officially reported. Syrian government officers were also responsible for orchestrating systematic killings of approximately 11,000 prisoners. The majority of victims were youth most of whom were withered, bloodstained and showed indications of torture. Some prisoners lacked organs, others were either partially strangulated or traumatized (Gilsinan 2015, 45). In 2014, the Syrian government was still perpetrating gross human rights violations when they torched seven rebel districts in Hama and Damascus, a region that covers over 5,300 square meters. Citizens narrated of bombs and earthmovers being used to clear residential areas.

A minor but equally significant effect of the Syrian Civil War is the drop in general living standards across the nation. This was manifested through increased crime rates and the outbreak of contagious and deadly diseases. With the spread of conflict across the nation, many cities were overrun in crime since conflict caused a breakdown in the state security machinery. By this time, most of the police stations were not functioning. The rates of petty theft escalated, as thieves looted buildings and shops (Erlich 2014, 12). Kidnappings and other crimes including extortion also prevailed. Rebel fighters took the opportunity to replenish their camps with the equipment and supplies for the war such as vehicles and food.

Conclusion

The Syria Civil War was so significant that its effects are still evident currently and it is likely that they will still be present in the future. This is regardless of the side that won or lost. The massive presence of refugees has already placed a significant financial burden on the state. Furthermore, the refugee situation has also influenced discussions with other states concerning security on Syria’s border. Political and religious tensions worsened by the war have remained elevated despite the war being over (Erlich 2014, 34). It is most likely that the conflict will influence political and international choices now and in the future. Most of the consequences are expected to be negative. Already, Lebanon and Iraq have already hinted at the displeasure with the current state of affairs.

 

References

Erlich, R. W. (2014). Inside Syria: The Backstory of Their Civil War and What the World Can Expect. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.

Fakih, A., & Marrouch, W. (2015). “The Economic Impacts of Syrian Refugees: Challenges and Opportunities in Host Countries.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs.

Gilsinan, K. (2015). “The Confused Person’s Guide to The Syrian Civil War.” The Atlantic.

Kanj, S., & Sharara, S. (2014). “War and Infectious Diseases: Challenges of the Syrian Civil War.” PMC Journal.

Phillippe, J. L., & Merton, J. H. (1936). The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelins in Syria and Cyprus. New York: Columbia University Press.

Shekelestein, S. (2015). “Syria.” Encyclopedia Dramatica.

Williams, N. J. (1981). Syria Intervention in the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1976. University Microfilms International.

 

 

George Washington, farewell address 1796

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George Washington, farewell address 1796

George Washington warned against the spirit of parties because it brought about a divide amongst the citizens of America and he had worked hard to unite them. The constitution was the base of this unity and allowed the citizens to interact and dwell in the constitution as well as to make amendments where they were needed. These amendments were for the people and not the authorities, even though he encouraged the people to respect them. George Washington had foreseen that the spirit of parties would lead to the division of the people in to geographical discriminations, the northerners, southerners, Atlantic and the western. He understood that allying oneself to a party was an inseparable natural passion, deep rooted that could not be avoided. He deeply discouraged this party spirit for other reason like, how it distracted the public council and weakened the public administration.

This spirit also brought animosity to the public with ill-founded jealousy and false alarms leading to riots and violent uprising against the government. This party passion leads to the opening of doors to foreign influence leading to the introduction of foreign policies from one country to America. This is would lead to America falling back to the colonial rule of the British from which they had fiercely fought against and gained their independence. George Washington for this reason urged the people to try and separate themselves from the passions of the party spirit, maintain government union. The government is the offspring of the decisions of the people; it should be uninfluenced and not dreaded.

Washington knew that the Europeans were jealous of the freedom that was given to the people of America and thus warned the people on allowing foreigners to influence their politics. He stated that the people should be impartial or else they would end up defending it. This statement meant that if the government over extended an olive leaf to one foreign nation then the problems of that nation would become the problems of America. He believed that the only alliance allowed between America and foreign nations were to be commercial only with as little politics as possible. George Washington also stated that Europe had viewed interest in America but had none or remote interests to the people. This meant that most of the controversies that the nation experience was mostly fueled by Europe so as to take the nation from under them whilst the people are fighting against themselves.

George Washington in his retirement speech stated that being detached and distant from situations that invite foreign influence will enable the nation to take a different course. This allows the people to remain as one under a government that operates very efficiently and serving the people. Furthermore, there will come a time in the not so distant future that the nation will defy the material insults from those nations and still maintain a neutral stand, thus earning the deserved respect. When hostile nations under the impression they can make an acquisition at America they will not lightly face the danger of provoking the nation, whether we may choose war or peace. In the speech it clearly showed what he intended for the country, to be a force of nature where the people backed by the government would fight if provoked so as to defend their constitutional right and freedoms.

Philosophy

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Philosophy

  1. Based on the notion of compatibilism, determinism is consistent with free will. Compatibilism is the conviction that determinism and free will are compatible thoughts. Based on this, it is feasible to believe in the respective philosophical facets without being rationally inconsistent. Simply, compatibilism believes that free will is well-matched with a place whereby all actions are determined by the incidences or events that precede them. Additionally, since free will tends to be normally perceived as a necessary stipulation of individual moral responsibility, the aspect of compatibilism is often seen as a view or theory regarding the plausibility of compatibility between determinism and moral accountability. Concerning the association between determinism and free will, the compatibilist claims the rationality of a possible relationship between human freedom and determinism. Accordingly, there needs to be a causal or deterministic association between a person’s will and his or her actions. If this is possible, then human beings may actually be capable of taking responsibility for their respective actions including consequences based on whether their activities are good or bad. In addition to this, the compatibilist believes that free will involves an insufficiency in external hindrances, further reinforcing the position of the connection between will and action.
  2. Undeniably, a considerable difference is evident between the statements, “x has done y freely”, and “it is possible that x could have done otherwise”. Typically, it is claimed that the proposition ‘x’ is legally or morally responsible for engaging in ‘y’. In this respect, the statement is that ‘x has freely carried out y”. Furthermore, the proposition “x has done y freely” is seen as equal to the assumption that “x could have done otherwise”. Hence, this means that if ‘x’ has tried or chosen to engage in another action apart from ‘y’, then he or she would have averted from carrying out ‘y’. Similarly, the connotation of ‘freely’ is not simple to comprehend. As a fact, x’s participation in performing y may be influenced by aspects or causative agents over which the former could not be capable of controlling. Because of this possibility, responsibility should be hinged upon definite factors of the circumstances surrounding the actions and the respective character. Alternately, responsibility may be hinged upon the agent’s responsibility. Hence, to assert that an individual is responsible for a particular action implies that he or she is legally responsible for the general repercussions that arise from the corresponding action.
  3. According to Shri Krishna, death is more of a meaningful departure than an extinction of the body and the soul. For the person capable of inhabiting his or her inner life, the aspect of death acts as a final resting place. When the consciousness of a person undergoes a divine transformation, the necessary nature of death will finally be incapable of materialization. This is because death does not cause the transformation of life. Rather, definite aspects such as peace, bliss, power, and light are responsible for altering one’s life based on the way they yearn for aspiration. In addition to this, they exude anxiety towards the provision of eternal life to human being. Interestingly, death lives as a component of the body, but it is incapable of occupying the soul. In fact, the soul is incapable of living within a single entity especially when the respective body dies or sleeps. With this, it is evident that death is merely the present tenet of decay within a person’s body. Shri Krishna convinces Arjuna that death is not evil by telling him that death already exists as a part of us since it acts as a vital component of physical nature.

The Antiwar Movement in the Vietnam Era

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The Antiwar Movement in the Vietnam Era

The occurrence of the Vietnam War succeeded in rousing different sentiments across disparate groups of people based in the United States. Even though opposition against the armed struggle in question was expected, it was impossible to predict the internal class struggles that would eventually take place between those that supported Nixon’s initiatives and those that directly stood against the respective conflict. From a completely hypothetical point of view, the antiwar movement that was constructed in the United States during the Vietnam Era was comprised of young college individuals from prestigious backgrounds who exhibited a condescending attitude towards working-class individuals and American soldiers and working-class persons that actually supported the war and declared opposition towards the antiwar movement. In the book, Hardhats, Hippies, and Hawks: The Vietnam Antiwar Movement as Myth and Memory, the author, Penny Lewis disrupts this paradigm by illustrating that working-class persons openly exhibited their opposition to the Vietnam War as much as the upper and middle classes did. Following this line of thought, it is arguable that different class groups comprised the antiwar movement and assumed an obligatory role in opposing the Vietnam War.

Under the government of Richard Nixon and the eventual implementation of the New Deal Coalition, the Vietnam War was derived as a plan established by the American government at the time in order to flout the resurgence of communism, which was rather prominent within the Asiatic region. Following the start of the Cold War within the same period, the Nixon Administration was concerned about the extent to which the Communist manifesto had spread across Asia and Europe further threatening the ideal of capitalism that the country had implemented over the years. Initially endorsed as a conflict to secure and reinforce the ideals of the United States of America, the Vietnam War as seen as an intervention carried out by the American government in order to avert the plausible incidence of a Communism-based conquest of South Vietnam. Even though this was a rational claim, the objective reason for the Vietnam War involved the implementation of a broader containment policy aimed at securing South Vietnam as a complete anti-communist ally together with countries such as the United States and the Philippines.

Hence, with the paradigm asserted by Lewis in mind, it is imperative to note that the antiwar movement was comprised of different groups that asserted an opposing predisposition against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War regardless of class disparities. The African-American and Chicano movements comprised some of the most aggressive groups that established opposition within the all-inclusive antiwar movement. Interestingly, most of the persons that constituted the respective movements were working-class even though class identity was not asserted as a core basis for mobilizing the individuals in question. The movements were most effective especially in the articulation of relationships between American imperialism in the region of Vietnam as well as aspects such as poverty and racial discrimination within the United States. One of the most popular activists at the time, Martin Luther King, Jr., within the final lap of his existence materialized as the most apparent critic of the Nixon administration as shown by his embrace of “both movements” (Lewis 93).

At the height of his life, Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke out against the evils of militarism, racism, as well as economic exploitation. African American and Chicano criticisms of the Vietnam War were grounded “in both morality and pragmatism”, which was a rather significant aspect evident in the antiwar sentiment at the time (Lewis 13). The opposition that was exhibited by the Chicano and African American movements was gained from the negative implications of the war as well as the government’s actions, which imposed an economically pessimistic impact on their lives as minorities living in the United States. For example, while protesting against America’s participation in the Vietnam War, the Chicano Moratorium Movement asserted, “millions of dollars (were) spent and destroyed in a war that brings no benefits” (Lewis 98). This assertion by the Chicano movement largely depicted the driving motivations that influenced such groups to comprise part of the extensive antiwar movement in the United States during the era in question.

Aside from the aforementioned groups, working-class servicepersons within the military also comprised part of the antiwar movement. In fact, the most consequential opposition to America’s intervention in Vietnam was overpoweringly constituted of working-class military personnel. Normally, defiance to the actions of the United States assumed numerous forms. This constituted draft resistance, collective aversion from combat, desertion, decreasing levels of enlistment, and sporadic attacks on army officers. Whereas draft resistance significantly comprised a middle-class incident, the author notes that, “deserters were significantly more likely to be from working – or lower-class backgrounds” and from bucolic regions (Lewis 120). In addition, the resistance of soldiers was considerably imperative in compelling the withdrawal of the United States from Vietnam. This form of defiance normally took place outside the auspice structure of official organizations. By traversing beyond a normal organization-based approach, the account asserted by Lewis illustrates the various forms of defiance that assisted in the culmination of the Vietnam War.

Within the boundaries of the United States, local soldiers as well as retired military personnel took part in the antiwar movement during the Vietnam War. Accordingly, the respective group engaged in organizations that declared an open opposition against the occurrence of the Vietnam War. One of the most remarkable illustrations of the respective organizations was evidenced by the conception of the Vietnam Veterans against the War movement (Lewis 159). By 1973, the Vietnam Veterans against the War was comprised of nearly 30000 affiliates and members. Even though the wealthy John Kerry was hailed as the great veteran dissenter, the faction in question mostly possessed members who constituted the American working class during the turn of the 1970s. In this respect, the Vietnam Veterans against the War engaged in a number of activities that protested America’s participation in the Vietnam War. In addition to this, the group confronted local issues such as unemployment, racism, as well as other issues of importance to its generic constituency.

To this end, the need to establish a containment platform against the spread of communism by the Nixon administration succeeded in causing ripple effects in the United States. Working class persons and soldiers saw the strategy as a plausible and positive tactic that supported the United States and its capitalist ideals. In this respect, the Vietnam War was supported by persons within the respective stratifications in the American society at the time. On the other hand, the loss of thousands of lives during the conflict with North Vietnam and its communist allies such as Russia and China managed to rouse movements that actually opposed America’s participation in the respective conflict. However, the author argues against this notion asserting that “working-class people were never more likely than their middle-class counterparts to support the war, and in many instances, they were more likely to oppose it” (Lewis 53). For her, the supposed conflict in convictions regarding the Vietnam War by working class individuals and the elite scholarly individuals from campuses and universities was simply a ploy aimed at positioning class-based struggles further obscuring solidarity based on mutual political aims and ideals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Lewis, Penny. Hardhats, Hippies, and Hawks: The Vietnam Antiwar Movement As Myth and Memory. Ithaca: ILR Press, 2013. Print.

 

Research Proposal

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Research Proposal

Problem Statement

Slavery, discrimination and social injustice are three textual artifacts that have grown to become topics of concern among many people. The terms date back to ancient times where the prevalent state of inequality and difference in race brought the development unjust actions and inappropriate treatment in the society. Research has shown that the effects of these texts have been seen over a wide range of disciplines where there are unfair practices that tend to discriminate against people of different status and race. The diversity of the effects go as far as the justice system, the political realm and the social setting where in most cases the African-Americans are viewed as the minority race.

Background

It is possible to find slavery, discrimination and social injustice as a topic of debate in different article covers, newspapers and social media platforms owing to the vast effect it has had on African-Americans over the years. A rise in the rate of injustice owes to the failure of the criminal and justice system to consider the rights of the African-Americans while implementing law enforcement.

Literature Review

Coates in the article The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration notes that the African-American community has experienced constant harassment through discrimination, social injustice and slavery as people from other races in higher social status propel their levels of achievement (Coates para. 6). Most people argue that a wide scale of reparations should be made for the African-Americans to bridge the disparities between different races and people from advanced social status.

Research Methodology

            This study aims at employing extensive research to identify the origin and relation of the textual artifacts. Research on the textual artifacts needs qualitative evaluation of the information acquired over the years. However, the best ways to collect primary data is through periodic personal interviews and through combining information acquired from the archives.

 

Work Cited

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration.” The Atlantic. N.p., 2015. Web. 23 June 2016.

The Enlightened Generation

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The Enlightened Generation

Devoid of restrictive legislations, the Asian youth strive to expand the scope of their rights given their changing dynamics demographically and economically. Forming the bulk of the new advocacy groups, they directly challenged the political status quo. The school setting facilitated the interaction of liberalized students as it naturally brought Asian Youth into a community. The community of Asian students working in tandem with the emergence of ethnic studies in the school facilitated the political mobilization of the younger generation.

The Civil Rights Act and the Immigration Reform Acts opened up new possibilities for the Asian American community. It helped them to fill its dwindling numbers helping them to gain a political voice. The 1960s was characterized by a significant inflow of Asian communities into the United States. The subsequent generation grew up on a climate that was more political tolerant and relatively free of discrimination. It follows that the younger generation grew with the awareness of the new rights availed to minorities courtesy of the Civil Rights Act. They recognized that advocacy transcended the protections of Asian American rights.

By virtue of being educated the students had positions of influence in the Asian community. The younger generation was tasked with changing prevalent perceptions in society that persisted from the era of discrimination, for instance, the depiction of Asian women as exotic sex objects. The media perpetuated the fallacy rekindling the inherited stereotypes from an outdated era. At schools the students were made aware of their false depiction in larger society. Ethnic studies informed them of their lack of representation in the legal system evidenced by the absence of Chinese interpreters and jurors. It follows they strived to control their image by engaging in advocacy forums where their numbers gave them voice. As such, the educated proponents like Ken Kawaichi and his student associates initiated the Asian law Caucus to create awareness to the rest of society on the essence of legal reforms in stimulating social change.

Prevention is better than Cure

Prevention is better than Cure

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Prevention is better than Cure

In the wake of the chemical induced fire at Maywood on June 15 that led to residents to be evacuated before being controlled, the Fire Protection Group inc. highlights the importance of big industrial complexes to install preventative measures. To this end, they ought to utilize the best fire protection systems. Fire Protection Group (FPG) is a provider of the said effective fire protection systems. In special circumstances like routine maintenance the buildings’ fire systems have to be disabled leaving the respective industrial complex susceptible to fire outbreaks (Mawhinney & Back III, 2016).  The Fire Protection Group Inc. posits that at those instances it is advisable to solicit their fire watch services as a countermeasure to a fire eventuality. The fire service entails 24 hr onsite supervision of the premises by fully equipped firefighters.

Another service offering of the FPG, is their fire alarm systems. To protect ones premises from fires it is advisable to install a fire alert system complete with its supporting infrastructure. The latter includes (but not limited to) notification devices and back up generators. The southern California contractors of FPG Inc. assert that it is the company’s mandate to protect its employees and property especially at an identified fire season.

FPG Inc. also offers repair services for valuables and property damaged by fire and water. Additionally, the efficacy of the repairs simplifies the otherwise tenuous and complex process of filing an insurance claim by a respective client.  Fire Protection Group Inc. (2016) reiterates the strategic importance to leverage the services of professional fire consultants like in protecting one’s property throughout the year. Prevention is better than cure when it comes to fire (Barbagli, 2013). As such, large industrial organizations should engage the services of experts like Fire Protection Group Inc. to protect their valuables helping them to concentrate on their core functions.

 

References

Barbagli, M. (2013). An Introduction To Active Fire Protection Systems For Rolling Stock.

Fire Protection Group Inc.( 2016).“Industrial Fires in Maywood Highlight the Importance of Fire Protection Systems in Fire-Prone L.A. Area, Notes Fire Protection Group Inc.” prweb. Retrieved from http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/06/prweb13507214.htm

Mawhinney, J. R., & Back III, G. G. (2016). Water mist fire suppression systems. In SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering (pp. 1587-1645). Springer New York.