Film Analysis: Crazy, Stupid, Love

Film Analysis: Crazy, Stupid, Love

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Film Analysis: Crazy, Stupid, Love

Introduction

Crazy, Stupid, Love is a movie about a husband living the perfect American dream with a good office job, a breath-taking house, amazing children, and a beautiful wife to match. Unfortunately, Cal Weaver, the husband who had his life going well for him takes a turn for the worse when he realizes that his wife of over 20 years had been having extramarital affairs behind his back. Aggravating the situation further, the wife Emily goes ahead and requests for a divorce to get away from a marriage she considered boring, to say the least. With the urge to have a companion at the age of 40 years, Cal is forced to throw himself back into the dating scene something that he could not imagine doing owing to his low self-esteem issues. At this point he meets Jacob who acts as his wingman, revamping his wardrobe and sense of fashion to be more attractive and eventually ready for the dating scene. Social cognition, communication, friendship, love, and sexuality are all encompassed in the Crazy, Stupid, Love movie.

Social Cognition

In this phenomenon, individuals tend to perceive or accept the behaviors of certain characters in their lives (Miller, 2015). For instance, when two people are in a relationship social cognition comes into play as to how they perceive each other depending on certain circumstances. A husband, on the one hand, might think that concentrating on his daily work routines is critical as it puts food on the table for the family at the end of the day. The wife, on the other hand, cannot understand how the husband goes a whole day without checking in with her to find out how well she is fairing. Such trivial misgivings are what start up conflicts within the family settings. In the movie, as Cal goes ahead to conduct his husband duties in ensuring that his family is well taken care of, the wife feels like there is a void that Cal is not filling and leads her to have relations with someone else. Way after the two had broken up and were living in different quotas, Cal finally admits that he misses his long lost wife Emily and desperately needs her back in his life. No matter how many women he brings back home, none will ever be able to replace the love that he has for Emily.

Communication

In family settings, communication is referred to as the transfer of words, ideas and thoughts between the husband, wife and to an extent the children (Miller, 2015). Without this critical aspect, most families can no longer survive. Between two or more friends, communication is the lending of an attentive ear when our friends have important issues to raise eventually offering solutions or suggestions that will aid in solving the problems being faced. In the movie, communication as a concept can be seen in the event where Jacob readily takes in his newfound friend Cal, hears him out, and eventually turns him into a socially respectable man. The breakdown of communication, on the other hand, can be seen as the cause of the split between Cal and Emily. In the event that they would in the former stages of their relationship have had a proper conversation on what was or was not working, it would have saved them the agony of breaking up, but rather they would have continued enjoying the fruits of their friendship.

Conclusion

Social cognition and communication are used extensively in the movie to bring out the important aspects that individuals in the society tend to miss most of the time. Personal relationships between two or more people tend to depend entirely on how we perceive our neighbors and how well we communicate with them to ensure a long-lasting bond.

 

References

Miller, R. S. (2015). Intimate Relationships (7th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

 

City of Warner Robins 2015 Audit Report

City of Warner Robins 2015 Audit Report

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City of Warner Robins 2015 Audit Report

The City of Warner Robins in Georgia completes an annual financial audit report that outlines its financial situation. This document is available in the city’s website as well as other related online sites that could be accessed by the public. Within the same website, the public could also access the same financial reports for previous years dating back to 2011, 2012 and 2014.

There is a close comparison between the City of Warner Robins financial report and the document by Robert Bland in terms of their core subject matter: the financial situation of the communities. One of the similarities between the two documents is the inclusion of a diverse list of stakeholders in the papers. In the City of Warner Robins financial audit, the activities of governmental contributions, civic authorities, and other private institutions are covered extensively (Vogt, 2004). The role played by the mayor’s office is mentioned on numerous occasions within the document. Conversely, the document by Bland and Rubin covered the factors that affect finances in the local government. Most of the elements covered in chapter nine and ten of the book concentrate on the financial processes within this particular public department. This difference in the document makes the Bland document less comprehensive compared to the Warner Robins audit. The latter document is very difficult to study and comprehend.

One striking result is the slight drop in the overall government and business current assets from $70,000 to around $69,000 (Melkers & Willoughby, 2005). This translated into approximately $10,000 drop in the total net position, a worrying trend for the city. The latest community audit revealed several aspects. One of them is that the accounting standards have changed dramatically to incorporate different net pension liabilities as well as other related elements. The financial statement was presented in a fair manner to respect the demands of different stakeholders. The audit was generally accurate, limited in new findings and devoid of discrepancies. The issue of risk management appears as a considerable one that raises significant alarms.  The city is exposed to a wide range of financial risks including employee compensation, asset destruction and natural disasters that are handled through an agency, Georgia Interlocal Risk Management Agency (GIRMA). This department suffers from significant bureaucracy, waste and understaffing. These issues appear in the financial audit. Most of the problems from the financial audit of the previous year were resolved in the course of the next year. The City of Warner Robins was suffering from issues of deferred compensation, period adjustment and restatement as well as internal politics.

It was relatively easy to comprehend the contents of the City of Warner Robins regardless of the caliber of the audience. The document is particularly comprehensible from the point of view of an interested citizen. The choice of vocabulary, the layout of the different sections and the coverage of the different financial topics were intentionally designed to ensure that all the affected and interested parties could understand the new information as well as the changes (Bland & Rubin, 1997).  However, people with limited education and understanding of macro-economic elements including local authority funding and the distribution of financial responsibilities will definitely have a hard time studying the document. It is covered with difficult jargon that describes the current situation in the city’s offices. This document is very complicated to the ordinary citizen. Consequently, it implies that the audit report may be effective but the majority of its beneficiaries will not understand it immediately.

 

References

Bland, R. L., & Rubin, I. (1997). Budgeting: A guide for local governments. Intl City County Management Assn.

Melkers, J., & Willoughby, K. (2005). Models of performance‐measurement use in local governments: Understanding budgeting, communication, and lasting effects. Public Administration Review, 65(2), 180-190.

Vogt, A. J. (2004). Capital budgeting and finance: A guide for local governments. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.

 

 

Geoscience

Geoscience

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Geoscience

Question 1

Government institutions and practitioners should understand that the GIS is a tool that should be taught in institutions of higher education and is a science that demands adequate recognition as a special faculty. Geographic information systems (GIS) have evolved significantly from a theoretical model into software applications. The understanding of GIS as a science has taken time to develop. It continues to elicit debates amongst scholars and practitioners alike. A number of schools such as Tomlinson have provided clear descriptions and qualifications that render GIS as a computer generated application oriented towards performance of specific functions. However, the ambiguities associated with the term GIS add to the complexities associated with definition of the term.

Goodchild (2010) provides an adequate discussion of the characterization of GIS as both a tool and science applicable in geography. The author notes that scholars and professionals should consider GIS as a spatial information science given that numerous developments achieved in algorithms and development of data structures. In addition, the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science describes GIS as the development and subsequent application of theoretical models, methodologies, data, and technology towards understanding geographical relationships, processes, and patterns.

Furthermore, as a science, GIS has been described as a research faculty that is oriented towards redefinition of geographical relationships and concepts as applied in relation to geographical information systems. In addition, GIS is strongly a science in that it has brought about critical methodological transformations applicable in overlay, geo-coding and other essential manipulations (Wright, Goodchild, & Proctor, 1997).

Question 2

Tomlinson’s development of the term Geographic Information System has been transformational to the discipline of geography, while at the same time eliciting different arguments on whether it is a science or tool. At the center of the debate, it is evident that GIS is both a science and tool used to assist geography departments in their day-to-day operations. Essentially, the developments achieved concerning computer technology and analytical methods have contributed towards the automation of different aspects of research and daily operations of geography research and practice (Goodchild, 2010).

GIS as a science has contributed significantly towards elimination of traditional barriers that have impeded interactions between fields such as remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, geodesy, geography, surveying, spatial statistics, computer science, and other disciplines related to use of spatial data (Wright, Goodchild, & Proctor, 1997). The identified components are disciplines of a vast geographical science, which is suggestive of a system as opposed to science. GIS may be described as a tool when applied as an approach for advancing investigations into problems faced by professionals.

GIS as a tool is described by professionals as related to development of the tool or system, with such parities being responsible for development, specifications, assessment, and ultimate use in professional settings. GIS is made up of primitive elements used by geographers in developing GIS tools, which include different theories, methodologies and models necessary for rendering GIS tools effective (Wright, Goodchild, & Proctor, 1997). Thus, from existing literature, GIS is a tool and a science depending on the context of discussion in that it is inclusive of numerous methodologies and techniques used in development of comprehensive tools for assessment and analyses for various geographical purposes.

 

References

Goodchild, M. F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GIScience in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 1, 3-20.

Wright, D. J., Goodchild, M. F., & Proctor, J. D. (1997). ForumGIS: Tool or Science? : Demystifying the Persistent Ambiguity of GIS as Tool versus Science. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 87, 2, 346-362.

 

Discussion Board

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Discussion Board

Public service professionals assume a critical role as conduits for change through optimization of performance and productivity across public entities. Public professionals are driven by the need to enhance administrative efficiency through control and management of government resources and functions. The administrative efficiency of public institutions increases with regard to the level of specialization of specific tasks amongst a group of professionals. Such demands the hierarchy is developed to ensure that responsibility and accountability are achieved in line with the respective roles of the administrative employees.

Literature suggests and emphasizes on the importance of specialization as a basis for determining the levels of administrative efficiency of a specific public institutions or offices. Such usually denotes an increase in specialization resulting in an increase in efficiency levels. Specialization may take a number of forms such as place and function, which plays a role in determining the efficiency levels of an administrative function within a public institution (Williams 647). Public service practitioners assume different roles, which are determined by the degree of specialization within a specific role or function in public office (Williams 426). Administrative efficiency is optimized by increasing the levels of specialization of a function amongst a group and in a manner, which contributes to enhanced institution or organizational efficiency.

Additionally, the unity of command provides a basis for determination of administrative efficiency and specialization levels within a public organization. Structuring an institution into a hierarchy plays an important role in enhancing the levels of administrative efficiency as it determines the levels of authority, accountability, and determination to preserve the status quo by the employees. The role within hierarchy, determines the determination and level of involvement of an employee in amelioration of social problems. Public service administrators are expected to remain responsive to any political and ideological views expressed by elected officials on different social challenges experienced by communities and subsequently delivering sound analyses on available alternatives to social problems (Wilson 485).

The commitment of public service administrators is not entirely reliant on the position within government, circumstance, and level of government. The overarching goals such as remaining steadfast towards critical and conscious action and pursuit of realistic goals ensuring thoughtful and reflective assessment of actions taken with an aim of learning from experience is essential. In addition, public service administrators are expected to exercise transcendent commitment such that they can contribute towards the involvement of citizens in direct governance (Shafritz & Hyde 48). Essentially the span of control as denoted by hierarchy plays an important role in determining the role of public service administrators as implementers, assistants, and controllers in the achievement of set out goals and objectives. A restricted span of control results in excessive red tape, especially in public institutions, which are denoted by complex interrelations between members (Simon 53).

Literature suggests organization by process, purpose, place, and clientele. Administrative efficiency is driven by the need to enhance efficiency through grouping of employees by process, purpose, place, and clientele. However, such a principle has been decried as inconsistent with internal needs of public institutions. In addition, it is assumed that circumstances, such as the role of public service administrators, may influence their ability to respond to specific needs raised by clients or citizens (Kettl 29). Furthermore, the efficiency in responding to the needs of the public is an overarching factor that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of efficiency of public institutions.

 

Works Cited

Denhardt, Janet V, and Robert B. Denhardt. The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. Print.

Fry, B R, and L G. Nigro. Five Great Issues in the Profession of Public Administration. Public Administration and Public Policy. 65 (1998): 1163-1221. Print.

Kettl, F. Donald. .Public Administration at the Millennium: the state of the field. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 10, no. 1(2000): pp.7-34.

Simon, A. Herbert. The proverbs of administration. Public Administration Review, vol. 6, no. 1(1946): pp.53.

Shafritz, Jay M, and Albert C. Hyde. Classics of Public Administration. Oak Park, Ill: Moore Pub. Co, 1978. Print.

Stivers, Camilla. Bureau Men, Settlement Women: Constructing Public Administration in the Progressive Era. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2000. Print.

Wamsley, L. Gary, Goodshell, Charles T., Rohr, John A., Stivers, M. Camilla, White, F. Orion and Wolf, F. James. Public administration and the governance process: shifting the political dialogue.

Wilson, Woodrow. The Study of Administration. Political Science Quarterly vol. 56, no. 4 (1941): pp.481-506.

Williams, W. Daniel. Measuring Government in the Early Twentieth Century. Public Administration Review, vol. 63, no.6 (2003): 643-659.

Williams, Daniel W. Reinventing the Proverbs of Government. Public Administration Review vol.60, no.6 (2000.):p. 522–34.

 

Music Review: Show Boat

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Music Review: Show Boat

  1. Show Boat was composed by Jerome Kern with lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, and based on a book by Edna Ferber.
  2. The novel was condensed for the musical because of the material it possessed which veered away from the generic elements of the Broadway scene at the time. Accordingly, the comedy that thrived in Broadway during this period was casual and coincidental. Based on the foundations of burlesque, vaudeville, and European opera, musical comedies were simple sequenced songs, routine comedy schedules, and dance sequences that did not necessarily follow a particular story or narrative. In this respect, the interest in the novel, as Kern exhibited, was sufficient to condense the respective narrative into a musical that would alter the landscape of musical comedies and performances on the Broadway stage.
  3. The purpose of the first scene involved its ability to integrate the exposition of the character and the plot with significant musical expression. Usually, musical theaters are limited in terms of time, especially when it comes to the establishment of the performance’s characters as well as the premises of the key plot. This is because expression in musical form consumes more time in contrast to speech.
  4. The major characters that are not introduced in the opening minutes comprise Julie Laverne and Magnolia. They are not evident in the opening of the performance since they are introduced by the notes evident in the music during the respective scene. In addition, the introduction and interaction of the main characters assumes a role in integrating them within the story.
  5. The two key themes explored in Show Boat are racial integration via the depiction of interracial marriage and the presence as well as impact of stereotypes.
  6. A prop song is a tune that is sung especially when the respective character takes part in an event or scene that requires or provides for the act of singing.

 

ROLE OF BIAS IN HISTORICAL WRITING

ROLE OF BIAS IN HISTORICAL WRITING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Role of Bias in Historical Writing

Even though bias may be inappropriate in historical writing, it may be difficult to avoid it. In terms of the sources located and selected for the respective paper, it became evident that bias was present due to the effects of the subject matter in discussion. Simply, the topic that was discussed was influential in determining the information that would be selected and utilized for the research paper (Woolf et al. 2011, 101). To a significant extent, bias is an inherent aspect in man. In confidence, a particular historian may declare a fact despite such information being better than his or her remarks, observation, and opinion (Woolf et al. 2011, 101). Interestingly, the information that the historian utilizes are the outcomes of value judgments not specifically compelled by the truth but deriving from his or her mental constitution. Since it may be difficult to support or rationalize the statements established by the historian via scientific evidence, it is possible to argue that bias will always be recurrent in terms of historical writing (Woolf et al. 2011, 112).

In fact, since the notion of history largely comprises reflective thought, then the knowledge that disseminates from it may actually possess a bout of bias or subjectivity (Woolf et al. 2011, 123). Nonetheless, while bias in the context of historical writing may be inevitable, it is also important for the historian to assume a considerable role especially in establishing objectivity and averting partiality as much as possible. This is because much of the information that people possess originates significantly from past events (Woolf et al. 2011, 92). In fact, knowledge that is derived particularly from history is not clearly intuitive since it is taken from a decisive assessment of source material (Woolf et al. 2011, 102). Hence, in the context of applying these ‘facts’, historians should ensure such information is reviewed by more references from the resources utilized.

Bibliography

Woolf, D. R., Stuart Macintyre, Juan Maiguashca, and Attila Pók. The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

The use of GIS in Controlling Global Warming

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The use of GIS in Controlling Global Warming

Research Title

The utility of GIS to identify as well as predict areas most affected by global warming

 

Statement of Purpose

The study will go in-depth to identify map the areas that are most likely to be affected by climate change and its corresponding effects to the surrounding inhabitant. As such the study will have to identify the social and geographical variables that inform a particular location how they interact and compare them to an area that already suffers from the effects of global warming. This will demand looking at geography from a sociological perspective at the same time approach society geographically.  Man colonizes geography transforming it into a cultural landscape. At the same time, geographies inform the cultures of the inhabitants. Even in the medieval era man subdued their environment through farming. In contemporary society, the modification of the environment has increased in scope and intensity. The above illustrates a vicious cycle the impact of man on geography informs the physical environment’s effect on him. Upon studying certain geography, one can infer on the social problems plaguing the particular locality thus helping towards formulating a solution. As one can decipher that high crime is associated with congested neighborhood. The study will attempt to identify the correlation between social ills and geography. Geospatial information system can be utilized to resolve social problems. The origins of spatial analysis are informed by man’s attempt to alleviate social problems, the mapping of cholera outbreaks near water sources. The key geographical phenomenon that is undermining human cultures is climatic change. The study will strive to highlight the mutual destruction caused to both humans and environment by global warming

 

The Plague

The Plague

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The Plague

Introduction

Being a renowned philosopher in the ancient period, Albert Camus uses his literature piece, The Plague, to discuss certain issues affecting the society from an idealistic perspective. One of the evident theoretical questions discussed in this novel is the concept of existentialism in the community. He portrays a society that struggles to end the unresponsiveness augmented by human suffering (Brett & Camus, 2002). His discussions confirm that through such philosophical principles, the human beings affected by such adversities use dissimilar approaches to cope with the situation. This confirms the existentialism philosophy, which states that the actions of a human being are the main defining factor in a person’s existence. However, Camus offers a theoretical twist to the conventional principles of existentialism. For example, he alleges that the actions of an individual may expose his or her inherent dignity that was unknown due to the peaceful situations defining his or her existence (Thoyakkat, 2009).

For this reason, Camus argues that the revelation of this integrity only happens in times of adversity. This occurs due to the absurd situations created by the differing principles of the mortal life and the immortal world. This theorist also highlights the innate nature of integrity in order to justify the addressed philosophical concern in The Plague. He believes that human beings are born with a sense of worth. Accordingly, each person has a spark of integrity that requires nurturing in order for the world to identify it (Camus, 2000). Based on these arguments, this philosophical review seeks to evaluate existentialism as one of the major concerns addressed by Camus in The Plague. This theoretical question will form the basis in summarizing other related themes in the novel. This philosophical issue highlights the integrity present in every human being (Thoyakkat, 2009).

Summary

The Plague is a literature piece that revolves around an epidemic occurring in the metropolitan area of Oran in Algeria. This imaginary tale commences with the death of numerous rats, an aspect that triggers the outbreak. The subsequent hysteria impels the local authorities to formulate hasty strategies aimed at collecting all these rats and discarding them appropriately. The death of Mr. Michel and other inhabitants of this area is the main justification that Cartel uses to assert that this calamity is a plague (Brett & Camus, 2002). Consequently, he collaborates with Dr. Rieux to deal with the unresponsiveness shown by the administrative organs and doctors. It takes time before these authorities can accept that this epidemic will wipe out a larger number of the metropolis’ inhabitants. Later, they use the quarantine approach to tackle the situation that threatens to get out of hand.

Following the limited freedom experienced by the inhabitants of this metropolitan region, they consider their distress as dissimilar from other forms of suffering faced by the human race. Moreover, one of the clergymen asserts that the epidemic is a punishment instigated by God due to the immorality promoted by the citizens of Oran (Brett & Camus, 2002). The distress is so intense that Raymond seeks an opportunity to escape from this region and unite with his spouse in Paris. He attempts to use illegal means since the authorities are executing the quarantine principles stringently. However, when he realizes that Dr. Rieux is also away from his wife, he decides to abandon his plans in order to help in ending this pandemic (Camus, 2000). Conversely, Cottard perceives this period as an opportunity to increase his wealth. He uses illegal means to smuggle goods. Moreover, he finds satisfaction in seeing other people suffer during this epidemic. According to him, it is pleasing to see other people face distressful moments that are somewhat similar to his daily distress of fearing imprisonment following his past criminal activities.

When the plague lasts for several months, the citizens of Oran realize that the pandemic is everybody’s concern, a fact that propels them to abandon their self-centered obsession with individual distress. Subsequently, they participate in ending this calamity. Following the death of Othon’s son, Dr. Rieux confronts father Paneloux and states that the minor was not sinful. This clergyman modifies his initial statement that the death of such innocent people should challenge the Christians to increase their faith in God (Brett & Camus, 2002). When the plague ends, Cottard cannot cope with his distress. He fires his gun aimlessly in the streets, an action that leads to his arrest. Some citizens such as Grand vow to abandon their former life and appreciate the meaning of life and its components. However, a larger portion of the general population swiftly switches to their original way of life.

Critique

Similar to other existentialists, Camus highlights that accepting the burdens of life is the only way of identifying and understanding the true meaning of one’s existence. However, owing to the human nature, this comprehension mostly occurs in times of adverse conditions. In order to address this philosophical concern, the author of this novel portrays Oran as a city will little glamour and energy (Brett & Camus, 2002). The only character who seems to question the essence of commercial transactions in the area is Dr. Rieux. The unresponsiveness of the authorities and the general populace is evident when the plague hits the city. The inhabitants have little regard for the essence of life and the need to overcome all struggles communally as evident in their reluctance in dealing with the plague (Camus, 2000). The comparisons included in this novel with reference to Dr. Rieux and the other citizens of Oran is an effective approach used by Camus to highlight the effects of conventional existentialism in the society. For example, his occupation proves his regard for human life. Moreover, he constantly questions the hypocrisy and selfish attitude promoted by most of the citizens.

Another character used by the theorist to highlight his ideas and questions is Tarrou. He is not a native of Oran city and has no outside inspiration to help the inhabitants of this region when the plague strikes the town. However, he realizes his responsibility to assist others in handling such distressful situations (Camus, 2000). This justifies the idea promoted by Camus on the existence of intrinsic integrity in all human beings and the augmentation of this dignity in times of trouble. Although some people may term this character as the hero in the novel, Camus indicates that other people would undertake similar acts under such conditions. In conclusion, The Plague highlights Camus’ idea on the existence of a spark of integrity in all human beings. However, this sense of responsible is mostly evident in times of trouble. Accordingly, this theorist highlights that the daily activities of a person are insufficient in defining his or her meaning in life. Such arguments highlight the differences between Camus’ concerns and ideas from those of other existentialists.

 

References

Camus, A. (January 01, 2000). The Plague (Excerpts). Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 75, 9, 944.

Brett, M., & Camus, A. (January 01, 2002). The Plague. Tls, the Times Literary Supplement, 5162, 23.

Thoyakkat, S. (September 01, 2009). The world is what was given; the world is what we make: Albert Camus’ bifocal credo in the Plague. Iup Journal of English Studies, 4, 7-27.

The Concept of Human Life Value in Relation to the Need for Life Insurance

Almutairi Yahya

Professor Ruben

Acad. Writing & Reading

June 4 2013

The Concept of Human Life Value in Relation to the Need for Life Insurance

Jane and Andrew had just celebrated their fifth year wedding anniversary and they were coming from dinner, when they had an accident. Unfortunately, Andrew did not survive, and Jane became paralysed from the waist down. With no one else to turn to, and no way to make an income, Jane had to go back to her parents, where she became dependent on them for the rest of her life. This is a sad situation, but unfortunately, it represents the story of many families, who are unprepared when fatal accidents happen. The families are left suffering when they lose their breadwinner. Had Andrew and Jane thought about their lives in future, they would have purchased a life insurance policy, which would have enabled Jane to survive comfortably and even pay for her medical treatments. She would have avoided going back home to her aging parents for care.

The rapid changes in life necessitate the acquiring of a life insurance policy. This is a sound financial plan that will ensure that your loved ones are not left destitute but are well taken care of and continue to enjoy a brighter tomorrow in the case of an unfortunate event to you, as the insured, especially if you are the breadwinner. Life insurance is also important to you in the event that you are disabled. Employers can also benefit from purchasing a life insurance for their employees (assets) to regain financial cover in the event that they lose their lives or are rendered inefficacious in a way that they can no longer work to make profits for the company. This is referred to as insurable interest.

Life insurance/assurance is a security against loss of income resulting from the demise of the insured. The mentioned beneficiary receives the proceeds and is thus secured from the financial repercussions that would have occurred owing to the death of the insured. This paper thus aims at looking at the concept of human value in relation to the need of acquiring a life insurance. Some of the important sections that will act as major topics of discussion will include the basic principles of life insurance, the benefits of life insurance, a focus of human value and the advantages disadvantages of life insurance.

The human life possesses numerous values, most of which are immeasurable. For example, a person’s relationship with others creates a set of sentimental and emotional attachments. These can barely be measured or replaced with monetary value. However, such values are not the basis for life insurance even though it upholds a strong moral and social concern. The basis for the need of a life insurance cover is the fiscal worth of a human life. With regards to life insurance, the human life has monetary value, in terms of its earning capacity, only if someone/people or an organization depends upon it or anticipates gaining some financial benefit through it. This secures the economic state of the beneficiary in terms of financial dependence and future savings lest there is a negative contingency.

Determining the fiscal value of human life helps in identifying the amount of life insurance needed by the beneficiary. The simplest way to work this out is by evaluating all what you pay for and whom you support. These might include things like educational costs, health insurance, mortgages, personal loans, rent, credit card debts, food and groceries, and car insurance among others. Out of these, you can then deduct the things that your family can comfortably do without such as stocks and property investments. The overall amount you get is what determines the level of life insurance that you need, (Baldwin 60).

Investing in a life insurance policy demands a high level of sacrifice. Life insurance encourages people to be responsible for their own families and for the society (Mishra 6). This means that you voluntarily opt to continue providing and catering for your dependant’s wellbeing after death. However, the law morally obliges you to provide for your family to the extent that your financial means permit. A life insurance cover ensures that this moral obligation and financial decency persists after death. The death or disability of the head of a family should not necessarily lead to bankruptcy or financial problems for the family. However, it should be realised that the economic value of human life diminishes with the passage of time. As much as a person’s income may tend to increase indefinitely, the period of productivity lessens as each year passes. This owes to the fact that an individual’s fiscal value is indeed the unrealized earning ability in terms of skill and eventually diminishes as potential income is gradually converted into actual income.

The basic principles of life insurance include the principal of Utmost Good Faith. The insurer and the insured should have good faith towards one another (Gulati 39). The insurer must provide the insure with complete and correct information with regards to terms and conditions that apply while the insured should also be willing to disclose complete, clear and correct information of the subject matter. The other principle is the law of large numbers whereby the insurance company uses a large sample size to predict deaths. All life insurance principles operate with this principle. They carefully approximate mortality rates annually to balance their resources.

Another principle is the insurable interest. This is whereby the insured, must have some personal relation to the policy owner, receives economic compensation in the event of death of whom they depended on. Perfected savings is another principle of life insurance where you purchase death assurance to your loved ones. This principle is however limited with regards to a pre-set time or a predetermined age, upon which the contract matures and compensation is made. In the event of a policy holder’s demise before the pre-set period, the insurer compensates the insured. The transfer of risk is a further vital principle for life insurance. The risk of death is not retained in your policy, but spread out among all policy holders with relations to the insurer. The last principle of life insurance is the loss of minimization. This means that the policy holder needs to be careful to reduce the risk of death. This includes careful driving, indulging in proper lifestyle issues and maintaining your health as much as possible. The cost of insurance is heavy in the realization that you do not uphold the principle.

There are numerous advantages that come with life insurance such as the immediate infusion of cash when dealing with adverse fiscal consequences of the policy holder’s death. Life insurance guarantees protection of one’s family.  The tax treatment for life insurance is quite favourable. The death benefits are usually income tax- free to the insured. It is possible for the life insurance to be exchanged for another policy such as annuity without the incurrence of current taxation. Another advantage is that it facilitates loans without affecting the benefits of the policy (Sethi and Bhatia 181-182).

The life insurance policy just like any other has its cons. These include the fact that policy holders forego some current expenditure for the sake of the insured. The surrendered cash values are generally less than the premiums paid and at time it is impossible to fully recover them. You may outlive your insurance term and obtain no monetary benefit from the premiums you paid. The insurer also does not provide you with a permanent life insurance protection.

Many people are willing to get insurance covers for their properties but they are not willing to take life insurance, even though life is more valuable than property. The many adversities and uncertainties of life demand that a person acquires a life insurance policy. This is an indispensable measure if you care for the life of those who depend on you. Taking a life insurance cover is proof that a person cares for his or her family, and is concerned about their welfare in case of any eventuality. Some people put off taking life policies because they think that they will be okay so long as they take care of themselves. However, it is not possible to predict death, and it is prudent to consider taking a life insurance policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

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CIFP Learning. Introduction to Life Insurance.  Web. June 2, 2013

Gulati, C. Neelam. Principles of Insurance Management: A Special Focus on Developments in Indian Insurance Sector Pre and Post Liberalisation. New Delhi: Excel Books India, 2009. Print

LIFE. What You Need to Know about Life Insurance. 2009. Web. June 2, 2013

Luke, Chris. Principles of Life Insurance Policy. 2012. Web. June 2, 2013

Mishra, Kaninika. Fundamentals of Life Insurance: Theories and Applications. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd, 2010. Print

Sethi, Jyotana and Nishwan, Bhatia. Elements of Banking and Insurance. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2007. Print