Can There Be Morality Without God?

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Can There Be Morality Without God?

Overtime, morality and the aspect of religion have consistently been inseparable. Most individuals tend to believe that the former can be comprehended solely in the milieu of religion. For instance, in most religious frameworks, clergypersons and people deemed as religious are therefore viewed as moral professionals who provide sound advice. Furthermore, the aspects of right and wrong have been used to define morality. As such, religion has assumed an imperative position in defining what constitutes morality. This is rather evident based on the manner in which society operates. Simply, it is difficult to find communities that possess a religion without a morality, or the former without a latter. This is further illustrated by the considerable role that religious institutions such as the church have assumed in establishing moral regulations and rules. Nonetheless, it is possible to assert that morality can exist without God. Even though both are synonymous, morality is not dependent on religion. The Divine Command conjecture alleges that all that is morally right is mandated by God and vice versa. However, this establishes that the directives made by God are arbitrary. Additionally, the use of religion to derive moral issues fails to account for key problems such as abortion. By failing to use reason and following religion, such issues become impossible to deal with rationally. Eventually, they result in biased judgments regarding such issues. Furthermore, the moral problems faced contemporarily may be different from those experienced in the Bible’s Jews and ancient Christian writers. Accordingly, the common assistive moral guidance that the canon provides is considerably unlikely to provide people with authoritative responses to modern problems such as medical research financing, workers’ rights, and the disappearance of species. As such, morality should be based on reason rather than religion.

PSYC 301 Questions

PSYC 301 Questions

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PSYC 301 Questions

  1. The main difference between human and zombie brains is their functionality. Despite the similarity in terms of brain structure, the behavioral patterns of zombies suggest that their brains have several damaged areas within specific brain regions. This is evidenced by the coordination of movement within the brain between both beings. For human beings, the cerebellum is mainly responsible for coordinating motor movements. However, it does not operate on a single basis. Accordingly, the basal ganglia collaborate with the brain stem and the frontal lobe in order to ensure that behavior and movement are coordinated accordingly. This further explains the way human beings coordinate their hands alternately with their feet. However, for zombies, the opposite is evident. Normally, zombies tend to engage in movement with their hands put out. This affects their movement forcing them to stagger and engage in clumsy acts. Nevertheless, this defect in balance illustrates the extent to which the parts responsible for coordination and movement in the zombies’ brains do not work together in order to ensure equilibrium in movement and behavior. In this case, the frontal lobe, which is associated with cognition, the cerebellum that coordinates motor movements and the basal ganglia seem damaged in zombie brains.
  2. Humans and zombies are undeniably different in terms of intelligence and thinking. Accordingly, humans are capable of solving problems, communicating with each other, and simultaneously engaging in complex decision-making. This profound level in intelligence and thinking has enabled the respective species to become dominant since their inception. The presence of the frontal lobe enables human beings to engage in reasoning and high-level cognition. In addition to this, it allows humans to express themselves via language. Such aspects allow human beings to think, decide, and act based on rational and pragmatic decisions. Zombies, on the other hand, are stupid and unintelligible in terms of expression and action. Accordingly, these beings are unable to understand even the simplest of things such as opening doors or planning. Hence, they are incapable of complex decision-making. Moreover, zombies are appalling problem solvers and possess a considerable incapability in expressing themselves since they usually communicate via interchangeable grunts. These deficiencies distinguish them from human beings. Zombies are incapable of thinking, decision-making, and solving complex problems. Moreover, they are unable to act rationally and tend to base their actions on natural drives, which are also questionable in comparison with human beings.
  3. In terms of their natural drives, humans and zombies are significantly different. For human beings, a drive such as hunger is controlled effectively by the brain. Usually, after people consume in order to satisfy this drive, they become full. In addition to this, they possess a diverse diet, which contributes to a miscellany of processes that enable the healthy development of the human body. The part of the brain that controls this drive comprises the hypothalamus. This specific part connects to numerous regions within the brain. Additionally, the hypothalamus is responsible for managing hunger apart from other drives such as thirst and processes such as temperature regulation and circadian rhythms. For zombies though, their drives are limitless. In this case, zombies tend to be hungry at all times despite consuming countless numbers of human beings. As such, they never get full. These disparities in comparison to humans illustrate that zombie brains lack the proper hypothalamus structure, which is responsible for managing a natural drive such as hunger. The presence of the amygdala assists human beings in controlling their emotions. For normal people, an emotion such as anger is common. However, the escalation of anger into rage among humans is uncommon and may occur in rare situations. Nonetheless, in normal circumstances, humans can feel angry and revert to their usual sentimental state. On the contrary, zombies consistently act on blind rage and express aggression at all times. Furthermore, they are exceedingly sadistic and attack people in enraged conditions.

 

Six Values of a Quality Culture

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Six Values of a Quality Culture

Value 1

This is an integral part of my belief as an employee as it involves understanding the organization’s culture, its interactions with customers and suppliers. Furthermore, it involves developing effective networks and relationships with clients, colleagues, and suppliers as a means of enabling movement of information. I was bale to understand the importance of creating, maintaining, and enhancing the relationships of the entity with stakeholders such as suppliers and clients towards achievement of its objectives. On the other hand, it was evident of the presence of an individualistic culture whereby a majority of employees were driven by ambition towards rising in the hierarchical chain in the entity rather than ensuring client satisfaction and ethical conduct.

Value 2

This was relatively important for brainstorming and team member activities, whereby all individuals have an equal platform for contribution towards projects. A Laissez-faire approach towards management of the entity would be in order, while ensuring that standard procedures and protocols are observed with respect to engagement between managers and subordinates. This involves clear definition of roles and duties while also providing all employees with an open-door policy. This is whereby employees are able to communicate with ease about issues, concerns, and ideas that may be beneficial to the organization (Cortada, and Woods 18).

Authority is important in an organization as it ensures that there is clear definition of roles, duties, and the definition of accountability, and responsibility, with each action having a consequence. It is an important aspect that guarantees that all employees adhere to standards of conduct and perform their duties as assigned to them by their seniors. Furthermore, interactions gained from the use of an open door policy are based on the need to provide a means of motivating employees towards innovation and creativity (Cortada, and Woods 24).

Value 3

The open door policy was relatively effective in ensuring that there was movement of information in all directions. Honest communication amongst all staff and in social interactions or official engagements is imperative towards creation of trustworthy and mutual beneficial relations. In addition, honest communication in an organization enables employees to ensure fruitful interactions by eliminating possibilities of misunderstandings and conflicts in the organization. An understanding in the entity can be achieved through accommodation of new attitudes towards empathetic and attentive communication with other workers, clients, and stakeholders (Cortada, and Woods 38).

Value 4

It is an important feature that enabled access to information on operations. This can be used in my current organization to enhance efficiency, effectiveness in service delivery and customer services. Elimination of bureaucracies in the organization as brought about by hierarchical chains can enhance efficiency and movement of information in the entity. This can be a significant step and contribution towards the achievement of strategic goals such as enhanced client satisfaction and loyalty. Understanding operations is important for the organization as it provides employees with a platform to share ideas and innovation that can be used to enhance operations(Cortada, and Woods 69).

Value 5

In addition focusing on processing is important for my current position as it ensures orientation towards details. This involves understanding the demands, needs, and preferences of clients in terms of the services needed for subsequent delivery. It enables the entity to achieve its goals in terms of revenue and high customer loyalty. Using information and resources to develop output should be understood by all employees if they are to make significant contributions to the organizational goals and objectives.

Continued measurement of team effort and process improvement can provide the entity with a means of enhancing its competitive advantage and achievement of goals and objectives. Process improvement can be achieved by ensuring that all employees are provided with an effective platform for contributing towards their respective activities, duties and roles in the organization. This establishes a culture of mutual understanding and respect amongst employees.

Value 6

Successful or failed engagement with clients should not be a deterrent towards hardwork. This should provide an important lesson on the basic aspects of delivering quality services to customers. Success can be emphasized and achieved in the organization by establishing a reward system. A reward system or incentivisation of activities is vital towards the achievement of set out goals and objectives. Encouraging team formation and activities can be effective in ensuring minimized failures and providing means of interaction, problem definition and rapid solution development.

In addition, emphasizing the need for interactions amongst staff is important such that they are able to share on experiences and in the process motivate one another for enhanced productivity. For success in operations, there should be a clear definition of roles, duties, and responsibilities coupled by clear definitions of accountability. This is integral towards ensuring that all employees adhere to due procedures in their respective activities and roles in the organization (Cortada, and Woods 48).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Cortada, James W, and John A. Woods. The Quality Yearbook 1997. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995. Print.

 

Interpretation of Meaning: Authorial Intent versus Reader Response in Contextualizing Meaning

 

 

 

Interpretation of Meaning:

Authorial Intent versus Reader Response in Contextualizing Meaning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Special Topic Question 1

Authorial Intent versus Reader Response

The difference between authorial intent and reader response is own the basis of interpretation of meaning of the respective text. Meaning in this context is the conveyance of the message communicated by the text. The essence of writing is to share information and that it will be well understood by its recipients. Authorial intent implies staying true to the author’s meaning. The reader tries to decipher the purpose of the book through analyzing clues intentionally left behind by the author through the manipulation of language (Gibbs 2001, 73-80). The meaning of the text thus has a standard message and not custom made for particular readers. This liberates it from potential subjectivity during interpretation by the reader. The reader should aspire to preserve the sanctity of the author’s intent. In scripture, authorial intent becomes more complex as there are two authors, the human author and the divine author. As human author may have slightly altered the pure message, the reader has to decipher the deeper meaning of the scripture (Smith 1963). Taking the word at face value may misguide the reader.

Conversely, reader response is the subjective interpretation of said text according to the readers’ understanding. The meaning is derived from how the reader identifies to the message. The author’s intent is hardly taken into consideration. The original message is subject to distortion by the reader’s attitudes and biases. The reader interprets the text selective according to what they consider useful and ignoring the rest either consciously or inadvertently (Harkin 2005, 410-425). By incorporating the text into their own reality, the readers often extrapolate definitions from their own circumstances and unsubstantiated opinions. The importance of understanding the author’s message especially in the scripture cannot be trivialized. The reader’s personal interpretation is inconsequential if it is based on the wrong concept.

Communication is at the center of authorial intent. It is from her e that the author derives satisfaction. In the case of scripture, readers tend to manipulate the text to fit into their objectives. A reader may quote a verse in isolation to justify his/her actions but when read in context the words’ meaning may be different from the ones proposed by the reader (Sandora et al. 1999, 177-212). In contemporary literature, both the author and reader influence the meaning of the text. The aim is make the readers to be more engaged by sharing their viewpoints. However, in scriptures the author holds the monopoly over the meaning of the text. Of the three pillars of meaning, that is, author, text and reader, text is the main constant. It follows that the specifics of the text like language should be sought rather than trying to uncover the author’s mood at the time of writing (Lundberg 2014). The greatest impediment to uncovering the authorial intent is the lack of speaker presence. In absentia, the reader cannot consult them on controversial terms that demand clarification. Unchecked the terms become open to multiple interpretations. In Christianity, asking God for revelation on contentious scriptures is the main way to stabilize the meaning of the texts, as the human authors are all dead (Besecke 2001, 365-381). Another challenge that arises in determining meaning is language problems. Since many terms in the original language of the text may not have corresponding words in another language, meaning may be lost during translation (Shuttleworth, Mark and Cowie 2014). The ambiguity of the translated version may mislead the reader. The importance of a one goal post for meaning is to prevent every reader from assuming a personal benchmark upon which to interpret the scripture. In line with the false doctrines based on alleged revelations will be stopped, as readers will apply the meaning directly from the scriptures.

 

Special Topic Question Two

Meaning and Application

In order to apply a certain message one must first fully understand its meaning. Meaning implies the process of interpreting the message sent. An in depth analysis of the author’s purpose of writing is made considering all the relevant factors from culture to the period in time in order to understand the context. Afterward the reader uses the findings to obey the dictates of the message (Vanhoozer 2009). Application may reveal deeper understanding of the meaning of the text. In scriptures, the meaning is standardized across the board. On the other hand, application varies from one Christian to another according to their individual diligence. It should not be forced but an act of obedience done voluntarily (Vanhoozer 2001, 1-49). Application must resonate with the intended meaning and done within its confines. The application process starts from the interpretation stage. First, examine the adequacy of the tenets utilized in the text to handle the original circumstances. Second, relate these findings with a similar situation in modern times. Ensure the application is not general.

How to Apply Meaning

1 Timothy 6; 10

“10 For the love of money is the root of all evil; and while some have coveted after it, they have erred from the faith and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.”

 

  1. Find the context of the verse and its biblical audience.

Paul in a letter to Timothy encourages the congregation at Ephesus to desist from preoccupation with material possessions especially gold as it only leads to death. The congregation is advised to be content with what they have in Timothy chapter 6 from verses six through to ten.

  1. Establish the difference that exists between the circumstance in the scripture and its parallel in contemporary society.

The readers may not be leaders like Timothy. The readers do not exist in the first century rather in the 21st century. The readers do not belong to the congregation of the church of Ephesus. The economic circumstances and by extension challenges are not similar.

  1. Establish the theological tenets used in the text.

Greed leads to death a person should rather engage in activities that glorify God. Desiring money gives impetus to evil to reign in a person life. A person should translate that zeal used in pursuit of earthly possessions in seeking God (Keener 2014). Contentment with what a person has is critical. Wealth without wisdom will be the undoing of the owner.

  1. Understand the relevance of the text to the contemporary society.
  2. How are the tenets employed to the believers walk in Christ?

Believers should abstain from pursuing achievements, careers or any particular agenda with the sole aim of gaining wealth. Believers should desire to engage is godly activities with the same vigor they invest in endeavors that bring them financial profit.

 

Bibliography

 

Besecke, Kelly. “Speaking of meaning in modernity: Reflexive spirituality as a cultural resource.” Sociology of Religion 62, no. 3 (2001): 365-381.

Gibbs Jr, Raymond W. “Authorial intentions in text understanding.” Discourse Processes 32, no. 1 (2001): 73-80.

Harkin, Patricia. “The reception of reader-response theory.” College Composition and Communication (2005): 410-425.

Keener, Craig S. The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament. InterVarsity Press, 2014.

Lundberg, Margaret L. “A Community of Two: Along the Boundary between Author and Reader.” (2014).

Sandora, Cheryl, Isabel Beck, and Margaret Mckeown. “A COMPARISON OF TWO DISCUSSION STRATEGIES ON STUDENTS’COMPREHENSION AND INTERPRETATION OF COMPLEX LITERATURE.” Reading Psychology 20, no. 3 (1999): 177-212.

Shuttleworth, Mark, and Moira Cowie. Dictionary of translation studies. Routledge, 2014.

Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. The meaning and end of religion. Fortress Press, 1963.

Vanhoozer, Kevin J. “From speech acts to scripture acts.” After Pentecost: language and biblical interpretation 2 (2001): 1-49.

Vanhoozer, Kevin J. Is there a meaning in this text?: the Bible, the reader, and the morality of literary knowledge. Zondervan, 2009.

How to Read the Bible for All It’s worth

How to Read the Bible for All It’s worth

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How to Read the Bible for All It’s worth

Summary

            The book “How to Read the Bible for All its Worthy” by Stuart and Fee is a useful and concise literature that tackles the issue of how the bible should be interpreted. Both authors are focused on the notion that the Bible should not necessarily be perceived as an incomprehensible book because most people read and understood it wrongly. The book emerged in an era when contemporary analysis has exhausted cultures and found its way into the religion. Therefore, the writers offered a timely assistance for scholars and ordinary people to internalize God’s word. One of the clear intentions of the authors was to help the targeted readers understand the scriptures in an accurate manner. In particular, they were interested in transforming the reader into an excellent bible interpreter. The initial pages focused on establishing the need for such interpretation skills. While confessing that scholars have the ability to disguise the simple denotation of a text in their aims to stand out, the type of readers and the biblical transcripts makes a special prominence on plain reading unnecessary. In spite of the fact that some people are aware while others are not, all readers are interpreters. Because understanding God’s word is dominant, every individual should seek to follow appropriate methods. The numerous opposing theological stands that all claims to be founded on the genuine meaning of the bible illustrate the relevance of such a book. In particular, it exposes blatant abuses for instance, baptizing dead people among the Mormons based on the wrongful understanding of Corinthians 15:29 as well as the insincere “contradictions” furnished by cynics. Not every interpretation can be assumed applicable and the manuscript assists the reader comprehend the superiority of some over others. It is imperative that the reader appreciates the origin of the scriptures and the holy word.

The Bible was authored for all people but it was not targeting everyone. The writers had a specific audience in mind. The two authors argued that understanding the Bible is urged by the ‘conflict’ existing between its everlasting significance and its historical individuality. Therefore, it is a heavenly disclosure and a human message concurrently. Concentrating the understanding on only one aspect can lead to error. Stuart and Fee recommended that an individual must first understand the meaning designed for the initial reader in an exegesis process before applying a sound hermeneutic approach to confirm its contemporary relevance. The book lauds the reader to grasp a different method of thinking exegetically while, at the same time, supporting the excellence of good translations. Consequently, it concentrates on linguistic and textual translation problems. Textual concerns seek to establish the linguistic focus and initial text when it comes to a method of translating the Bible. The science behind textual variances is handled and instances of textual differences are illustrated. Theories of translation concentrate on the changes that occur across the version such as KJV that concentrated on the literal translation while NIV focused on the actual idea and connotation. An example would be the phrase “coals of fire” (KJV) that was later translated in NIV as “burning coals”.

The main concept in chapter three is to consider the context carefully and to subscribe to the author’s argument in textual units. 1 Corinthians forms the major book from which most examples are drawn and commences with the process of establishing the historical background. It stresses reading the letter from start to end and then going through it several times. Additionally, the audio version of the Bible can also prove useful. A significant theory is internalizing units of thought preferably in paragraphs. The fifth chapter addresses accounts that are God’s narratives founded on historical events. “How to Read the Bible for all it’s Worth” avails three categories of narrative. The uppermost layer, the metanarrative, captures the larger picture of redemptive records from creation to the heaven-like stage. The next category includes God saving the human race in the major covenants. Chapter Eight describes the understanding of Jesus’ parables. The major idea is that parables were formulated to stress one main idea by appealing for a response. Jesus’ parables were also a means of preaching the kingdom. The last two chapters handled the law and matters concerning prophets. The next section covers the in-depth analysis of the text and the authors behind it.

Analysis

How to Read the Bible for all it’s Worth” is exceptionally valuable in instructing using the exegetical approach. If this was a mandatory reading for every Christian, then a lot of complications and dissent could have been avoided. The significant advantage of teaching using the “ideas and blocks” approach is that learners think in terms of text instead of detached individual verses. The solution to a massive majority of doubtful objections and supposed bible contradictions can probably be discovered by complying with the recommendations in this book. Another fundamental concept is that it is impossible for a transcript normally to imply something else that is foreign to the author or his readers. Evidently, they have questionable thoughts concerning prophecy. Nonetheless, the books would be easily proposed as a learning content for open minded and inquisitive Christian. Clearly, the strength of the book lay in the author’s audacity to tackle contentious issues even though, occasionally, the tone became slightly arrogant. Many nonprofessionals read the Bible and suffer from the elitist problem. For the greater part of the book, Stuart and Fee were civil but several slight occasions stood out. For example, they disapproved of evangelicals for being inconsistent in implementing the cultural relativity principle. Without explicitly mentioning it, contemporary evangelicals fail to apply this principle when it comes to women’s dressing but turn around and object to the rise of women preachers in the church. This is the same attitude concerning same-sex relationships.

            The last illustration appears very inappropriate since the exploitation of cultural relativity to support sin makes dissenters consistent. It is clear that same-sex relationships are a direct violation of God’s intention during creation and does not depend on certain cultures. Luckily, they clear this point in the following section where they state, “…there seem to be no valid grounds for seeing same sex relations as a culturally relative matter[1].” This raises questions on why it showed up in their evaluation of contemporary evangelicals. This book is informative to one’s perceptions of perfectionists and apologetics of the Gospels. The answer for many complications lay in understanding the levels of context[2]. It is quite easy to attempt and explain every instance of chronological consistency using a strong understanding of inspiration. The real problem emerges in attempting to do the same with the issue of writing. The purpose of the type was not to offer a fixed chronology[3]. Each of the writers of the Gospel had their own reasons for organizing the content about Jesus in the manner that was presented. Most of them were probably tackling the situation within their immediate environment[4]. Therefore, the Gospel variety is not strict in history and it would be imprudent to expect an exacting chronology.

While studying the bible in a horizontal and vertical manner is hugely useful, conceivably not everything should have a genre explanation. For example, the authors clarify several iterations of Jesus’ proverbs in this way: it should not come as a surprise that most of similar sayings, in the absence of contexts, were accessible to the evangelists[5]. It would be equally not surprising to discover that the same evangelists, being guided by the Holy Spirit, placed the sayings in their current settings.

While appreciating that this explanation is relevant in many instances, it is equally fair to postulate that because Jesus conducted his preaching sessions while traveling, he frequently replicated his content in every stopover. With this seeming to be the case, it would be normal for his sayings to be repeated in different contexts throughout his era and later on through literary construction. The author’s combination of the verses in Mark, Matthew, and Luke also appear unconvincing. To a slight extent, Matthew and Mark have similar material. Conversely, Luke symbolizes a dissimilar lesson. For one, it is difficult to establish whether the book was the work of the evangelist or Jesus’[6]. The text appears to be Jesus’ based on the following two reasons. First, Matthew’s discussion was not exposed to the rest of the disciples while Luke’s was a proclaimed publicly at the temple. Second, in Luke, the directive was to escape Jerusalem when soldiers had surrounded it[7]. Nonetheless, in Mark and Matthew, the order was to leave when the disgrace of desolation had occurred[8]. It appears that detailed exegesis offers a conclusion that Luke was not the private Olivet dialogue concerning the arrival[9]. Rather, it could be considered simply a public warning to the Christians in the early century. While it is unanimous that there is a propensity to misuse typology in particular circles, cynicism seems appropriate relating to the book’s figures concerning Old Testament predictions. The authors assert that less than 2% of prophecies in the Old Testament are messianic in nature. The same testaments has less than 5% of prophesies describing the new-covenant age[10].

The two authors operate on the assumption that the reader of their book is a Christian and theological student who with little or no knowledge of the Greek and Hebrew languages. Therefore, a whole section is allocated for selecting the appropriate translation for understanding the biblical text[11]. Fee and Stuart analyze the different Bible genres in a particular order that starts with the Epistles and finishes with Revelation. It emerges evident that Epistles are quite difficult to interpret even though they are perceived as simple[12]. Consequently, given their significance to the Christian religion and because it contains numerous hermeneutical problems, they were eventually used as models for any emerging questions that rose throughout the book. By definition, the Epistles were letters addressed to a unique group of believers and therefore, they need to be comprehended in that setting. The next task is investigating the way in which the Epistles fit into the Bible as a whole[13]. The main viewpoint that is presented by the book is that every person with limited skills can display excellent results in biblical interpretation. It would be necessary for several simple methods to be adopted for each kind of genre in the Bible with the purpose of avoiding misinterpretation.

The greater part of the principles proposed in the book are sensible and the lessons, if implemented, will contribute to a deeper perception of God’s Word, in spite of a few weaknesses that emerged in the course of analysis[14]. Consequently, until a substitute book containing a similar nature for the ordinary people can be authored, this text is still the best in handling religious matters[15]. The book possesses a unique quality that is neither too burdensome nor idealess, or technical – features that attract readers. However, it is not as shallow as its outward size makes it out to be[16].

Conclusion

This critical review provided a synopsis and analysis of “How to Read the Bible for All it’s Worth” by Stuart and Fee. In offering an abstract, the project sought to demonstrate the significance of the text by illustrating how it proposes the need for accurate construal. An essential proposal is to process the text paragraphs instead of verses to determine the greater context[17]. Another primary theme is that texts ordinarily cannot mean what they could not have meant to its writers and to the people reading[18]. If studied at a universal level, many heretical perceptions would be preempted and most dubious objections satisfied. It is a definite mandatory reading material for Christian sympathizers and theologians[19]. While an analysis was forwarded that the author’s conclusive inclinations are prejudiced toward a specific line of thought, their perspective was largely logical[20]. Eventually, it appeared that these arguing points work in favor of the notion that this manuscript holds great value for all dedicated Bible readers. In this case, this would take account of all Christians.

 

Bibliography

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C.H.J. Van der Merwe. An Overview of Recent Developments in the Description of Biblical Hebrew Relevant to Bible Translation. Acta Theologica; 22, 1. 2012.

Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas K. Stuart. How to Read the Bible for All It’s Worth. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. 2014.

Grudem, Wayne A., C. John Collins, and Thomas R. Schreiner. Understanding the Big Picture of the Bible: A Guide to Reading the Bible Well. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2012.

Hamilton, Adam. Making Sense of the Bible Rediscovering the Power of Scripture Today. Harperone, 2015.

Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.

McQuilkin, J. Robertson. Understanding and Applying the Bible. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2009.

Pilch, John J. A Cultural Handbook to the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2012.

Poythress, Vern S. Inerrancy, and Worldview: Answering Modern Challenges to the Bible. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2012.

Sugirtharajah, R. S. Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2006.

West, Gerald O. The Academy of the Poor: Towards a Dialogical Reading of the Bible. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Cluster Publ, 2008.

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[1] Gordon Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All It’s Worth 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), 17.

[2] Ibid., 23

[3] Ibid., 78

[4] Van der Merwe. An Overview of Recent Developments in the Description of Biblical Hebrew Relevant to Bible Translation. (Acta Theologica; 22, 1. 2012),19

 

[5] Ibid., 98

[6] Wayne Grudem, Collins John, and Thomas R. Schreiner. Understanding the Big Picture of the Bible: A Guide to Reading the Bible Well. (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2012), 34.

[7] Ibid., 19

[8] Ibid., 45

[9] Adam Hamilton. Making Sense of the Bible Rediscovering the Power of Scripture Today. (Harperone, 2015), 78.

[10] Gerald West. The Academy of the Poor: Towards a Dialogical Reading of the Bible. (Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: Cluster Publ, 2008), 45.

[11] Stephen Harris. Understanding the Bible. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011), 45.

[12] Ibid., 66

[13] Robertson McQuilkin. Understanding and Applying the Bible. (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2009), 187.

[14] Ibid., 193

[15] John Pilch. A Cultural Handbook to the Bible. (Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2012), 18.

[16] Ibid., 107

[17] Vern Poythress. Inerrancy and Worldview: Answering Modern Challenges to the Bible. (Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2012), 39.

[18] Ibid., 59

[19] Ibid., 87

[20] Sugirtharajah Sugirtharajah. Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2006), 19.

 

What Purpose Should the State Serve?

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What Purpose Should the State Serve?

The term state has become synonymous with civilization where men began recognizing the merits of structure and cooperation. Similarly, in contemporary society reaps the benefits of state. However, the functions of state may at times prove ambiguous. A clear outline of the utilities of the state will enable modern society to leverage its provisions. One definite utility of state is that it was created to further man’s ambitions.

The state’s primary function is self-preservation, humanity’s pursuit of a more luxurious life. Hobbes acknowledges that man though innately violent would of his own volition give up his sovereignty to live a more peaceful life. “… in the introduction of that restraint upon themselves, in which we see them live in Commonwealths, is the foresight of their own preservation, and of a more contented life thereby; that is to say, of getting themselves out from that miserable condition of war…” (Hobbes ch. 17). Although the man cherishes freedom to chart out his destiny in entirety, they would rather sacrifice their liberty at the altar of a peaceful life.

Another core tenet of the state is to protect the individuals that are under its jurisdiction. In the Leviathan, men recognized the vulnerability of isolation and the strength that comes with numbers. “…if there be no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art for caution against all other men….” (Hobbes ch. 17). As an individual, man does not present a formidable force against malicious neighbors hence his need to submit to greater power. To this end, man will marshal up forces with other like-minded individuals to guarantee his security.

The state exists to safeguard the covenants erected between men. It is in accordance with man’s nature to pursue self-interest even when it means breaking his promises. Devoid of repercussions, man will push the boundaries of his evil and any agreement he makes will hold no weight. “…And covenants, without the sword, are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all” (Hobbes ch. 17). The state ensures that any entity that subscribes to any treaty upholds it; rogue participants are duly punished. In order to add value to the threat a state puts out, it must be equally militarized.

 

Work Cited

Hobbes, T. (1903). The philosophy of Hobbes in extracts and notes collated from his writings. HW Wilson Company.

 

Homework

Homework

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Homework

For the United States, the Vietnam War represented one of the epic failures in military planning and political influence. In that war, over $150 billion was used with little to show for it apart from casualties and injuries (McMahon, 2008). At a personal level, the war between Vietnam and the United States is a constant reminder of the importance of making strategic decisions when engaging in ventures or assignments. Providing a wholesome and elaborate analysis into the best skills in the field of strategic thinking will assist in understanding the best way to make such decisions at a personal level and at the state level.

Personally, I think that I am a strategic thinker as opposed to being a tactician. This is because in school matters, I prefer to set goals concerning my examinations, class work, and even co-curriculum activities. Furthermore, I am inclined to find out all the ways of achieving these targets. Therefore, I end up mobilizing my personal resources such as time and money to ensure that these targets are accomplished. I also engage in extensive strategic planning and thinking that helps me in preparing for future events. The work I do also involves making rapid, difficult decisions and I find that adopting a strategic approach helps in such situations (Imlay, & Toft, 2007).

Within the work environment, I have come to realize that cooperation with other people is highly beneficial. I know that I need constant evaluation from my colleagues and supervisors. Positive criticism is useful in improving my work skills and allowing me to progress up the ranks. I also find that I need the support and cooperation of my peers and subordinates. Rom the course, I have learnt that it required discipline, dedication, and strictness to ensure that goals are achieved (Walton, 2010). Two, I have learnt that selecting the most skilled individuals for a certain task results in higher levels of success. Lastly, I also learnt that being a leader involves making difficult strategic decisions and accepting the consequences for the choices made.

 

References

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Imlay, T. C., & Toft, M. D. (2007). The Fog of Peace and War Planning: Military and Strategic Planning under Uncertainty. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.

McMahon, R. J. (2008). Major problems in the history of the Vietnam War: Documents and essays. Boston, MA [etc.: Houghton Mifflin.

Walton, T. R. (2010). Challenges in intelligence analysis: Lessons from 1300 BCE to the present. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Transaction Exposure

Name:

Tutor:

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Date:

Week 5 Discussion 1-Transaction Exposure

What is a foreign exchange exposure?

Foreign Exchange Exposure is the risk that is affiliated with activities, which involve a multinational in currencies different from its own. In particular, it is the amount of threat posed to a global firm by any alteration in the value of a certain currency. Therefore, any reevaluation of a currency influences the performance of a multinational company whereby a negative trajectory could reduce the firm’s profitability (Mehta 1). Consequently, it affects the cash flow, rates of loan settlements in foreign currencies, its competitiveness in the global market due to diminished returns and the market price of the business as well.

http://www.slideshare.net/vijayrocks123/foreign-exchange-exposure-ppt

What are the different types of exposures?

Transaction exposure is a short-term risk to contracts that a company has already committed itself. Therefore, whenever a company is engaged in a transaction as either a buyer or seller, that would require the transfer of foreign currency, it is exposed to this risk. In most instances, the supplier of raw materials has the upper hand when appreciation of the currency occurs and the consumer has to pay for it in the host’s currency. For example, maturing financial assets, accounts payables, and receivables denominated in foreign currencies are part of this category. Financial liabilities that are also maturing are incorporated as well.

Translation exposure highlights a loss or gain that arises from the translation or conversion of financial statements of a branch of a multinational located overseas. Therefore, it is accounting oriented and seeks to determine the precise effect of currency changes have on the overall performance of a subsidiary due to their requirement to file reports for assessment by the parent company (Sandler 1). As such, the impact of the combined operations on the corporation’s balance sheet is scrutinized. Therefore, the consolidated financial records would provide a clearer picture of the loss or gain.

Economic exposure is a long-term consequence of transaction exposure whereby a company is continuously exposed to changes in foreign exchange rates due to its permanent location of operations. In most cases, it results from involvement in Foreign Direct Investment activities in which operating costs and operating income are incurred. Consequently, it can be classified as a future risk.

http://www.ehow.com/list_6651707_three-types-foreign-exchange-exposure.html

How a transaction exposure can be hedged?

Hedging would require the business to make its position about the purchase of an asset/liability known in advance in order to cushion it from changes to the value of the foreign exchange currencies (Wilkinson 1). In so doing, the corporation would be aiming to reduce the amount of losses to be incurred in case of a decline in value while seeking a boost in its balance sheet in the event of a climb.

http://strategiccfo.com/wikicfo/transaction-exposure

What are the different types of hedging transaction exposures?

The company may purchase foreign currency or use currency futures and swaps to minimize the amount of transaction exposure. In fact, the firm agrees to buy/sell a foreign currency at an exact time in future at a price that is currently agreeable to both parties. In addition, it could use the options market to hedge funds by incorporating derivatives that provide the holder with the right to purchase/sell currencies at a predetermined price. However, they do not make this requirement obligatory (Prasad 1). Moreover, contingent exposure could be used as well especially in dealing with third parties due to the uncertainty involved. In particular, the firm would hedge its duty to make the currency transactions pegged on the accomplishment of the third party actions such as acceptance of a tender/bid. Afterwards, the same options market procedures explained above would be implemented.

http://www.slideshare.net/manoharprasad/6-transaction-exposure

 

 

Works Cited

Mehta, Vijay. Foreign Exchange Exposure. 27 August 2012. Web. 4 February 2015.

Prasad, Manohar. Foreign Currency Exposure and Risk Management. 23 November 2011. Web. 4 February 2015.

Sandler, Kevin. Three Types of Foreign Exchange Exposure. Demand Media, 2007. Web. 4 February 2015.

Wilkinson, Jim. Transaction Exposure. The Strategic CFO, 24 July 2013. Web. 4 February 2015.

Health Promotion Packet

Health Promotion Packet

Name:

Institution:

 

Health Promotion Packet

Section A

The interviewed individual is at the planning phase in the five stages of change. According to information collected, the interviewee had in the past attempted to carry out a ninety-day abs challenge in order to improve his abdominal physique. The conclusion was arrived at through application of the True and False statements that assess state of change. The interviewee in addition has self-motivation to indulge in further exercises in the near future. According to Pender’s model, an individual who in the past has participated in exercising and is additionally planning to engage in near future exercise, he or she is in the preparation (ready) phase (Gupta, 2008). Near future is normally set as the subsequent month and the individual has a defined plan of action. The interview has a clear vision of personal and social limitations that mitigate his capacity for exercising. The interviewee has commitment problems in completing exercise plans and has no support from his immediate family. To overcome interpersonal limitations, the interviewee has developed a primary abdominal challenge for ninety days that involves sit-ups, leg planking, weight lifting, and jogging.

In the assessment of health literacy, I employed the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) and inquisition on prescription details as strategies. Asking the interviewee if he understood the details written in his medicines assesses skill level. From the questions, the interviewee has moderate health literacy skills as he understood dosages, implication of over and under dosing but failed to comprehend medical content. NVS is a screening test for numeric, lingual, and cognitive skills in health information (Gupta, 2008). The test takes three minutes and uses an ice cream label as the tool. Interviewee reads the label as I ask six questions putting each response with a given score sheet.

Section B

The proposed education plan for Lia’s family is one that improves lingual communication in both spoken and written contexts. The family has difficulty in understanding the medical terms and procedures as given to them by healthy professionals (Fadiman, 1997). A language barrier facilitates this lack of understanding. In order to overcome the language differences, there is an available interpreter on site for medical and telecommunication purposes. Teaching will use learning materials that are written in the first person, use common words, use one or two syllables, and avoid contractions and abbreviations. The teacher should not use abstract thoughts in teaching of the materials. Equally, no slang words are present in the teaching or reference materials (Ormrod, 2012). The strict and precise guidelines on use of materials facilitate writing education for Lia’s family. Spoken education employs the use of symbol matching, pronunciation tests and phrase construction tests. In order to ascertain family progress, the education plan will integrate three weeks spaced examinations. The assessments tests involves symbol matching, color coding, speech and writing tests. Complexity of the tests is elevated with each time an assessment is given.

 

 

References

Fadiman, A. (1997). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Gupta, J. (2008). Skill-based health education. New Delhi, India: Rajat Publications.

Ormrod, J. E. (2012). Essentials of educational psychology: Big ideas to guide effective teaching. Boston: Pearson.

Alienation: Estranged Labor

Alienation: Estranged Labor

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Alienation: Estranged Labor

Karl Marx’s theory of alienation attempts to explain the social alienation of people from elements of their human nature. Marx proposed that this phenomenon was caused by existing in a society categorized into social classes. This theory has found great relevance within the 21st century especially within the corporate world. Its application in the area holds the potential towards explaining employee behavior, labor patterns, and other phenomena. For this particular paper, the analysis will concentrate on my own personal experience as well as someone else’s experiences in the office. The conclusions of the examination will shed more light into the concept of alienation.

Within Maxtor Limited, I assume the position of the vice president that contains numerous responsibilities. I have noticed that with the advancement in position and benefits within the organization, more responsibilities are bestowed upon me. In comparison, the remuneration and benefits do not escalate in the same proportion as the duties. According to Karl Marx, alienation is a direct outcome of dwelling in a socially classified society, because being a member of a social system isolates an individual from humanity. In my workplace setting, being a member of Maxtor has had the effect of secluding me from my acquaintances, family and other people in the city. The capitalistic system works to achieve this effect by allocating more and more duties to an employee and simultaneously encouraging them with monetary and social benefits (Archibald, 2009). The theoretic foundation of isolation in a capitalistic system is that the employee consistently loses the power to influence their life and future, when denied the right to perceive himself as the controller of his actions. When I was still a junior employee at Maxtor, I had more freedom to choose working hours, projects, and even office space. However, when I became promoted, most of these choices were not in my hands. The working hours and responsibilities were decided by management. Furthermore, as a vice president, I was expected to maintain a certain image that forced me to take up a mortgage for a bigger house and a luxury vehicle. Looking back, these choice made by management were obviously designed to ensure that I would be bound to the organization and that I would maintain my level of productivity.

Without realizing it, most of my career, financial and personal alternatives were gradually reduced to a point where it would be suicidal for me to leave the position (Blackledge, 2012).

Marx noted that at this point, employees lose the ability to characterize their affiliation with other people to decide what type of occupation to assume, the salary being paid and consume the goods and services, created with their effort. This was exactly the case at Maxtor. My position as the vice president was merely ceremonial. Most of the decisions were already decided by the management or the board of directors. I had little say over the outcome of many aspects in the organization. Rather, I became a passive element of the corporate world. On the social front, I was isolated since I had little contact with the outside world.

Although the employee is an independent, he or she is considered a monetary entity; most of the objectives and activities are availed and controlled by the bourgeoisie, who appropriate the means of production. This arrangement is intended to reap from the employee the greatest amount of surplus value (Archibald, 2009). While employed, I realized that my working conditions, even at the vice president level, were controlled largely by the trend across other companies within the same sector. The “bourgeoisie” as Marx called them, were responsible for ensuring remuneration levels, level of responsibility allocated to each employee and a myriad of other things. The company and others like it encouraged their employees to work hard for better pay and other benefits. However, using Marx’s theory of alienation, one can argue that this was a strategy to ensure that employees worked at maximum output.

Chris Yuill in his article “Forgetting and remembering alienation theory” argues that Marx was against the rational idea that people posses a rigid nature that exists autonomously outside the society they reside. He illustrated that numerous features accredited to static human nature in are vastly different depending on the type of society. For instance, other data storage companies within the city had adopted slightly different approaches towards employee performance and contact with the rest of the society in an official context. The adoption of flexible social polices allowed employees to go on leave, manipulate their work environment, and even dictate their working hours. This laissez faire approach has ensured that workers in rival companies has not exploited while performance levels remain largely unaffected, if not increased. However, Marx’s ideas on labor and human nature were largely rational. He disputed that in nearly all human societies, human beings needed to work in order to satisfy their needs. For survival, human must manipulate nature with labor (Brennen, 2006). However, he still points out that even though labor is a necessary factor, human develop consciousness and this gives them the alternative to continue laboring in certain conditions or change the conditions.

The relationship between employees and the organization within a capitalistic system is largely tipped in favor of the system and it benefactors, the owners of means of production. The system has managed to transform versatile human beings into automated and lifeless employees (Blackledge, 2012). In his article entitled “Searching for “the sane society”: Erich Fromm’s contributions to social theory” Bonnie Brennen investigates the contribution of Erich Fromm in attempting to understanding societies’ issues (Brennen, 2006). Erich Fromm discussed the loss of qualities that identified a human being as being unique. Qualities such as being able to interact with others, conversing, and maintaining contact with different circles. In other words, aspects that was not “alienating” in nature (Yuill, 2011). Both Fromm and Marx reached a consensus concerning the current state of employees in the corporate sector and the role played by the capitalistic system (Brennen, 2006).

Conclusion

After making several analyses on the theory of alienation, the following conclusions can be made. One, capitalism thrives on the ability to exploit the employees. In such a system, the employee is considered an “economic entity” that can be bought for a price and which is equally affected by the market forces of supply and demand (Blackledge, 2012). Therefore, any aspects of human nature are discouraged and eliminated using “alienation” strategies. The ultimate goal in capitalism is to exploit employees for maximum gain without incurring any losses (Archibald, 2009). Human beings who are members within the capitalistic system act as mere subjects who are controlled by the bourgeoisie for their own interests. Ordinarily, it may be difficult to note this manipulation (Yuill, 2011). However, it is relatively easy to spot the real positions of power when analyzing corporation owners and their employees.

 

References

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Blackledge, P. (2012). Marxism and ethics: Freedom, desire, and revolution. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Brennen, B. (January 01, 2006). Searching for “the sane society”: Erich Fromm’s contributions to social theory. Javnost, 13, 3, 7-16.

Archibald, W. (January 01, 2009). Globalization, Downsizing and Insecurity: Do We Need to Upgrade Marx’s Theory of Alienation? Critical Sociology, 35, 3, 319-342.

Yuill, C. (January 01, 2011). Forgetting and remembering alienation theory. History of the Human Sciences, 24, 2, 103-119.

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